The problem of violence (43053)


TH PRBLM F VLNC

(ssy)


hv studd nturl hzrds fr 35 yrs. hv fcusd n th wys tht fmls, cmmunts, cts pln fr nd cp wth xtrm vnts such s drught, fld, strm, nd rthquk. Frm ths yrs f wrk sm gnrl bsrvtns mrg nd stnd n pssbl cntrst t wht n s lkly t fnd whn thnkng mr dply but th trrr ttck n th Wrld Trd Cntr.

Nturs hrm, humn vlnc. Dspt th grvus njurs nd dths cusd by nturl hzrds, thr ffcts r nt spkn f r thught f s vlnc". Sm uthrs nthrpmrphz, spkng f th rths vlnt frcs r nturs fury", but w ll knw tht ths r fgurs f spch. Ntur cuss hrm. nly w humn bngs d vlnt cts t ur fllw humns.

Hw w lv wth hzrds. lthugh sm nturl hzrds (such s rthquks s ppsd t mst vlcnc ruptns nd mst wthr xtrms) r vry suddn nd gv lttl r n wrnng, mst ppl hv lrnd t lv wth ths ccurrncs. Thy tk prcutns" nd gt n wth thr lvs. Thr s lttl vdnc tht ppl lvng nr th Sn ndrs r ntln fults r n csts xpsd t hurrcns lv n cnstnt fr. n fct, t s chllng f rsk cmmunctn nd publc ductn t mtvt ppl t cntnu t tk prcutns n btwn vnts.

Sctl dpttns t hzrds. n th prsnc f rcurrnt nturl hzrds scts dpt. dpttns r tchnlgcl nd scl chngs whs m s t rduc th mpct f hzrds. Thy typclly bcm prt f rutn prctc, whthr ths s th grzng pttrn f nmdc pstrlsts r th cnstructn prctcs f urbn ndustrlsts. Such rutns bcm uncnscus, thy bcm nrml" prctc. T tht xtnt th scl grup bcm, ncrmntlly, mr rslnt nd lss vulnrbl t th nturl hzrd. Huss r cmmnly bult n rsd munds n Bngldsh. t s nrml" hus buldng prctc, nd t s ls prt f strtgy f fld prfng. n ndustrl scty nrml" prctc s ftn nfrcd by lw s stndrd" prctc. Hnc buldng cds nd thr nfrcmnt r gnrlly thugh t xpln th grt dffrnc n lvs lst whn cmprng rthquks such s Nrthrdg (1994) nd Sttl (2001) r vn Kb (1995, wth ts 6,000 dd) wth Kcl (Turky, 1999) nd Gujrt (2001).

Th rl f tchnlgy nd scnc. Durng th 19th nd 20th Cnturs, dvlpmnts n scnc nd tchnlgy (rth scnc, ngnrng, publc hlth, tc) hv plyd n mprtnt rl n th mtgtn f nturl hzrds. Hwvr, cncmtnt pttrns f urbnztn, lnd us, ncrsd nrgy cnsumptn, nd xtnsn f nfrstructur hs ls ncrsd th vulnrblty f tchnlgclly dpndnt scts t dsruptns nd vn t ctclysmc flur. ls, n cs by cs bss, t s clr tht hgh lvls f tchnlgcl dvlpmnt ftn lds t th ptntl fr cscdng scndry hzrds fllwng prmry vnts such s rthquks r flds. Ths tk th frm f xplsns, frs, rls f hzrdus mtrls, nd dsruptn n lfln nfrstructur.

Ds th study f sctys rspns t nturl hzrds hv nythng t cntrbut t undrstndng nd prvntng futur ctstrphs lk th ttck n th Wrld Trd Cntr?

. Wht? Vrts f hrm, vlnc, nd trrr. Dstnctn btwn vlnc nd trrr.

Ntur cuss hrm, nt vlnc. Ntur ds nt ct. nmls d nt ct. Humns d. n ct mpls ntntnlty. Th hrm cuss by ntur s th rsult f prcsss, xtrm vnts, nt cts (lthugh humn cts r flurs t ct ply rl n crbtng nd dstrbutng th mpcts f n xtrm nturl vnt). Ths s tru vn whn th flyd nd brkn rmns f humn bngs rsultng frm flsh fld r tsunm cn b s hrrbly dsfgurd thn vctms f bmb blst r rsn.

f curs ths dstnctn s bvus. But th mr sgnfcnt pnt s tht ths dstnctn s dply mbddd n ll culturs nd blf systms. t s smhw sr fr us t grv nd yt t ccpt th xtrm nturl vnts tht cut lvs shrt n plnt rth. W my bcm vry ngry but th flur f uthrts t prvd scl prtctn, dqut wrnng, r suffcnt rcvry ssstnc. W my sk th rt cuss f vulnrblty f crtn grups rthr thn thrs t such xtrm nturl vnts (pvrty, gndr, g r thnc dscrmntn, tc). W my blm hstry, clss scty, r th myr, but w gnrlly d nt blm ntur.

t s dffrnt wth humn cts. Thr r ccdntl dths, mnslughtr, dths by msdvntur. drunk drvr wll b blmd nd punshd. S, smtms, wll b nglgnt fctry mngr r C rspnsbl fr fld nfrstructur cusng rlwy dsstr, du t wllful nglct. 1 Yt ths cts r nt vlnt cts, nly rrspnsbl nd prhps culpbl ns.

Vlnt cts r ntntnl. Hrm s ntndd. Thr s mlc wth frsght." wnt t lv sd th mst cmmn css f ntrprsnl vlnc. 2 W hv ll flt surg f ngr gnst nthr. W hv mstly nt ctd upn t, strkng r ntntnlly hrmng th thr. S much msry f dmstc vlnc flls nt ths ctgry. S, t, prhps, sm unntndd" vlnc n rbbry gn wrng" whr th ntntn ws nt t d physcl hrm lthugh n th ht f th mmnt, bdly hrm ws dn. 3

Frm th pnt f vw f undrstndng f nd hw th wrld hs chngd" snc th Wrld Trd Twr ttck nd wht nsght th study f nturl hzrds cn brng t ths ppllng vnt, t s ncssry t mv n t frms f rgnzd vlnc.

rgnztn" s trcky wrd. Th mlculs gng dwn th bth plug r rgnzd nd s s pltn f sldrs, nd s ws n f Stlns cncntrtn cmps, nd s, t pprs, wr th hghjckrs n 11 Sptmbr.

