The marking of the Russian Revolution (43039)














TH MKNG F TH RUSSN RVLUTN

(ssy)



Th Grt Drss Rhrsl

Th Sclsts

Blshvks, Mnshvks nd Lbrls n 1905

Rtrt nd dvnc

Th Wr

Th Fbrury Rvlutn

Rrmng th Prty

ll Pwr t th Svts"

Rctn n th mv

Th nsurrctn

Th Blshvk Trdtn


Th Grt Drss Rhrsl


N 4 JNURY 1905, wrkrs t th gnt Putlv ngnrng fctry n St Ptrsburg struck n dfnc f fur sckd cllgus. Stfld nd pprssd fr yrs by hrsh wrkng cndtns nd th rgms scrt plc, th wrkrs t Putlv nw tstd frdm. Thy bgn t dscuss thr mprtnt mttrs. Mst prssngly, thy bgn t dmnd rductn n th hurs f wrk, nd mprvmnts n sntry cndtns nd hlth trtmnt. Vstng thr Ptrsburg fctrs t wn supprt fr thr ctn, thy sprkd ff mr dscussn: thrughut St-Ptrsburg wrkrs bgn ngrly t, r thr grvncs.

Sn th tlk ws nt nly f brd, wrk, nd survvl, but f frdm, f lctns, th rght t fr spch, nd n nd t cnsrshp. n th 9th Jnury, 200,000, wrkrs mrchd t th Wntr Plc t pttn th Tsr n ths mttrs. Wthn n wk, mnr trd unn dsput hd bcm mss pltcl mvmnt.

Th Tsr hmslf nw tk hnd n th pltcl dvlpmnt f hs subjcts. Hs trps frd nt th pcful nd unrmd crwd, thn hrsmn chrgd wth sbrs, wundng nd kllng mr thn 1,000. Gpn, prst wh hd mrchd t th hd f th dmnstrtn, xprssd th hrrr whch ths ctn rusd: rvr f bld, dvds th Tsr frm hs ppl. nd Lnn grmly drw th pltcl cnclusn: Th rvlutnry ductn f th wrkng clss md mr prgrss n n dy thn t culd hv dn n mnths nd yrs f drb, humdrum, wrtchd xstnc.

Lnn t ths tm ws n bscur xl, nd th sclsts f hs prty hd s fr plyd nglgbl, rl n vnts. Bldy Sundy, s th msscr cm t b knwn, dd nt chng ths vrnght. But th wrkrs f St Ptrsburg, thr pttns t th Tsr nswrd n bld, wuld nw lstn much mr sympthtclly t th ds f rvlutnry sclsts.

Th vnts f 1905, hwvr, wr lss sgnfcnt fr wht th wrkrs lrnd frm th rvlutnrs thn fr wht th rvlutnrs, r t lst sm f thm, lrnd frm th wrkrs. Tm nd gn n ths yr t ws th ndustrl wrkrs, tny mnrty n th vst ppultn f th Tsrs mpr, wh ld th struggl t chng scty. vn th bst sclsts wr tkn bck by th curg nd nvntvnss f th wrkng clss. Th wrkrs cuncl r svt ws nly th hghst pk f ths chvmnt; dlgt bdy f wrkrs, nn mr prvlgd thn ths h rprsntd; thrughly dmcrtc, yt cpbl f th mst cmplx tsks. nd ths ssmbly ws crtd nt by th prmptngs f grt thrsts, but by th Ptrsburg wrkrs thmslvs, s th bst vlbl mthd f rgnsng thr wn struggl - th gnrl strk n ctbr 1905.

Tht yr dd mr thn dmnstrt th cpcts f wrkrs; t thrw lght n th whl f Russn scty. t shwd tht utcrtc gvrnmnt, fr ll ts mchnry f rprssn, ws nt nvncbl, but wuld yld nly t rgnsd frc. t rvld tht th pr psntry, fr ll ts mnrchsm nd suprsttn, culd b frc fr chng. t pntd t cwrdc s th cntrl ftur f th Russn burgs, th grwng cptlst nd prfssnl clss, whs fr f th wrkrs lwys utwghd ts fr f th utcrcy. nd mst mprtnt, t shwd tht th ntr scty ws n lngr th rdrd nd stbl systm f ld, but mss f cntrdctns whch mght wthut wrnng xpld nt pn cnflct.


