The emergence of the first Polish socialist parties (43026)Посмотреть архив целиком
The emergence of the first Polish socialist parties
and their activities on the territory of Belarus
before the first Russian revolution
At the end of XIX century underwent a process of intensive development of Polish society, the establishment of the Polish nation. It was the active struggle of the Poles for the preservation of national identity in the absence of their own statehood. This process has faced in Russia and Imperial Germany in the opposite process - the unification of their own state organisms - and the attendant process of Russification and Germanization. Polish socialist socio-political movement in the territory of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, that Belarus and Lithuania, one of the main ideological objectives, along with the idea of world revolution, considered the national association of Polish forces in the struggle for national self-preservation [4, pp. 19]. During this period, is beginning to emerge of the socialist system of the Polish political parties, which in its programs reflect the economic, political, cultural and religious aspirations of the Polish working class, in particular, and in the Belarusian-Lithuanian lands [7, pp.49].
The development of the Polish working class and socialist movement in Belarus has been primarily associated with the process of industrialization, development of industry and the increasing number of workers. However, it is worth noting that the Polish socialist movement mainly in Belarus was presented first national intellectuals and the nobility and the very limited electoral, working the same movement as opposed to build on the work of trade unions and had a massive character. However, the socialist parties sought to lead the labor movement. The specificity of the Polish workers and socialist movement in Russia Empire, and in Belarus, in particular, was that the party had to operate underground. These conditions affect the content of party programs, which aim to accomplishment of the socialist revolution in Russia [25, pp.127].
Before the form of political party, the Polish workers and the socialist movement has passed the phase of socialist circles of self-organized students, workers and intellectuals under the influence of Russia's revolutionary thought of the Populists and lobbied socialist ideas among workers. In the late 70's. XIX century. these groups were organized into structures characteristic of the political parties [6, pp.56].
In 1878 in Warsaw, was developed by the first program of the Polish Socialist-Revolutionaries. Her sponsor was Ludwik Waryƒskiego [9, pp.5]. Program primarily was based on Marxism. In the works of historians, this program is known as the "Brussels Program". It outlined the basic tenets of the Party: the social revolution of the means of production, social equality. The importance of international co-workers to fight for their rights. The national idea was not seen as the main, since the main task of the commission considered the world socialist revolution, after which the nation-state will disappear. Significant impact on the Brussels program had the idea of M. Bakunin, promoted to replace the existing structure of society "production associations" [26, pp.33].
Polish workers' socialist movement before the first Russian Revolution 1905 - 1907 gg. Belarus was represented by the following parties: I and II of the proletariat, the Union of Polish workers, Polish Socialist Party (PPP), the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (SDKP and L) [22, pp.12].
I proletariat - International Social Revolutionary Party "proletariat" was the first Polish working-class party. One of the founders of the party was Ludwik Waryƒskiego. In September 1882, the working committee, which included A. Dembsky, G. Dulemba. S. Kunitsky and others [21, pp.84], published a political program, which was a continuation of the Brussels program. It reviewed the main provisions of the Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, adapted to the realities of the Kingdom of Poland [20, pp.112].
Software requirements of the Party formulated in three sections, each of which corresponded to a specific area of public life: economic, political and spiritual. The main economic demands were:
1). nationalization of the basic means of production, including land,
2). abolition of private property, wage labor.
The political demands were:
1). elimination of the autocracy, and 2). establishment of democracy, and 3). equality of religions, and 4). freedom of speech, association and assembly.
Main spiritual demands were:
1).compulsory free education 2). separation of church and state [7, pp.214].
Since its inception, 25 Socialist Party published pamphlets and about 20 leaflets. The party had its own press organs: the clandestine newspaper "Poletariat" (Warsaw), a legal newspaper, Robotnik (Krakow), a legal newspaper, Pshedsvit " (Geneva), the theoretical journal" Valka klyas " (Geneva) [10, pp.39].
Largest party cells were in Warsaw, Lodz, Modlin, St. Petersburg, Moscow. On the territory of the five provinces of the largest Belarusian party cells I proletariat is in Pinsk, Vilna, Bialystok [15, pp.59].
I Proletariat Party positioned itself prominent parties. She ignored the national question, but the main purpose was to unite the party workers in the struggle against autocracy and protect the interests of the working class, as well as their organization in the struggle for socialism [3, pp.211].
The ultimate goal of the party was a future socialist state, which should happen with the help of the world socialist revolution. The solution of these installations was planned to conduct with the economic and political struggle. The main means of economic struggle - the strike, the creation of illegal organizations working in the factories. The political struggle was conducted with the help of terrorist acts against class enemies.
I proletariat actively cooperated with Russia's revolutionaries, organized strikes at enterprises and made attempts of individual terror. In 1884, as a result of seizures and was beheaded in 1886, was completely destroyed [11, pp.314].
After the destruction I Proletarian Polish socialist movement was dropped to the level of intellectuals circles of self. Further strengthening the labor movement in Russia has pushed some Polish socialist circles of attempts to create socialist party. In 1888 was created the Polish Social-Revolutionary Party of the proletariat, dubbed II proletariat. Leader of the party was Martin Kasprshak [16, pp.34].
Program II of the proletariat, despite the fact that also relied on the basic tenets of Marxism, has undergone major changes. Given the growth of the Polish national identity in the program was a requirement for the autonomy of the Polish lands. Party to achieve its goals focused on terror, because of what not acquired influence among the workers [5, pp.57].
