The basic features of translation informal lexicon (43017)

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Discipline: "The English language"

"The basic features of translation informal lexicon"

Kyiv – 2009

The plan


1. Translation, as a specific kind of human activity

2. Methods, approaches and receptions which can be applied while translating informal lexicon

2.1 Methods, receptions and approaches of translation

2.2 Translational transformation and types of lexical transformations

2.3 Use euphemism while translating informal lexicon


The list of the used literature


During last decades especially intensive development in area translation is observed. Principal causes of this phenomenon are the certain gravitation of the world community to integration. Constantly there is an exchange of the got information (not at all levels, it is usual), cultural properties. The international conferences both with scientific, and on social questions are carried out. There is a vigorous exchange in the field of the film-industry. Though, probably, it would be more expedient to tell, that there is an intensive inflow of the western film-industry on our market. All this appreciably predetermines development translation, in fact any area whether sciences, whether cultures, whether a social life the understanding, adequacy demands the certain approach, on the part of speaking another language partners.

Very much frequently while translating the scientific, technical whether economic literature the translator encounters the certain realities which not to clear our reader and at all have no conformity in our language. In such cases of a task of the translator consists in that is whenever possible more exact, понятнее and more shortly to recreate them in our language. Certainly, not always it is possible to reach all at once – sometimes it is necessary to endow conciseness, managing in a descriptive explanation of this or that lexeme; sometimes it is necessary to replace simply their reality on such, that the certain measure перекликается with ours, has the common with ours of an attribute, thus deforming the certain measure the maintenance of the original.

Nevertheless, not beginning from all this the certain sides of translation remain poorly investigated. So, one of such problems is translation so-called «informal (not literary) lexicon» – oral colloquial lexicon which if it is used outside of sphere of informal dialogue of people, creates comic or ironical effect. The colloquial lexicon, as well as book, in informal dialogue can be common, reduced (popular speech) and to exist as social dialects.

Social dialects as L. Stavitska rebukes, it is the version of language used as means of dialogue between people, the connected close social or professional generality, i.e. it is language of the certain social group. Considerable the factor which causes occurrence of social dialects is social heterogeneity of a society which has various professional, and also century groups. The reason of occurrence of social dialects can be and social-class heterogeneity of a society [L. Stavitska, 2005: 20].

The most convenient in opinion Stavitska, there is such terminological – conceptual paradigm «social dialects»: jargon, professional jargon, slang, not normative lexicon [53, With 22]. And authors of the illustrated dictionary American slang M. Moskovtsev and S. Shevchenko in the definition of informal lexicon, except for slang and not normative lexicon, including the most rough and vulgar words and expressions, allocate also euphemisms [34, C.25]. Popular speech, or the reduced (not normative) lexicon, characteristic for informal conversation, includes insulting, humiliating or swear words, and is mainly used in informal dialogue. It be rather relative covers for slang and slangs, and the greater attention concentrates on vulgarisms and depreciate to lexicon.

The use such gives a layer of lexicon speech of ironicalness and expressiveness, and recently starts to penetrate more and more to publicist, though and not to a semi-official organ.

Without knowledge of it to a layer of lexicon, on an idea of Century. Devkin’s, at investigated foreign language to do without very hardly. This lexicon represents powerful enough, absolute integral part of a lexicon [15, With 5]. Acquaintance to it necessary – to understand daily language to seize the important part regional geography to be able to decipher implied sense, witty expressions, the associative plan of statements what the good translator who aspires to pull together the reader to the author maximum cannot do without.

Therefore, very much frequently during translation of any literary work, a film, etc., having faced such foreign analogues, before the translator there is a question: how to transfer this or that word? How to recreate that or other expression? In fact, in most cases, the literal translation does not find exact display in language on which translation is carried out. And usual omission or unjustified mitigation vulgarisms, slangy words, or their replacement euphemisms very much frequently damages translation through discrepancy of transfer of mood, emotions of the hero, to style of the author. Therefore, we adhere to idea which it is possible and sometimes it is necessary to shift the author's uses of such lexemes adequately.

The linguist – translator who deals with language in all its real variety, cannot shut eyes to that objectively exists. Which unadopted this lexicon would not be, it is and demands to itself attention. Any there ten words which cannot be used in the cultural society, known to everyone and their ignorance can lead to to serious funny things.

To receive the answer to the questions, the translator should be guided by the certain positions; there should be the certain scientific works devoted to a theme of translation slangy and informal lexicon (including), the certain parallel between such lexicon in language of the original and in language on which translation is carried out should be abusive. Insufficient amount of the works devoted to this theme, absence of the information in modern bilingual dictionaries about situations of the use of corresponding lexicon which in any measure complicates work of professional translators, and натолкнула us on an idea to investigate this of a layer of lexicon, his{its} adequate reproduction in translation into the Ukrainian language.

If to base on classical literary works, it is possible to tell, that in the Ukrainian language there is no, so to say, «dirty a swear word». To tell the truth, in a program fragment from «Eneida» we read I. Kotljarevskogo: «…but malicious Yunona, the daughter of bitch…» [I. Kotljarevsky, t.1, an item 65]. The designated lexeme fixes «the Dictionary of the Ukrainian language» with a mark «abusive». It gives us the basis to not consider similar words «dirty a swear word» though in such context they have strong emotional painting.

As to the present the slangy and not normative lexicon, even more often appears in literary works of young Ukrainian writers, such as Oksana Zabuzhko, Jury Andruhovich, Irena Karpa where we can find rather realistic reproduction of an alive spoken language. Probably, in them there are those words and expressions which are perceived as «dirty a swear word», but there is no yet a unequivocal estimation of critics and public idea in this occasion.

The given lexicon can serve for emotional discharge. Expansion of sphere of action of a slang, a slang and not normative lexicon, their aggressive universal distribution should not only cause anxiety apologist morals but also as the phenomenon mass, it should predispose to itself attention of linguists, culturologists, sociologists. That is in language, should be collected and described. It is impossible to object objectively available! The task – to explain it.

In English there are linguistic works which shine this theme in different aspects. So, known works of such leading linguists, as Richard A. Spiers «The Dictionary American slang», Stirling Johnson «English as a Second F*cking Language», Stefan Marder «Additional Russian-English the Dictionary», Harold Uentuort and Stuard Fleksner «Dictionary of American Slang», etc.

On a material of the Ukrainian language linguists of Institute of the Ukrainian language were engaged in it this theme. O. Potebni. This lexicon on lexicographic a level G. Sagach in work «investigated Emotional suffixes of nouns in modern Ukrainian language». Lesya Stavitska in the monography of changes the Ukrainian language «the Slang, a slang. «Social differentiation the Ukrainian language» treats the basic jargon (criminal, youth, professional slangs) as phenomena, which structure language pictures of the world. In work is showen functioning of the Ukrainian colloquial lexicon and national – language aspects modern using of slang, and also a role of slang in a language life of the Ukrainian city.

Thus, the theme of slang lexicon, and especially not normative, abusive lexicon and type, in English and the more so in the Ukrainian language at present poorly investigated, and in translational aspect also was not analyzed at all.

In the given work as us research of expressively-emotional lexicon of oral informal conversation – informal lexicon which presently is one of the most interesting for research of language systems of modern linguistics is offered: argo, jargon, professional jargonand slang.

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