Th ld Rgm


FR DCDS th Russn Tsrs hd ruld thr mpr unchllngd. Thr wr, t s tru, lbrl crcls nd psnt rbllns, but ths wr lwys quckly sltd nd smshd. Th mnrchy, wth ts curtrs, nblty nd rlgus hngrs-n, cntnud t rul n much th sm mdvl wy s hd ts prdcssrs. Untl th lst qurtr f th nntnth cntury th nly srus chllng t th pstn f th utcrcy cm frm utsd th frntrs f ts mpr.

n Wstrn urp systm ws dvlpng whch, ultmtly, wuld undrmn th bss f Tsrdm. Th nw cnmy f nglnd, Frnc nd Grmny ws dffrnt frm ny whch hd gn bfr t: cptlsm s th nly mthd f rgnsng prductn n hstry fr whch, xpnsn s cndtn f ts wn survvl. s th ndustrl cnms f urp grw n cmpttn wth ch thr, s thy wr frcd t lk utwrds - fr mrkts, fr rw mtrls, fr nw pprtunts t mk prfts. n th prcss, ntv ndustrs wr dstryd nd hug rs f th plnt subrdntd s clns f th cptlst pwrs.

Th mltry strngth f ths pwrs grw lngsd thr cpcty t prduc mr, nd mr ddly, wpns; nd ths, n thr turn, wr usd t nfrc th dmnnc f th bg ndustrl cnms. T survv n th jungl, th rulrs f Russ wuld hv t lrn nw wys f fghtng.

ftr 1880 Russn ndustry xpndd mssvly. But th mn drvng frcs bhnd ts grwth wr nt, s n nglnd nd Frnc, ntv prvt busnssmn. Frgn ndustrlsts prvdd mst f h plnt nd mchnry fr Russn xpnsn, nd frgn bnks mst f th cptl. Bhnd bth std th Tsrst stt tslf, prvdng ddtnl cptl, plcng hug rdrs fr yrs n dvnc, tghtly plcng th wrkfrc, nd gurntng by ll mns th prfts f th Grmn txtl mgnts nd th Frnch stck xchng, th ntv Russn burgs ws mrkd frm th frst by ts scndry rl n th cuntrys dvlpmnt, by ts dpndnc n frgn nd stt cptl. ts rl f junr prtnr dd nt ncurg my grt thughts but chngng scty. t clung t th prn strngs f th Tsr nd nvr brk wy. Th urgnt tsk f clrng wy fudl ddwd wuld b ttmptd by dffrnt frcs - wth dffrnt bjctvs.

Th lrgst frc whch std t gn frm chng ws th mss f th psntry. Th frdm grntd t thm n 1861, whn srfdm vs blshd, ws stll bng pd fr: n xrbtnt rnts whch thy wr frcd t py fr tny subsstnc plts f lnd, n th nrmus dbts whch thy stll wd fr th rght t lbur n ths ptchs f sl, nd n th hurs f wrk whch mllns wr blgd t prfrm fr th grtr cmfrt f thr lcl lrds. Cty lbrls purd scrn m th gnrnt psnts; ptty prprtrs, cnsrvtv t th mrrw, wh wuld lwys ct n th srvc f rctn. Tm wuld tll.

Mnwhl rund th mjr twns, ndustrl suburbs wr grwng. n thm lvd nd wrkd th fctry prltrt, th nw ndustrl wrkng clss. Ths nw clss hd bn rcrutd strght frm th cuntrysd. t hd lttl trnng, pltcl knwldg r xprnc, but ths vry dfcncs culd turn ut t b ssts. Fr lthugh th ndustrl wrkrs hd n sclst r trd unn trdtn, nthr wr thy wghtd dwn wth th cnsrvtsm nd sctnlsm f wrkng clsss such s th nglsh, wth ts lng hstry f guld nd crft rgnstn. Frm thr frst grt strk mvmnt n th 1890s, th Russn wrkrs shwd trmndus cpcty bth t struggl nd t lrn. Thugh ndustrl wrkrs stll frmd nly smll mnrty f th ppultn, t quckly bcm vdnt tht whvr ld thm hld th ky t th rvlutnsng f Russ.