Brfly, thn t wll b ncssry smwhr ls, t grtr lngth, t wrk thrugh th wys tht svrl knds f rgnzd vlnc hv (r prhps hv nt) cusd prtctv dpttns n humn scty nd th vntul cnsqunc ths hs hd n th wy w lv ur lvs n spc, th wy w trvl, hw w trd, mmgrt, buld nd dwll n ur cts, nd whm w lv nd ht. 4

Sm typs f crm nvlv rgnzd vlnc. Th mf nd drug trd r xmpls. Gngs ngg n rtul vlnc f typ t rtn trrtrl nd cnmc suprmcy tht ftn clms nn cmbtnt" lvs, chldrn, fr xmpl, cught n th crss fr n drv by shtngs. 5

Crms gnst humnty r, by dfntn, spcs f rgnzd vlnc. Th rp cmps n Bsn, th mss xcutn f bys nd mn durng vrus phss f th wrs n th Blkns, th hrrrs f th Nzs fnl slutn", th gncds n Cmbd nd Rwnd, r ll wll knwn xmpls. 6

Wrfr s ls rgnzd vlnc. Much hs bn md f th fct tht n th 20th Cntury wrfr hs trgtd mr nd mr cvlns s ppsd t cmbtnts. 7 Th Lndn bltz, fr bmbng f Drsdn nd thr Grmn cts, fr bmbng f Tky, nd fnlly th us f th tm bmb n Hrshm nd Ngsk st th stg, md cntury, fr th mssv lss f cvln lvs n ndchn, nd, mr rcntly, wrs n frc, Cntrl mrc, th Blkns, Cntrl s nd th Mddl st. 8

n sm css thr hs bn th rgumnt dvncd tht th xplct ntntn ws nt t hrm cvlns, but tht thy wr unfrtuntly lvng t cls t th strtgc mltry trgt ( rl dpt, fctry, r hrbr, fr xmpl) r tht, s ws sd f sm f th stry crus mssls n rq, thr s bund t b unntndd clltrl dmg n wrfr.

Pvrty s rgnzd vlnc, r sm rgu tht t s, usng th trm structurl vlnc t rfr t hstrclly stblshd pttrns f prvlg nd lck f prvlg, ccss nd mrgnlty, pwr nd pwrlssnss. 9

Ths prspctv hs bn nfluntl n th study f th wlth nd pvrty f ntns, th crtqu f th scl mpcts f glblztn, s wll s th sclgcl nd ggrphcl nlyss f th dstrbutn wthn ntns, rs, cts f wlth, ncm, dss, lvng cndtns.

s n th cs f wrfr, sm wuld sy tht thr s n lglly r mrlly dntfbl ntntn t d hrm t prtculr prsn. Lk clltrl dmg", thr r wht rgnl cnmsts hv clld bckwsh" ffcts f grwth nd mdrnztn. Thr r wnnrs nd lsrs. 10

Stt trrr s ls rgnzd vlnc. n hs bk, Humnsm nd Trrr,11 Frnch ntllctul f th lft, Murc Mrlu-Pnty, trd t mk sns f th vlnc usd by Stln s rutn prctc f stt pwr. Ths ws tm, n th lt 1940s, whn th tru xtnt f th hrrrs f th dprttns nd lbr cmps, th gulg rchplg, pltcl shw trls nd xcutns ws frst bcmng knwn utsd th USSR. Trrr, n ths sns, dffrs frm cmmn crm, crms gnst humnty, wrfr nd pvrty. Th mn dffrnc s ts xprncd s cmpltly rndm nd ndscrmnt. Ths s n xprnc cmmn t ths wh lvd thrugh th ftrmth f th Frnch Rvlutn, whn th trm trrur ws frst usd n ths sns, nd s rcntly s th nfmus Rd Trrr f Cl. Mngstu n thp. Th ctzns uncrtnty s ntntnlly prducd by th pprtus f scl cntrl nd survllnc. thrt s md t ppr t l cnstntly vrhd n vry spct f dly lf fr ny n wh s dslyl. Th wlls hv rs nd cn dnunc yu, vn frm wthn th prvcy f yur bdrm. Yur nncnc r gult s nt rlvnt, nr r ny rsnbl prcutns. Yu cnnt mv t sfr cty, wy frm th frnt ln". Yu cnnt sk chrty, dvlpmnt ssstnc, r jn slf-hlp grup. Nthng cn prtct yu xcpt cmplt, unrlntng ccptnc f xtrnl cmmnd nd uthrty.

Cult bsd12 trrr s smlr frm f rgnzd vlnc. t s ths lk knd f rgnzd vlnc tht ths wh ttckd th Wrld Trd Cntr sm t hv bn prptrtng. Th gl s t undrmn nrmlty nd dstblz th sptl nd scl pttrns w tk fr grntd n dly lf. t t s ttltrn n wy smlr t Stlns rgn f trrr. Th nly prtctn, r s th prptrtrs wuld hv us blv, s turnng wy frm ur gdlss wys nd submssn t xtrnl cmmnd nd uthrty, tht f thr prtculr ntrprttn dvnty, th mtphyscs nd mrlty tht thy blv gs wth t. Th dffrnc btwn cult bsd nd stt trrr s mttr f scl, f th prsnc r bsnc f burucrtc pprtus f supprt fr ts ctns, nd th prsnc, n th cs f stt trrr, f n undrlyng ntnlstc prjct nd dlgy. 13

t ths pnt t s ncssry t undrstnd n mr dpth th cuss f ths prtculr knd f rgnzd vlnc, ts rltns t th thrs, nd just hw urbn lf, n prtculr, must chng n rdr t chv, f pssbl, nw knds f dpttn t nw srt f hzrd.

