Pipeline transport of Russia. Transneft (42952)

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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

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НОВГОРОДСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

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ИНСТИТУТ ЭКОНОМИКИ И УПРАВЛЕНИЯ

КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ




Реферат по дисциплине «Английский язык»


Pipeline transport of Russia. Transneft.Трубопроводный транспорт России. Транснефть.




Проверила:

Преподаватель

Лебедева Е.А.

Выполнил:
Студент гр.2233
Новиков О.М.





  • Великий Новгород

  • 2007 г.


Содержание


1. Введение.…………………………………………………………………….…2

2. Pipeline transport of Russia. Transneft…………………………………….……3

2.1 History of pipeline transport of Russia…………………………………….…..3

2.2 Provision of environmental safety of the Baltic Pipeline System……………..8

3. Трубопроводный транспорт России. Транснефть………………………….11

3.1 История трубопроводного транспорта России……………………………11

3.2 Обеспечение экологической безопасности Балтийской трубопроводной системы…………………………………………………………………………..17

4. Заключение……………………………………………………………………22

5. Glossary………………………………………………………………………..23

6. Библиографический список……………………………………………….…24


Введение


Магистральный трубопроводный транспорт – важнейшая и неотъемлемая составляющая топливно-энергетического комплекса России. В стране создана разветвленная сеть магистральных газо-, нефте- и продуктопроводов, которые проходят по территории практически всех субъектов Федерации.

Системы трубопроводного транспорта – это тот рычаг, который позволяет государству регулировать поставки нефтепродуктов на внутренний и внешний рынки. Экспорт газа, нефти и нефтепродуктов в основном осуществляется трубопроводным транспортом, в том числе через морские терминалы. Морские терминалы в Новороссийске и Туапсе могут обеспечить вывоз сырой нефти в объеме 45 млн тонн в год. Степенью надежности трубопроводов во многом определяется стабильность обеспечения регионов России важнейшими топливно-энергетическими ресурсами. Российские трубопроводные системы наиболее активно развивались в 60-80-е годы. В настоящее время 35 % трубопроводов эксплуатируется более 20 лет, что требует повышенного внимания к их эксплуатационной надежности и технической безопасности

.

History of pipeline transport of Russia


After the war, the intensive growth of oil production in the Volga and Urals region and in the new regions demanded the soonest development of transport communications. Already in the fourth five-year-plan period, new oil pipelines were built. One of them became the Tujmazy – Ufa (Naryshevo) – Ufa cracking plant. The decision on the start of construction was adopted by the former USSR Council of People’s Commissars on January 7, 1946. The Tsentr-Spetsprojekt Institute designed in 1946 a 350 mm in diameter and 182.8 km long pipeline with a throughput capacity 2 million tons a year and a growth option of up to 3 million tons. The construction was entrusted to the Central Department of the USSR People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs, which was later reorganized into Glavneftegazstroj (Central Committee for Oil and Gas Construction) of the USSR Council of Ministers.

Preparation of the pipeline route was started on April 10, 1946 near the Subkhankulovo village. Construction works were implemented by the Vostoknefteprovodstroj Trust, assemblage works – by the Construction-Assemblage Department No. 74 of the Glavneftegazstroj Trust No. 7, in-water crossings – by the Wet Excavations Department (EPRON).

This construction was vitally important at that period and employed over 20 thousand people. In two summer months of 1946 they succeeded in digging a 137 km long trench, which was ¾ of the route total length. Nearly all linear parts of the pipeline were built by hand: ground works, welding of pipes, laying of the anticorrosive bitumen-based coating. The pipes were laid down by cranes and tripods, but more often were slid down to the trench bottom by means of wooden heavers (levers). Simultaneously with that, the oil pump stations and houses were built in the Naryshevo and Subkhankulovo villages. The first foundation pit was dug on July 6, 1946, near the Subkhankulovo village and on August 23, 1946, the foundations of the diesel pump station and a housing block were laid down.

Some of the areas began to be filled with water and compacted in May 1947, and the pipeline molding was completed in August with the start of operations of the Naryshevo station equipped with NG-30/320 piston pumps and with 260 kW motor drives. In the molding process, 44 pipeline breakings were discovered, which was explained by low-quality pipes supplied by the Chelyabinsk pipe-rolling plant. By pumping oil into the pipeline, they gradually forced out the water pressure. The first batch of the Tujmazy Devonian oil arrived at the Ufa cracking plant on September 3, 1947, which marked the start date of its regular supplies. This day is considered a birthday of the system of the Ural-Siberian oil and oil products trunk pipelines. In 1949, the 300 mm diameter and 133 km long Tujmazy-Buguruslan pipeline was laid down. Other shorter pipelines were also built: Assake-Vakovsky, Majli-Assake, Kumdag-Vyshka in Middle Asia; Vojvozh-Ukhta in the North and in the Saratov and Kujbyshev regions. The Turmen oil outputs were steadily rising, and the railroad could not cope with them. It was needed to prolong the Kumdag-Vyshka oil pipeline to Krasnovodsk, and in 1947-1949 a nearly 180 km long Vyshka-Krasnovodsk pipeline was built.