Th Sclsts


TH TSRST utcrcy hd lwys rusd ppstn, nd n th rly 1860s n rgnstn wth pnly sclst sprtns bgn t b ctv. But th Lnd nd Frdm prty, ltr nmd th Ppls Wll, rflctd th bckwrdnss f Russ. t bsd ts hps fr sclsm nt n th wrkng clss, whch hrdly thn xstd, but n th psntry, sndng ts yung mddl-clss mmbrs nt th cuntry t prch gnst th mnrchy. But th psnts grtd ths wll-hld mbssdrs wth dstrust nd vn hstlty. Gng t th Ppl fld cmpltly, nd sctns f Ppls Wll bgn t turn t mr drct mthds. n 1881 thy succdd n ssssntng Tsr lxndr . Ths nly nbld th stt t slt thm furthr, rducng th mvmnt t fw sltd grups.

t ws n ths prd tht th frst Mrxst rgnstn, th Lgu fr th mncptn f Lbur, ws frmd. ts fundr, G. V. Plkhnv, cntndd tht th ld, cmmunl rgnstns f th psnts, n whch Ppls Wll plcd s much strss, wr n dcy. Th dvlpmnt f cptlsm n Russ, fr frm bng mpssbl, ws nvtbl, nd wth t wuld b brn n urbn wrkng clss, th futur gnt f sclsm.

Fr mny yrs th rgumnt ws cnductd bstrctly, n clndstn dscussn crcls. But n th md-1890s mssv strk wv prvdd th pprtunty fr Mrxsts t ngg n mr prctcl ctvty - gttn. Lnn ws n such gttr. Fr svrl yrs h hd bn ttrctd by th drng nd slf-scrfc f th trrrsts, bcmng Mrxst nly n 1892/3. Nw, fr th frst tm, h bgn t lrn hw t rlt hs ds drctly t wrkrs. Krupsky, Lnns wf, gvs sm nsght nt th purly tchncl dffcults whch ths nvlvd:

rmmbr whn Vldmr llch drw up th frst lflt fr th wrkrs f th Smynnkv wrks. W hd n tchncl fclts t ll thn. Th lflt ws cpd ut n prntd lttrs nd dstrbutd by Bbushkn. ut f fur cps, tw wr pckd up by th wtchmn, whl tw wnt rund frm hnd t hnd.

Whn gttn bgn thr ws much grumblng mngst th Mrxsts, wh wr usd t dscussn crcls nd lkd dwn n th ffrt t dstrbut lflts t gnrnt wrkrs. Thn, whn th strk wv cllpsd nd nthr nw strtgy ws rqurd, mny f th cmrds wr gn rluctnt t chng thr wys. Ths tm th ppstn tk th frm f n-sdd strssng f purly trd-unn ssus, knwn s cnmsm. Th cnmsts wntd t cncntrt slly n trd unn ctvty nd t cnfn pltcs t dmndng lgl cncssns frm th rgm. Ths rfrmst utlk ws smlr t tht f th lbrls. gnst thm, Lnn nd Plkhnv strssd th mprtnc f mntnng ctvty n wd rng f pltcl ssus.

By 1902 ntnl rgnstn f sclsts hd bn bult rund th nwsppr skr (Th Sprk). n tht yr, t th scnd prty cngrss, n unxpctd splt ccurrd whch thrtnd t wrck th whl chvmnt. Th dsgrmnt hngd n tw ssus: frst, n whthr mmbrshp f th prty shuld b n th bss f ssctn wth r ctv prtcptn; nd scnd, whthr thr vtrn sclsts, wh wr cntrbutng lttl t th prductn f skr, shuld cntnu s ts dtrs.