. Hw? Trrrs ffcts. Th xprnc f trrr vs. fr, nd ts ffcts n dly lf.

r nt rndmnss, uncrtnty, unprdctblty, nd nn-dscrmntn fturs, prcsly f trrr? N nturl hzrd vnt s truly rndm. Thy r knwn t n dgr r nthr. Lsbn n 1755 hd lrdy xprncd dmgng rthquk. Mr nd mr s knwn but vn th mst suddn nd dstructv nturl vnts. Ppl nd cts cn tk prcutns. Thy lv wth nturl hzrds, nt n cnstnt fr f thm. S, t, rbbrs, muggngs, rsn nd thr crmnl vlnc. Ppl tk prcutns nd s ds scty. 14 n fct, t sm xtnt sm scl grups hv dvlpd wys f ldng nrml" lvs n th mdst f xtrm pltcl vlnc such s undr prthd n Suth frc nd vrty f dcttrshps. 15

Nturl hzrd, strt crm, nd tchnlgcl flur r ls, t n dgr r nthr, dscrmntry s rlts t thr vctms. lrg rthquk n th 1970s n Gutml ws clld clss quk" by th n th strts bcus mst f th dd nd njurd wr lw ncm, ndgnus Myn Gutmlns whs culd nt ffrd huss tht r mr stbl gnst ssmc mtn. vry lrg ltrtur dmnstrts th spcfc scl, culturl, nd cnmc chrctrstcs tht mk ths r tht grup mr vulnrbl n ths r tht fld, strm, pdmc, r thr xtrm nturl vnt.

S, t, th ltrtur n nvrnmntl justc shws tht ppl lvng clsst t hzrdus nd dngrus chmcl plnts, wst ncnrtrs, nuclr pwr sttns, tc. tnd t b lw ncm ppl, ftn f sm mnrty rlgus r thnc bckgrund, nd crtnly wth lttl ccss t pltcl pwr.

Mst cmmn crm such s muggng nd rbbry s drctd by th pr gnst th pr n mst cts f th wrld. Uppr ncm nd lt grups cn fll vctm, but thy r sttstclly lss lkly t, nd thr hms, jurnys t wrk, nd thr wrkplcs r hghly prtctd. Th rt nd scnc f dfnsbl spc", th xtrm xmpl f whch (fr bttr r wrs) s th gtd cmmunty, hs rsn s grwth ndustry.

t s prhps lst pssbl fr mny ppl t lv wth th tchnlgs tht hv bn mpsd by mdrnsm, spclly chmcl nd nuclr fclts. Ths ndmc frs hv bn dsprgd s rrtnl, s ndlssly mplfd nd mnpultd by md nd spcl ntrsts, s msmngd by pr publc rltns nd th flur t duct suffcntly but scnc nd tchnlgy. Th fct rmns tht gn nd gn th mpssbl" hppns, nd ptrlum, chmcl, nd nuclr fclts fl (Gudljr, Mxc Cty, lzbth NJ, Bhpl, Chrnbyl, Thr Ml slnd, Tulus, Flxbr, th XXN Vldz). ch tm smpl, unprdctbl cus ( sx pck f br, ppr tg cvrng blnkng lght) r srs f lrg nd smll vnts hv cught rgultrs, mngrs, ngnrs, nd th publc unwrs.

. Whr? Cts t rsk.

Trrrsm n th 20th nd 21st Cnturs sms t b mstly n urbn phnmnn. t s nt nly th cty tht s t rsk, but urbnsm. Mny mjr cts hv suffrd such ttcks wthn th pst tw dcds, ncludng Tky, Clmb, Prs, Lndn, Buns rs, Bgtá, Nrb, nd Cp Twn.

Th hzrd f such rndm nd ndscrmnt vlnc s n f vry lng nd grwng lst f nturl, tchnlgcl, nd scl hzrds tht ffct cts, spclly th grwng numbr wth lrg cncntrtns f ppl (281 wth mr thn n mlln nhbtnts). 16

ndmc fr th unprdctbl, rndm nd dmnsnlss vlnc my mpty ut th publc spcs, th pzzs, grdns, nd quys s t hs s fr rducd rln trvl nd tursm. Suspcn nd survllnc culd rplc n f urbn lfs grtst plsurs, nnymus mnglng.

Prfssr Slnk, wh thught f hmslf s gltrn by ntur nd

brn-nd-brd mtrpltn f th cuntrysd-s-fr-cws prsusn,

n prd dys strlld chk by jwl mng hs fllw ctzns.

n Sundy h rubbd shuldrs wth slm-hppd gy-prd prncrs,

Th nxt wknd h gt jggly bsd bg-ssd Purt Rcn grl

wrng hr ntnl flg s br. H ddnt fl ntrudd upn md

ths multtuds; t th cntrry. Thr ws stsfyng nnymty n

th crwds, nd bsnc n ntrusn. 17

n f th mr trublng lkly cnsquncs f dcrs f urbn multculturl sldrty nd tlrnc, f ncrsng sltnsm nd dvsn, dcrs f nghbrhd cmmunty s tht t s prcsly such ths tht cnsttut vtl scl cptl fr cpng wth nturl hzrds tht thrtn cts n th 21st Cntury. numbr f ntrntnl rsrch prjcts durng th prd f th ntrntnl Dcd fr Nturl Dsstr Rductn hv shwn tht prprdnss, rspns, mtgtn, nd rcvry frm strms, flds, nd rthquks n lrg cts dpnds lrgly n th cpcts f lcl gvrnmnt ntts (lss n ntnl nd ntrntnl ctns) nd, bv ll, th rltnshp btwn lcl gvrnmnts nd n rgnzd nghbrhd bsd cvl scty. 18

V. Why? Wh nggs n trrr s rgnzd vlnc, nd why?

D cts f rndm vlnc, mss nd ndvdul, nt bl dwn t ndvdul mntl llnss,19 r, t lst, prblmtc humn wknss fr slf-dcptn nd ndctrntn? 20

Wht s th dffrnc, psychlgclly spkng, btwn th wknsss tht llwd th cptn f th XXN Vldz t drnk hvly n duty tht nght ff th cst f lsk nd th wknsss tht llwd th 19 hjckrs f rcrft n 11 Sptmbr, 2001, t bcm mmbrs nd tru blvrs n cult f dth? r th ppl wh cmmttd th gs ttck n th Tky subwy, wh wr thy?