Ideological differences led to a split within the party, leaving in 1889 a breakaway group of party functionaries created the Union of Polish workers. The main objective of the Union was the organization of mass labor movement. SBP Program has relied on two postulates: the struggle for social rights of workers in and out of illegality, the denial of terror and the transition to mass agitation and education among the workers [24, pp.449].
Growing in the Kingdom of the Polish workers and socialist movement increasingly began to exaggerate, under the influence of the emigre community, separatist slogans. Gradually the idea of world revolution in the circles of the Polish Socialist intellectuals gives way to program the postulate of the struggle for a sovereign and independent Poland. Independence should have been, according to the leaders of the Polish Socialist movement, appear key to the future of democratic transformations [18, pp.59].
In November 1892 in Paris, was created Abroad Association of Polish Socialists (LAVS), and the program was approved the struggle for independence, developed Boleslav Limanowa, Stanislav Mendelssohn, Felix Pearl [7, pp.212]. They were dropped the idea of world revolution and the socialist principle of cooperation of different countries. The program also emphasized that the party defending the interests of workers and organizes them in the struggle for socialism. Among the members of this party was widely disseminated the idea of the historical rights of the Poles at the non-Polish territory of Poland. One of the first on the subject spoke the famous Polish Socialist S. Mendelson [10, pp.412].
Already in the program adopted at the Paris Congress, determined that the new Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Roetsch will be created as a voluntary federation of equal peoples, but it certainly was not determined which areas and peoples must be that federation. Congress called for the creation of the Belarusian Party of socialist orientation, establishing publishing campaign literature in the Belarusian language.
Also in the Paris congress was attended by representatives of the proletariat and the AB II, as well as members ZSPR where he decided to merge their organizations into one party - Polish Socialist Party (PPP). From 1894 on the territory of the Russia Empire were set up party cells and to issue an illegal magazine "Eggman" [19, pp. 19].
PPP was not a monolithic party, and soon within the party began to form separate faction. Many members drawn primarily separatist party slogans. On the left flank of PPP supporters were of the world socialist revolution. However, the two factions were behind the introduction of more radical methods of struggle, mostly of terrorist methods. From May 1904 to the PSP for example Russian Socialist Party began to create their own fighting organization, is entrusted the execution of death sentences handed down the party king's officials, as well as committing "exes", ie, armed robbery party militants of public insurance schemes [17, pp.119].
Later, at the IV Congress of the PPP (June 1902) in the Paris program was amended, which concretized the previous formulation as follows: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is a voluntary federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine [19, pp.18].
Unlike other Polish Socialist Party, which at first was put building a new socialist society, the program PPP stated that the transition to socialism will happen immediately after the establishment of an independent Polish republic. The main requirements were: 8-hour workday, freedom of speech, labor unions, universal vote by secret ballot, free trials, and education, the elimination of the army and the creation of militias, higher wages [11, pp.466].
In September 1902 from the PPP party cells operating in the territory of Belarus and Lithuania was founded Polish Socialist Party in Lithuania, one of its founders was PI Noises. Lithuanian working committee was in Grodno. Had its party cells in Vilna, Grodno. Bialystok, Brest, Suwalki, Belsky. The organ of the Party was an illegal newspaper "Valka". Published a leaflet in Yiddish, Polish, Belarusian, which presented its program requirements. Invites the independent Lithuania, Belarus and the constituent assembly in Vilna, called for overthrowing the monarchy by making the revolution. It was on the positions of the federation of peoples inhabiting Rossiyskuyu empire [2, pp.96].
Part of Polish Socialists (B. Veselovskii) disagreed with the national program of the Party PPP, already in 1893 created a separate political party called the Social Democracy of Poland (SDP), which two years ceased to exist. Magazine "Right Robotnicza became the press organ of the party. Only in January 1900 it was revived and merged with the Workers Union of Lithuania (the union took place at a congress in Minsk), entitled "Social-Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania. The creators of the party were Julian Marhelevsky, Felix Dzerzhinsky, Adolf varsky and the chief party theoretician - Rosa Luxemburg. Program PPP postulate the independence of Poland's leaders SDKPiL considered unattainable utopia because of the full inclusion of lands of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the economic organism of Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary. However SDKPiL was more important to follow the Marxist ideas of an international struggle of the proletariat for the abolition of capitalism and establish a dictatorship [5, pp.55].
Denial of the slogan of Polish independence influenced the fact that Poles are not the party has become very popular, so in 1904 the program was a party in this regard, several modified and, along with socialist slogans slogan appeared on the autonomy of the Polish lands in the Russia Empire [1. with.64].
From the above we can conclude that the emergence of the Polish Socialist Party was a process which is organically linked with the European trend of the growing influence of the labor movement and Marxist ideology. In this process actively incorporated and five Belarusian provinces, where the Polish Socialist Party had a significant constituency. The specificity of the Polish socialist movement in the territory of Belarus was the fact that he actively supported the Polish nobility. This in turn affected the ideological postulates of the Polish Socialist Party, who saw his main task in the acquisition of Polish lands (under this definition, understood the land of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) for a minimum of autonomy within Russia Empire, and the maximum - of national independence, which will in future guarantee of democratic transformations.
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