Lnn nd hs supprtrs (knwn s th Blshvks, mnng mjrty) wr fr tghtly rgnsd prty, n whch bth th mmbrs nd th dtrs shuld b ccuntbl. Lnn rgud tht th tttud f Mrtv nd hs grup (th mnrty, r Mnshvks) rflctd th undscplnd hbts f th ld dscussn crcls nd th ntllctuls wh dmntd thm. Ths ws tru, but undrnth th rgumnt wr dvlpng tw vry dffrnt ssssmnts f th rl whch th vrus clsss wuld ply n rvlutn. Th vnts f 1904-7 rsd t th surfc ths submrgd dsgrmnts nd prvd th splt ws n trvl r tmprry ffr.


Blshvks, Mnshvks nd Lbrls n 1905


N FBRURY 1904, Russ dclrd wr n Jpn, wth th full pprvl f th burgs clsss. By lt summr, hwvr, t bcm pln tht th wr ws gng bdly, nd sctns f th mddl clss bgn t gt cld ft. Lndlrds, ndustrlsts nd prfssnl ppl bgn t us th tthlss prvncl ssmbls t muttr gnst th wr nd t mk spchs but th nd fr cnsttutn. Ths ltr frmd thmslvs nt prty clld th Cnsttutnl Dmcrts, r Cdts fr shrt.

Th Mnshvks st grt str by th lbrls cmpgn, nd urgd th wrkrs t supprt t. Thy wrnd rptdly tht ndpndnt wrkrs ctn wuld scr th lbrls bck nt th cmp f rctn nd shuld thrfr b vdd. t th rt f ths ws th Mnshvks cnvctn tht th rvlutn n bckwrd Russ hd frst t cnfn tslf t wnnng dvncs such s ths lrdy wn n th wst, fr xmpl fr lctns. Ths burgs lbrts, thy sd, culd b wn nly wth th ctv supprt f th burgs.

Th Blshvks grd tht th bjctvs f th rvlutn must b lmtd but rgud frcfully tht th burgs wuld nvr fght fr thm. Lnn sd tht th burgs

frs t ls n ths struggl ts prprty whch bnds t t th xstng rdr; t frs n ll-t-rvlutnry ctn f th wrkrs, wh wll nt stp t th dmcrtc rvlutn but wh wll spr t th sclst rvlutn; t frs cmplt brk wth ffcldm, wth th burucrcy, whs ntrsts r bund up by thusnd ts wth th ntrsts f th prprtd clsss.

S th Blshvks lwys xpsd th lbrl cmpgns, nd rfusd t tg lng bhnd thm, cntnully strssng th mprtnc f ndpndnt wrkng-clss pltcs.

Th wrkrs rl lls, sd th Blshvks, wr th pr psnts, nd nt th lndlrds f th Cdt prty, wh shwd thr clss clurs by rfusng t supprt th xprprtn f th lrg lndd stts. vn th mst lmntry lbrts culd b stblshd nly by th gvrnmnt f rvlutnry-dmcrtc dcttrshp f th prltrt nd psntry. Such gvrnmnt, whl rgnzd dmcrtclly, wuld nt shrnk frm usng hrsh msurs gnst th prprtd mnrts.

Th Blshvks wr rght. ntlly th lbrl burgs supprtd th ctbr strks. But th struggl, ld by th wrkrs, quckly gv rs t wrkng-clss dmnds - such s fr th ght-hur dy. Th burgs thn mvd shrply rghtwrds. Th Mnshvks sn fllwd. Th psntry, hwvr, shwd trmndus ptntl. Rts, th xpulsn f lndlrds nd th szng f cttl nd grn sprd wdly n 1905. Thugh frquntly mnrchst n tttud, th psnts dmndd lnd nd n nd t thr pprssn - nd wr wllng t fght fr t.