Hnn rndt hs wrttn but th bnlty f vl n hr nlyss f Nz vlnc nd th trl f ųchmn. 21 Sh rgus tht ths wr vry nrml" humn bngs wh dd trrbl, unthnkbl thngs s mttr f burucrtc rutn t lrg numbrs f ppl. Lkws th lrg numbr f rdnry Hutu n Rwnd wh frmd th murdrus mbs wh klld mlln Tutss culd nt ll hv bn mntlly ll. Th lw f lrg numbrs wuld mk mckry f such dfntn f nrmlty r mntl llnss.

n studs f tchnlgcl rsk nd ngnrng flur th trm humn rrr" cmmnly pprs. 22 ur cmmn humnty, wht vr r upbrngng, trnng, mtrl cnmc stutns, sms t cntn th ptntl fr th ths ccsnl plt rrrs, clncl mstks", lpss f ttntn." t s ls wthn ur shrd humnty t bcm cught up fr shrtr r lngr prds n mss hystr", mb vlnc", nd cult lk blf nd prctc.

Whtvr th prdspsng psychlgy f th trrrst, th qustn rmns, wht scl frcs, wht hstrcl prcsss r t wrk n prducng ths prtculr knd f rgnzd vlnc t ths mmnt?

t s t smpl t sy, s Ssk Sssn23 wrt n cmmnt n th Lndn Gurdn, tht such vlnt cts f trrrsm r th nn-vrbl, fnl, dsprt cmmunctn f th glbl suth" t th rch nrth. t s tru tht th prd f th 1980s nd 1990s sw rpd wdnng f th gp btwn rch nd pr, grt nstblty n mny ntn stts, whl lvlhds md bslt, nd much wg mgrtn. ll ths prvkd vlnc n mny prts f th wrld, nd rts n th nrth s wll, such s ths n Ls ngls n 1992 nd n ldhm, nr Mnchstr, n nglnd ths yr.

Thr s smthng mr tht nds t b cnsdrd. Ths sprl, vcus cycl, vlnc tht hs vry spcfc frms, nd must b unpckd frm th vr gnrl dscurs f th glbl suth."

sm Bn Ldn, lk Nrg nd ll th grduts f th Schl f th mrcs, lk Mrcs, lk Mbutu, nd s mny thrs, s th crtur f U. S. cld wr plcy. Hs rmy ws frmd n th C fnncd struggl gnst th Svt Unn n fghnstn. Just s th cld wr hs lft thusnds f squr mls cntmntd wth nuclr wst frm bmb fctrs nd tsts, t hs lft dp scl scrs whr th fr wrld" usd dpts, crmnls, nd fntcs t gurd ts l, cppr, l plms, nd rnch lnds frm cmmunsm."

t s ls mprtnt t rmmbr tht th Gulf Wr shttrd rq, tht mr thn hlf mlln chldrn hv dd n th lst ght yrs f snctns nd cntnud bmbng du t th nblty f cts such s Bsr nd Bghdd t rbuld wtr trtmnt plnts, r fr prnts t fd chldrn. 24 f curs Sdm Hussn nd hs sscts hv xpltd nd prftrd nd msusd fd d, but th frgn plcy f th U. S. nd mny thr ntns shr blm tht such n unstbl nd ddly stutn hs cntnud unrslvd fr s lng. Th sm cn b sd f th flur t sttl th vn lngr stndng vlnt cnflct btwn th srl stt nd th ppl f Plstn. 25

Frnkln Dln Rsvlts sttu sts n Grsvnr Squr n Lndn. t s flnkd by twn, symmtrcl funtns n sunkn curts. n th wlls f ths curts r crvd th smpl wrds f th Fur Frdms". Ths prvd frmwrk fr thnkng but th rt cuss f th ctstrph n Nw Yrk cty.

Frdm frm wnt. Wht rl d th nhumn cndtns f hungr, dss, lck f dcnt shltr, scur lvlhd tht s mny ppl suffr ply n th gnss f trrrsm?

Frdm frm fr. n vwd gl f Bn Ldn s th vrthrw f fudl nd dsptc rb rgms tht hv bn lls nd frnds f th U. S. snc th dscvry f l n ths lnds. Pltcl ppstn t thm s rprssd. Wht, thn, s th rltn btwn pcful, dmcrtc chng n ths cuntrs nd th rductn f trrrsm? Wht r th ctzns f Wstrn dmcrcs wllng t put up wth n rdr t s thr sns f vulnrblty, f fr (rl r mgnd)? Hw much survllnc, rsn f cvl rghts? Hw much vltn f humn rghts f sylum skrs nd f cvlns n thr prts f th wrld, n th cuntrs tht hrbr trrrsts?

Frdm f spch. Hw wll th vnts f 11 Sptmbr ply ut n th cntnung prtsts vr th mpcts f glblztn? Wll th brutlty f plc n Mntrl nd Gn b rptd, but ths tm, n thr WT nd G7 hst cts wth lttl r n utcry bcus cvlztn s t wr" wth th uncvlzd? Just bcus n bhrs nd murns th dths f nncnt ppl n th Wrld Trd Twr, t ds nt fllw tht crtqu f th mnnr n whch wrld trd s cnductd shws dsrspct fr th dd.