In early ’50s, oil production in the Romashkinsky field surpassed expectations of the prospectors. The oil-field workers hardly had any time to construct field facilities, stock oil tanks and oil-gathering stations, and to lay down field pipeline communications. The oil flow literally overfilled the area between the Sheshma and Stepnoj Zaj rivers. The available pipelines could hardly pump oil, which had put to the surface the question of construction of branches of the Almetjevsk-Karabash, Karabash-Romashkino, Karabash-Bavly and Romashkino-Shugury- Klyavlino pipelines. Besides, it was decided to lay down and additional Almetjevsk-Minnibajevo-Romashkino pipeline with an intermediary oil-pumping station in Minnibajevo. However, the temporary oil transfer scheme “field - pipeline - railroad (or river) – consumer” already could not solve all the problems. The burgeoning oil volumes could not be transferred by the railroad or river transport.

The very principle of oil transfer required radical changes: to start construction of trunk pipelines which were capable of linking the fields with the oil consumers – refineries or petrochemical combines. By the order of the USSR Oil Minister, the Directorate of Trunk Pipelines to be built in Tataria territory was launched in March 1953 in Bugulma. It was supervised by the Central Commodity-Transport Department of the Oil Ministry, which allowed to drastically accelerate the construction tempos of the new subsoil pipelines.

In 1946-50, the foundation was laid for launching of the USSR pipeline system, which was capable of connecting the basic oil production and refine stations with the basic consumption areas. By 1950, the total length of the oil pipelines was around 5,400 km, and by late 1955, it nearly doubled and was over 10,000 km. In five years, the number of commissioned pipelines became equal with the number of pipelines built in the 1878-1950 period. In the fifth five-year-plan period, the largest Tujmazy – Omsk, 530 mm, 1,332 km long pipeline (this diameter pipes were used for the first time) and the Ufa-Omsk oil products pipeline, 350 mm, 1,180 km long, were built.

In accordance with the USSR Council of Ministers Resolution of May 25, 1949, and the Order of the Oil Minister of May 31, 1949, the All-Union Tsentrspetsstrojprojekt Trust had developed a project for construction of the second Tujmazy-Ufa oil pipeline. Construction of the oil pipeline was implemented in several phases. It was planned to prolong the 350 mm pipeline and to raise the two pipelines throughput capacity up to 4 million tons, then to build an intermediary oil pumping station in Yazykovo, and having boosted the pipeline throughput capacity up to 5 million tons and used the intermediary station for the two pipelines, to reach a throughput capacity of 6 million tons a year.
The General Contractor for construction of the second Tujmazy-Ufa oil pipeline was the Vostoknefteprovodstroj Trust. Construction and assemblage works were mechanized: ground works were made by excavators and bulldozers, welding – by pressure-gas machines; the pipes were mechanically cleaned from rust and dirt, the anticorrosive insulation was applied by the insulation machines. The second pipeline was laid down in the trench of the first, which allowed to commission the pipeline by separate segments which played the roles of the first pipeline loopings.

The Tujmazy - Ufa-2 pipeline was commissioned in late September 1950.

In the first phase, pumping along the Tujmazy – Ufa pipeline was made by the Subkhankulovo diesel pump station. In 1951, the electric pump station equipped with three AYAP-150 pumps were commissioned. A full throughput capacity was reached after the commissioning in 1954 of the pump station in the Yazykovo intermediary station equipped with four NT-45 pistol pumps powered by the Scoda 6S-350 diesel motor drives.

The Resolutions of the USSR Council of Ministers of June 30, 1947 and February 25, 1948 allowed the construction of the Ufa-Omsk 350 mm oil products trunk pipeline.

In 1949, a Department for construction of a gasoline line was launched at the Central Department for Oil Marketing of the USSR Oil Ministry. Construction of the products pipeline was implemented by Vostoknefteprovodstroj, Nefteprovodmontazh (Ufa) and Benzinoprovodstroj (Chelyabinsk). The Ufa – Chelyabinsk segment was constructed basically by hand, as that period construction equipment was not adapted for mining works.


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