Th Blshvks, thn, hd rrvd t th crrct undrstndng f th rl f th dffrnt clsss n Russ. Thy grspd th thry. But n th dffcult tsk f pplyng tht thry t th rl struggl thy md mny mstks. Durng th prd f th trmndus upsurg f wrkrs struggls n 1905, thy fld fr mnths t pull wrkrs nt th prty cmmtts, nd ftn tk sctrn tttud t trd-unn dsputs. Ths prblms wr vntully vrcm, but nly thrugh much tm nd ffrt spnt n bttr ntrnl rgumnts.

n ctbr 1905 th Ptrsburg Svt ws frmd. Blshvk rgnsr, Krskv, wrnd gnst ths ntrgu by th Mnshvks nd th Blshvk cntrl cmmtt vn rslvd t byctt th Svt unlss t grd t ccpt th prtys prgrmm (thugh t dd nt crry ut th thrt). Th Ptrsburg Svt ws brn ut f th gnrl strk n ctbr, nd ntlly cncrnd tslf wth th rgnstn nd xtnsn f th strk. t sn fund tslf hvng t dl wth qustns such s th dstrbutn f fd nd th supply f pwr; t bgn nwsppr (zvst), nd whn ths ws supprssd, cmmndrd th prnt shps f burgs nwspprs; whn th Krnstdt mutnrs cm undr thrt f dth, th Svt rgnsd nw gnrl strk n thr dfnc; whn th Jw-btrs thrtnd pgrm, th Svt rgnsd rmd wrkrs mlts t ptrl th strts.

Th Svt ws th cntrl rgn f th wrkrs struggl n Ptrsburg, rgnsng pltcl strks, dmnstrtns nd rmd dfnc. Vry lttl mvd n th cptl wthut ts sy-s, nd s f n trbut, pttns cncrnng ll mnnr f grvncs cm t t ddrssd t Th Wrkrs Gvrnmnt, Ptrsburg. t ws, n fct, th mbry f wrkrs stt.

Hw, thn, culd th Blshvks b s sctrn n thr ntl rctn t t? nd why dd thy fl t rcrut wrkrs t thr cmmtts, nd tk lw vw f th trd-unn struggls whch wr brkng ut vrywhr n ths mmntus prd? Th nswr s tht thy wr lvng n th pst, n th prd f bttr fctnl struggl gnst th Mnshvks; whn th nd fr hghly-dscplnd prty f prfssnl rvlutnrs hd hd t b strssd gn nd gn; whn Blshvks hd t b shrply dlntd frm wht Lnn clld th Mrsh. n 1905, cndtns chngd wth bwldrng spd, nd mny cmrds culd nt kp pc.

Lnn nw-plyd ky rl. Rcgnsng tht th wrkrs, frm bng pthtc, hd suddnly bcm mr rvlutnry thn mst f th prtys mmbrs, h jnd frcs wth ths nwly-rdclsd, wrkrs, rgung nd cjlng tht thy tk up rspnsbl nd ldng prty pstns dspt thr lck f xprnc. Whn ths prcss gt undr wy, th tsk f fghtng sctrnsm bcm sr: th prty lrnd frm th wrkrs.

Th tndncy t b slw n dptng t nw cndtns ws ftur f th Blshvk Prty thrughut ts xstnc, nd t s prblm fr ll srus rvlutnry rgnstns. Th nd fr cnsstnt wrk rund stbl pttrns, whl vtlly ncssry, tnds t ld nt rutnsm, n unwllngnss t tk nw pltcl drctns. nd ths gvs rs t th nd fr wht Lnn clld bndng th stck, th nd t push hrd fr nw mthds whn nw crcumstncs dmnd thm.

Prt f Lnns grtnss ws hs blty t s whn nd hw t fght fr ths. Hs chvmnt cn b gugd nt nly frm th rvlutn whch succdd n 1917, but frm th n tht fld n 1905. Th Svts wr dftd; n Ptrsburg thr ldrs wr rrstd t th bgnnng f Dcmbr nd n Mscw n ttmptd nsurrctn ws smshd by mltry frc. n 1905 th bulk f th rmy rmnd lyl t th Tsr. But th Blshvks hd plyd ldng rl n th struggl, thy hd rcrutd tns f thusnds f th bst wrkrs, thy hd cnsstntly rgud clr nd hrd gnst th rfrmsts nd fr th rvlutnry vrthrw