Frdm f wrshp. slm s nt t blm fr ths vnts. Chrs Pttn, frmr Gvrnr f Hng Kng, hs ntd tht t s s lgcl t blm ll slm fr such sucd ttck s t blm ll Chrstnty fr th brutlty nd nhumnty f th nqustn.

V. Wht s t b dn? Lssns t b drwn frm nturl hzrd rsrch.

Frst, thr r sm bsrvtns tht cn b md frm th pnt f vw f rsrch n nturl hzrds. wll thn turn t sm mr gnrl, cncludng rmrks.

Hrm, vlnc, nd trrr. Humn prptutd, rgnzd vlnc, spclly tht whch s hghly rndm nd ndscrmnt prsnts fr dffrnt chllng t scty thn nturl r vn tchnlgcl hzrds.

Fr, cpng, nd lvng wth hzrds. t s lkly, n th bss f pst hstry, tht humn scts cn ccmmdt th pssblty f mssv, rgnzd vlnc f ths knd, lthugh th qulty f scl rltns, spclly n thnclly dvrs lrg urbn rs my chng s rsult.

dpttns t trrr ttcks. Such dpttns r pssbl, lthugh t b ffctv smthng lk plc stt mght b ncssry. Th study f scl dpttns t th chllngs f xtrm nturl vnts shws tht ppl r qut ngnus nd tht nw knds f tchnlgy nd scl rrngmnts cn sm nrml" prts f dly lf vry quckly. Th qustns, thugh s whthr ppl r wllng t gv up prsnl frdms nd cvl rghts t th dgr tht mght b ncssry. 26

Th rl f tchnlgy nd scnc. Tchnlgcl dvlpmnts nd dpndncy hs bcm, rnclly, n f th prcndtns fr trrrst ttcks. Th rlnrs tht hv bcm rutn prt f th U. S. trnsprttn systm bcm mssls. Btchnlgy, nuclr pwr, nd mr sctys dpndnc n cmputr tchnlgy nd cmmunctn systms hv ll md dvncd ndustrl scty vulnrbl t ttck nd prvdd th mns fr th ttck. Unlk th pplctn f scnc, sy rth scnc r ngnrng, t th prblm f rthquk sfty, grtr pplctn f scnc nd tchnlgy t th ssu f trrrst ttck s lkly t b nly ncssry, but nt suffcnt, cndtn fr prvdng scurty.

Ths rflctns suggst sm lns f ctn tht cn b dvdd nt shrt nd lng trm prctcl stps s wll s sm mprtnt thcl cnsdrtns.

Shrt trm, Prctcl Stps

Nrmn Fstr, th rchtct nd urbn dsgnr rspnsbl fr th Grt Curt t th Brtsh Musum, th nw Grmn Rchstg buldng, nd mny thr nnvtv plns nd structurs hs wrttn ths but th ttck: 27

Nthng culd hv prprd ny f us fr th unprcdntd scl f

th dvsttn. ts cnsquncs wll ffct vryn nvlvd wth

th crtn f buldngs nd nfrstructur. m crtn tht th nds

f n pn scty t lv, wrk, nd trvl wll prvl, but blv tht

w w t t th vctms t nsur tht w undrstnd vry spct f ths

trgdy nd tht ts lssns r bsrbd nd ctd upn.

n th mmdt shrt trm hzrd rsrchrs nd t cnsdr wht thy hv t cntrbut t qustns f rcvry. Hw wll ndvduls, fmls, frms, th ffctd nghbrhds, nd Mnhttn rcvr? Wht prcdnts r thr? Wht cn b lrnd frm th rcvry n Mxc Cty fllwng th 1985 rthquk, r n Kb, whr th ttl dth tll s but th sm (lthugh th rl xtnt nd nvlvmnt f nfrstructur much grtr). r r wrtm prcdnts mr rvlng (Hrshm, Drsdn)?

thr shrt-trm ffrts cncrn clustr f qustns but urbnsm nd urbn dsgn. Hw wll ths vnts nflunc th rchtctur nd cnstructn f nfrstructur n cts n th futur? Ths ln f dscussn wuld ddrss th chllng f whch Nrmn Fstr wrts bv. s t pssbl t cncptulz scur cty n hlstc wy tht brngs n nt nly publc sfty frm trrrst ttck, but publc hlth, mtgtn nd prvntn f tchnlgcl, nvrnmntl, nd nturl hzrds s wll s prprdnss? Cn ths b dn wthn th xstng cntxt f hlthy cts r sustnbl cts? nd, f s, t wht xtnt must justc nd quty qustns ls ccmpny such brd dscussn f wll bng, f cultur f prvntn?

Lng trm, Prctcl Stps

Tkng Nrmn Fstr's ppl t "undrstnd vry spct f ths trgdy" ltrlly nd srusly, thn ggrphrs (nd thrs) must xplr th rt cuss, dynmc prssurs, ldng t unsf cndtns tht cnsttutd, t tht pnt n tm (hstrcl, ssnl, durnl) th vulnrblty f ppl n nd rund th Wrld Trd Cntr.

t glbl, mcr scl, ths must nclud lkng t th cuss f such vlnt msdds n th cntmprry pttrns f cnmc nd pltcl pwr n th wrld, th ggrphy f grvnc nd bttrnss, nd thr hstrcl rgns. Clr Shrt, Brtns mnstr fr vrss dvlpmnt hs sttd tht succss n th struggl wth pvrty nd njustc wrldwd s mr ffctv wy f cmbtng trrrsm thn cnvntnl wrfr, nd s hs Brtns mbssdr t NT s wll s frmr Ntnl Scurty dvsr n th Clntn dmnstrtn, nthny Lk.

t th thr nd f cntnuum f scl, thr r th lf ggrphs f prhps thrty Mxcn rsturnt wrkrs wh fund thmslvs t th tp f n f th twrs. My cllgu n mkng th Untd Ntns Unvrsty vds n ctzn bsd dsstr mtgtn n Mxc Cty nd Ls ngls s currntly wrkng n Nw Yrk wth Tpyc, supprt cntr fr Mxcn mgrnts t tht cty, tryng t dntfy thr fmls nd fmls f thr lw ncm Hspnc wrkrs whs lvlhds hv bn cut ff by th dsstr nd t prvd thn wth supprt. Th pttrns f vulnrblty, mpct, nd rcvry (r fld rcvry) wll b md up f mny such smllr pcs f zg sw puzzl.

