Historical measurement of the science of governing (43208)Посмотреть архив целиком
THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
Management academy at the President of Republic of Belarus
On discipline: the Government
On a theme: Historical measurement of the science of governing
The government theory is one of most important and perspective directions of the modern political thoughts. Political sphere from the complete, not divided human society, branch of the world political from economic, social and spiritual subsystems has occurred enough late. Originally political phenomena were studied in frameworks dominating paradigms in connection with the general complex of the public phenomena.
Within almost two things - since times of Antiquity and up to XIX century - all knowledge of the social phenomena were uniform complete system. But already Aristotle (384-322 BC) gave to the doctrine about the government dominating value. All the public life, in its opinion, kept within frameworks of a political life and was placed in the service of the state. He underlined: «As the science about the state uses other sciences as means and, besides, legislatively defines, what acts should be made and from what to abstain, its purpose includes, probably, the purposes of other sciences, hence, this purpose also will be the higher the blessing for people ».
Antique philosophers considered state occurrence as natural process of complication of forms of a hostel of people, this concept has received the name of the patriarchal theory of the state. Aristotle has offered one of the first such hypothesis: in the beginning people have united in families, then some families have formed settlement, and at a finishing stage of this process there was a state as the form of a hostel of the citizens using a political system.
Aristotle underlined: in all people the nature has installed aspiration to the state dialogue and the first who has organised this dialogue, has rendered to mankind the greatest blessing. Within the limits of the patriarchal theory the state is considered as the big family where relations of the governor and its citizens are identified with relations of the patriarch - the chief of family and members of his family.
Crisis of the antique policy has forced known antique philosophers to address to a problem of strengthening of the government, a consent and order guarantee in a society. Platon (427-347 BC) places special emphasis on the government prime target - achievement of integrity of a society through maintenance of the consent of all public estates. He underlines: «We still in the beginning when based the state, have established what to do it is necessary by all means for the sake of whole. And so this whole also is justice...»
he most dangerous tendency destroying the government, Platon considered aspiration of some public groups to depart from service to general welfare, usurping public functions for extraction of personal benefit. In Platon's ideal state the guards knowing safety, should not use gold and silver, could not even touch them, be decorated by them or drink from gold and silver vessels. Platon warned: «... Hardly own earth, houses, money as now from guards there are they owners and land owners will be got at them; from allies of other citizens will become hostile or lords; hating and causing to themselves hatred, feeding malicious intentions and them being afraid, all of them time will live in большем fear before internal enemies, than before external, and in that case both they and all state will direct to the prompt destruction.
But for the government Platon considered as the greatest harm oligarchy. It defined oligarchy as a political system which is based on a property qualification: at the power there rich, and poor men do not participate in management of public affairs.
The property qualification establishment becomes the law and norm of an oligarchic system; the more a system oligarchic, the above the qualification.
The such state order keeps application of the armed force. Platon with indignation wrote that in oligarchies
The avidity and self-interest are erected to a throne and, except riches and rich men nothing causes delight and honoring, and the ambition is directed only on money-making and on everything, that to it conducts.
In the Middle Ages process of occurrence of the state began to consider within the limits of religious outlook as establishment of institute of the terrestrial power established by the God. This concepts has received the name of the theological theory of the state. Modern Catholicism considers as the official doctrine about the state Fomy Akvinsky's (1225-1274) sights which called people for obedience of the government connected with divine laws. It developed the concept «two градов» which in the spirit of the Christian doctrine has tried to dissolve authority of the state and authority of church: «give кесарево to the Caesar, and Божие to the God».
Known Russian political philosopher Bulgakov (1871 1944), estimating this period in history, fairly underlined: split of a public life on the secular and church has brought serious dissonance and double-entry bookkeeping even in souls of those who quite understood all historical relativity and internal abnormality of this bifurcation. For the conservative "guarding" position of non-interference to a state policy and a public life with moral criteria the medieval church has paid, on the one hand, with humanistic tearing away from it its most active part, with another - own impoverishment, fading of creative spirit.
The new understanding of the government notes an epoch of late Revival. Italian thinker Nikola Machiavelli (1469-1527) considers for the first time the state administration in a technological key - as technologies of the government. The technological approach to the government assumes, that the criterion of efficiency is put above moral standards and rules. For Machiavelli he expert in the field of the government is the expert offering useful technological recipes to competitors of the government. It recognizes that the government can change the owners, pass from hands in hands.
Recipes of government Machiavelli addresses to "a new sovereign», aspiring to keep the power which is challenged constantly by new competitors: «it is difficult to keep the power to a new sovereign. And even to the hereditary sovereign who has attached new possession - so the state becomes as though mixed, it is difficult to keep over it the power first of all owing to the same natural reason what causes revolutions in all new states.
Namely: people, believing, that the new governor will appear better, willingly rise against old, but soon on experience are convinced, that were deceived, for the new governor always appears worse old ».
Tool science of the government at Machiavelli philosophers, and the political professionals above all putting political efficiency as those should seize not. From its point of view, «a new sovereign» should not follow morals precepts if it is necessary - to recede from good and to use this ability depending on the circumstances. For realization of the domination «a new sovereign» can use any means: «whenever possible not to leave from good, but at need not to avoid and harms». Murders because of a corner, intrigues, plots, and other artful means he recommended to Use poisonings widely in business of a gain and government deduction. For this reason Machiavelli name became in the government an insidiousness and immoralist synonym. When today speak about макиавеллизме, mean low moral qualities of people.
Machiavelli divided sovereigns into lions and foxes. Lions are brave and fearless, but they cannot notice danger in time. Therefore foxes more succeed in the government: fair deceivers and hypocrites. They are in the opinion of people compassionate, true to a word, mercy, sincere, pious, but internally keep ability to show opposite qualities if it is necessary.
Макиавелли wrote: «So, from all animals let a sovereign will assimilate to two: to a lion and a fox. The lion is afraid of traps, and a fox - wolves, hence, it is necessary to be similar to a fox to be able to bypass traps, and to a lion to frighten off wolves. The one who is always similar to a lion, cannot notice a trap. From what follows, that the reasonable governor cannot and should not remain to the true promise if it harms to its interests and if the reasons which have induced it to give the promise have disappeared.
Such council would be unworthy if people fairly held a word, but people, being дурны, words do not hold, therefore and you should arrive with them as. And a plausible excuse to break the promise always will be. Examples to that set: how many peace treaties, how many agreements have not come into force or has ruined that sovereigns broke the word, and always in a prize there was the one who had the fox nature. However it is necessary still to be able to cover this nature, it is necessary to be the fair deceiver and a hypocrite, people so are ingenuous and so are absorbed by the nearest needs, that deceiving always will find the one who will allow itself to make a fool.
It is necessary to be in the opinion of people compassionate, true to a word, mercy, sincere, pious - and to be that really, but internally it is necessary to keep readiness to show and opposite qualities if it appears it is necessary ».
In the end of ХIХ century German philosopher Fredric Nitsshe (1844-1900), in many respects following traditions макиавеллизма, has created the concept of the super person - «the great person of crowd», capable to carry out the government, using the most low human passions and defects. It is no wonder that during the Second World War fascist leaders aspired to lean against F.Nitsshe's philosophy for the justification of a brutal state policy of the Third Reich.
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