Cmmnttrs hv bn syng tht th wrld wll nvr b th sm". T tru. But prhps tht s gd thng. Prhps w nd t brk cmpltly wth ld mdls f wrfr, f vngnc, ld ntns f scurty nd ntnl ntrst. Prhps pc wth justc nd n cknwldgmnt f th wunds, schsms, dfrmts crtd by th cld wr r prcndtns fr scurty. 28

Snc th rly 1980s whn Rnld Rgn rfusd t dmt ny hstrcl rspnsblty fr pvrty nd dbt n dvlpng, frml clnl cuntrs, w hv sn tw dcds f clls fr cknwldgmnt nd vn rprtns, nd crrspndng rfusls. Rgn (nd Mrs. Thtchr nd Chncllr Khl) ws rctng t th cll n th 1970s fr Nw ntrntnl cnmc rdr. Fl ths n undr dd lttrs" lng wth th Lw f th S trty nd ts ntn tht n ntrntnl tx n dp cn bd mnng culd fnnc humn dvlpmnt, f bsc humn nds. Ths lst thr wrds dspprd frm dvlpmnt dscurs n th 1980s nd 1990s. Mst rcntly thr hv bn th dmnds fr n plgy fr th Wst frcn slv trd, vn fr rprtns. Rthr thn ngg wth ths rgumnts, th U. S. lft Durbn, wthdrwng frm th U. N. cnfrnc n rcsm.

Th U. S. hs nvr cm nr th U. N. trgt fr ndustrl cuntrs f prvdng 0.7% f GNP s dvlpmnt ssstnc. t th mmnt tht fgur fr th U. S. s 0.1% (cmpr Dnmrks 1.2%). Mny wll nt by pc, but rdstrbutv justc, tkng nt ccunt th hstrcl prcss f ccumultn (ncludng th hstry f th U. S. l ndustry st ut n Dnl Yrkns bk, Th Prz), must hv rl. Mny cnnt buy frndshp nd scurty, but nthr cn ths knd f thrt b mt by mltry rspns. cmbntn f cnmc nd pltcl rfrms n th wrld systm r ncssry.

Ths rfrms wll ncssrly rqur dvlutn f crprt pwr, mr qutbl wrld trdng systm, ncrsd quty nd rspct fr dffrnc. Thy wuld ls rqur rductns n th lvl f nrgy nd mtrl cnsumptn f th mr fflunt scl strt f th mr prsprus ntns f th wrld. Wth 6% f th wrlds ppultn, th U. S. cnsums 40% f th nrgy prducd. Ths s nt sustnbl pttrn f cnsumptn.

Rductn n cnsumptn wuld hv numbr f bnfts.

Frst, s nw scl nrms f cnsumptn nd tchnlgs bsd n mr ffcnt us f nrgy nd mtrl wrk thr wy thrugh ur scl nd sptl systms, nw frms f mplymnt nd nw, mr rslnt frms f humn sttlmnt nd trnsprttn r lkly t rsult. Lng bfr th wtrshd vnts f th 11th f Sptmbr sm ppl wr rgung tht cmtmprry frms f tchn-b-scl rgnztn r t cmplx t fully undrstnd, nd thrfr dsstrs r nvtbl. 29

Scnd, rducd nd rdstrbutd cnsumptn n th wrld systm shuld rduc th lvls f pvrty nd dsprtn tht r th prmry sdbd f sm frms f cult bsd rgnzd vlnc.


thcl Cnsdrtns


n thng tht strks m s rvw th knds f vlnc dscrbd rlr s tht thy ll nvlv, r mply, sm ntn f clltrl dmg. Ths s tru f cnvntnl wrfr; t s tru f mrkt bsd cnmc dvlpmnt; nd t s tru f trrrsm. vn ths whs cts r mst bhrrnt hv, r wuld, rgu, tht th dths f nncnt ppl, f cvlns, f ths wh hppn t b n th wrng plc t th wrng tm s rgrttbl, nt ncssry n th ntrst f sm grtr nd lngr trm gd r gl. n th bss f smpl lgcl cnsstncy (nd thcs dpnds strngly n lgc), ths f us whs prsprty nd rltv scurty dpnds n hstry f wrfr nd th glblztn f grwth bsd mrkt mdl f dvlpmnt must tk cr tht th rsultng structurl vlnc s mnmzd. Hw prscnt ws t f Gth, n hs Fust, Prt , t tmpt Fust wth n dl prprty dvlpmnt schm, n prstn nd butful cst. Hwvr, t rlz th cnmc vlu f ths lnd n ld cupl wh r th nly nhbtnts must d. Thy r ppl, ld, uslss ppl, n th wrng plc t th wrng tm.

n th nd th thcl hgh grund rqurs tht ntrntnl lw nd dplmcy s usd whrvr pssbl n plc f rgnzd vlnc (wrfr), vn n th dfns f scty gnst stt r cult bsd trrrsm. 30 t ls rqurs tht r cnmc rltns, dmstclly nd ntrntnlly, rflct th Kntn ctgrcl mprtv, tht w trt ch humn bng s n nd nd nt s mns t n nd.

1 S, fr xmpl, Rjv Ptl, Urbn Dsstr Mngmnt: Lssns frm Bhpl. n: J Bll, d., Cty fr ll, pp. 200-213. Lndn: Zd, 1997.

2 NSRT rfrncs frm ln nrsns drft FM prjct sssns n vlnc?

3 Fr th sk f smplcty my fcus hr s physcl, bdly hrm ln; must lv sd psychlgcl nd cnmc hrm, fr whch such n ffndr s rghtly clld t justc. S, fr xmpl, Tm Nwll, Frgvng Justc: Qukr Vsn fr Crmnl Justc. Swrthmr Lctur 2000. Lndn: Qukr Hm Srvc, 2000.

4 n thnks, f curs, f wlld cts nd cts std n hll tps nd thr dfndbl pstns s wll s stckpls nd fd rsrvs bult up fr rdstrbutn nt nly n tms f fmn but n th cs f sg, n rrngmnt frm rchc tms tht hs bn cmmntd upn by cnmc hstrns nd rchlgsts. m nt wr, hwvr, f cmprhnsv hstry f th ggrphcl, urbnstc, rchtcturl, nd scl msurs t prtct cts, nghbrhds, nfrstructur, buldngs nd dwllngs wthn cts. Th vry cncpts f prtctn, sfty, nd scurty hv mny crss culturl hstrs tht wuld hv t b ntrwvn nt such rvw. Th 21st Cntury brngs whl nw tchnlgs t br, fr nstnc th prlfrtn f clsd crcut tlvsn n publc plcs. Such cmrs my numbr 2.5 mlln n th Brtn ln, nd n Lndn n s lkly t b cpturd n cmr s mny s 300 tms dy (lln Hl, Mny Brtns sml n sprd f cndd cmrs. US Tdy, 1 ctbr, 2001, p. 6).

5 NSRT rfrnc t Dnns Rdgrss wrk nd gng ltrtur? J. Cck, Gun Vlnc s n ssu f Cmmunty Psychlgy n Cntmprry Suth frc. n: M. Sdt, N. Dumr, nd S. Lzrus, ds., Cmmunty Psychlgy, pp. 293-308. xfrd: xfrd Unvrsty Prss, 2001.

6 n xcllnt vrvw frm phlsphcl pnt f vw s prvdd by Rnld rnsn, Dlctcs f Dsstr: Th Prblm f Vlnc n th 20th Cntury.

7 nthrplgcl frms f vlnc such s rtul wrfr gnrlly fflct lttl njury r dth (s J. Hss, d., Th nthrplgy f Wr. Cmbrdg: Cmbrdg Unvrsty Prss, 1998.

8 Knnth Hwtt, Rgns f Rsk: Ggrphcl ntrductn t Dsstrs. Hrlw, ssx: Lngmn, 1997.

9 Fr xmpl, Jhn Gltung, Th Tru Wrlds. Nw Yrk: Fr Prss, 1980; Smr mn, Mldvlpmnt; Glbrt Rst, Th Hstry f Dvlpmnt. Lndn: Zd, 1997; Jhn sbstr, Cptlsm nd Justc. Hrtfrd: Kumrn , 2001; nk Hgvlt, Glblstn nd th Pst-Clnl Wrld. Bsngstk, Hmpshr: Plgrv, 2001. gn, fr th sk f smplcty, m nt cnsdrng thr mprtnt rgumnts tht ls dfn such scl lls s rcsm nd scl xclusn s frms f rgnzd vlnc.

10 UNDPs Humn Dvlpmnt Rprt 2001 (Nw Yrk: xfrd Unvrsty Prss, 2001) prvds th fllwng strt cpsul summry f pvrty (p. 9):

968 mlln ppl wthut ccss t sf wtr

2.4 blln wthut ccss t snttn fclts

34 mlln lvng wth HV/DS

2.2 mlln d ch yr frm ndr r pllutn

11 mlln chldrn undr fv d f prvntbl cuss ch yr

163 mlln chldrn r blw thr nrml wght fr g

325 mlln chldrn ut f schl durng prmry nd scndry schl yrs (183 mlln f thm grls)

1.2 blln ppl lv n lss thn n U.S. dllr pr dy

2.8 blln ppl lv n lss thn tw U.S. dllrs pr dy

11 Murc Mrlu-Pnty, Humnsm t trrur. Prs: Gllmrd, 1947.

12 Cult bsd s prhps nt th pprprt trm bcus nn-stt trrr hs bn usd by grups s dvrs s th R, Hms, um Shn Rky, th Tml Tgrs, nd l-Qd. n th thr hnd, thr r scl psychlgcl chrctrstcs f mmbrshp, bndng, dscpln tht ths knds f grups hv n cmmn, nd ths d ll sm cult-lk, dspt th wdly dffrnt wrldvws, dlgs, nd pltcl ms f such grups. Sm scl psychlgsts d grup such dssmlr grups tgthr s cults, fr xmpl, Dvd G. Myrs, Scl Psychlgy, 6th d. Bstn: McGrw-Hll, pp. 278-284, n whch h trts, mng thrs, th Hvns Gt dth cult nd rght wng cmmnds n l Slvdr.

13 S Hruk Murkm, Undrgrund: Th Tky Gs ttck nd th Jpns Psych. Lndn: Hrvll, 2000.

14 Lndns Mtrpltn Plc frc ws stblshd n 1829 (Gvn Wghtmn nd Stv Humphrs, Th Mkng f Mdrn Lndn 1815-1914. Lndn: Sdgwck & Jcksn, 1983, p. 18) n rspns t rl nd mgnd frs (s Y Fu Tun, Lndscps f Fr).

15 Crlyn Nrdstrm nd Jnn Mrtn, ds., n th Pths t Dmntn, Rsstnc, nd Trrr. Brkly: Unvrsty f Clfrn Prss, 1992.

16 Knnth Mtchl, d., Th Crucbl f Hzrd: Mg-Cts nd Dsstrs n Trnstn. Tky, Untd Ntns Unvrsty, 1999

17 Slmn Rushd, Fury. Lndn: Jhnthn Cp, 2001, pp. 6-7.

18 NSRT Untd Ntns Unvrsty urbn scl vulnrblty study wb st url; Grmn Vlsquz t l., Nw pprch t Dsstr Mtgtn nd Plnnng n Mg-Cts. n: Tksh nguch t l., ds., Cts nd th nvrnmnt, pp. 161-184. Tky: Untd Ntns Unvrsty Prss, 1999; DNDR, Cts t Rsk. Gnv: DNDR, 1996 nd NSRT ts -cnfrnc wb st url.

19 Mntl llnss s much mr wdsprd n th wrld thn mst thnk (s: Srh Bsly, WH sys 1 n 4 gt mntl llnss, Th Gurdn, 5 ctbr, 2001, p. 15. m ddrssng th qustn f ndvdul mntl llnss nly. Numrus psychnlysts, frm Frud nwrds, fr xmpl Wlhlm Rch nd rc Frmm thugh tht t ws pssbl fr whl scty (.g. Grmn scty undr th Nzs) t suffr psychpthlgy. Such vw mght hv pplctn t th cs n hnd, but cnnt xplr thm hr.

20Brn McLughln nd ml ksnbrg Rrty, ds., Prspctvs n Slf-Dcptn. Brkly: Unvrsty f Clfrn Prss, 1988; Tny Mln, Scl Psychlgy, 2nd d. Lndn: McMlln, 1997; Jn Vlsnr nd Rn vn dr Vr, Th Scl Mnd. Cmbrdg: Cmbrdg Unvrsty Prss, 2000.

21 Hnn rndt, ųchmn n Jruslm.

22 Chrls Prrw, Nrml ccdnts. Nw Hvn: Yl Unvrsty Prss, 1984.

23 Ssk Sssn, mssg frm th glbl suth. Th Gurdn, 12 Sptmbr, 2001, p. 23.

24Hlf mlln vr ght yrs ccrdng t UNCF nd smlr fgur frm Wrld Hlth rgnztn (D. Lgh nd J. Wlsn, Cuntng rq Vctms. Th Gurdn, 10 ctbr 2001, p. 21); ls s: Gutm Bnrj, Th mpct f Mdrn Wrfr: Th Cs f rq. n: J Bll, d., Cty fr ll, pp. 196-199. Lndn: Zd, 1997; Grc Mchl, Th mpct f Wr n Chldrn. Lndn: Husrt, 2001, pp. 132-4.

25 dwrd Sd, slm nd th Wst r ndqut Bnnrs. Th bsrvr, 16 Sptmbr, 2001, p. 27.

26 Mtthw ngl, Lbrty Curtld n th Lnd f th Fr. Th Gurdn, 19 Sptmbr, 2001, p. 7.

27Sttmnt n wll pstr ddd ftr 11 Sptmbr t th xhbtn n th Grt Curt, Brtsh Musum, xplrng th Cty by Dyn Sudjc nd Fstr nd Prtnrs.

28 Ths sttmnt, nd wht fllws, s n ttmpt t xpln, nt t xcus th ttcks f 11 Sptmbr, s wll s mny thr, smllr scl bmbngs nd thr cts f trrr n mny prts f th wrld. Thr r surprsng numbr f suppsdly ltrt nd wll-nfrmd ppl stll wrtng, mnth ftr th trgdy, s thugh thy cnt fthm th dstnctn btwn xplntn nd xcus. Fr xmpl, Slmn Rushd cmplns but bn-pnsnt nt-mrcn nslught whch h cnsdrs ppllng rubbsh. H wrts t rmnd us tht th trrrsts r gnst fr spch but dsnt sm t llw crtcs f U.S. plcy t xpln (nt xcus) th ttck n trms f prr U.S. ntrntnl ctns (Lts gt bck t lf. Th Gurdn Sturdy Rvw, 6 ctbr, 2001, p. 1). ddly nugh, Rushd hmslf nts tht th U.S. plcy rqurs [b]ttr judgmnt, nd urgs tht th U.S. pply tht wsdm, rtrspctvly, t wht ws dn t th mpvrshd, pprssd ppl f rq. Ths slf-styld nwst f Nw Yrkrs sms t wnt t bth wys.

29 Such ln f thugh cn b fund n rgnztnl sclgy nd pltcl scnc (.g. Chrls Prrw, Nrml ccdnts. Nw Hvn: Yl Unvrsty Prss, 1984; Thms Hmr-Dxn, Th ngnuty Gp. Lndn: Vntg, 2001), clgcl cnmcs (.F. Schumchr, Smll s Butful; Pul kns, Grn cnmcs), n-Mrxst nd pst-mdrn scl thrsts (Mrtn ΒCnnr, d. s Cptlsm Sustnbl?; Ulrch Bck, Th Rsk Scty; smlr, thugh mr mdst vws hv mphszd th ncssty rduc wstrn ndustrl cuntry (spclly U.S.) lvls f rsurc nd nrgy cnsumptn nd t brdg th grwng gp n ductn, hlth cr, nd lvlhd pprtunts btwn rch nd pr thrugh such mchnsms s tx n ntrntnl fnncl trnsctns (th Tbn Tx): s, fr xmpl, th rprts f Brndts Nrth-Suth Cmmssn, th Brundtlnd cmmssns rprt, ur Cmmn Futur, th rprt f th Suth-Suth Cmmssn chrd by frmr Tnznn prsdnt, Julus Nyrr, Jrg Nf, Humn Scurty nd Mutul Vulnrblty. 2nd d. ttw: DRC, 1999; nd Susn Grgs Th Lugn Rprt: n Prsrvng Cptlsm n th Twnty-Frst Cntury (Lndn: Plut, 1999).

30 Frd Hldy, N Mn s n slnd. Th bsrvr, 16 Sptmbr 2001, p. 26. By 9 ctbr th U.S. hd lrdy ccdntly klld fur Untd Ntns mplys n th ffc f n gncy mplyd by th UNs dmnng ctvts n fghnstn, lctd n th utskrts f Kbul. Bmbng hd bgun s th Tlbn smd n th pnt f bcmng mr cprtv, but th U.S. rfusd t ngtt wth ts rprsnttvs.