Guevara and Cuba (42871)


Guvr nd cub

(SSY)


Cub s fcng tdy ts wrst cnmc nd pltcl crss snc th 1959 rvlutn ld by Fdl Cstr nd rnst Ch Guvr. ftr th cllps f th ntr Svt blc, Cub hs bn lft wthut th fnncl, cmmrcl, pltcl nd mltry supprt tht t hs dpndd n fr th lst 30 yrs. Th rsults n Cubn scty hv bn dvsttng. Th cnmy grw nly 1.1% n 1989, whl t shrnk 3.6% n 1990 nd whppng 24.1% n 1991. 1 Mny fctrs ly dl bcus f lck f spr prts r rw mtrls prvusly prvdd by Svt blc cuntrs whch nw r thr unbl t prvd thm du t thr wn cnmc crss r t thr unwllngnss t sll nythng t Cub unlss Cub pys n hrd currncy. Furthrmr, th fnncl d tht th frmr Svt Unn usd t snd Cub, mr thn $3 blln pr yr, nw s thng f th pst.

Th Svt cllps hs lft Cub pltclly rphn, dfntly clmng t b th lst bstn f sclsm n th wrld. Th thr cuntrs whch prfssd t rprsnt n ltrntv t Russn-styl Stlnsm, nmly Chn nd Vtnm, hv mplmntd r r n th prcss f mplmntng xtnsv mrkt rfrms nd hv lng csd t b th surc f nsprtn fr ths wh wnt t fght gnst th njustcs f cptlsm. Th dspprnc f Svt pltcl ptrng hs cnsquntly mnt tht Russn mltry ssstnc hs bn rducd t trckl. Ths cmbntn f pltcl, cnmc, nd mltry vulnrblty hs th pck f wlvs t th nrth drlng. Mny mtngs hv tkn plc mng lng-tm Cubn xls nd mrcn ntrprnurs" n cts lk Mm, Flrd nd Sn Jun, Purt Rc n whch th tpc f dscussn hs bn hw t splt th Cubn p nc Cstr dspprs frm th scn. Bth frmr prsdnt Bush nd th nw prsdnt Bll Clntn drctd thr rhtrc durng thr lctrl cmpgns gnst Cstrs rgm. Bth ndrsd th rcntly pprvd Trrcll bll whch mpss tughr snctns gnst mrcn cmpns nggd n trd wth Cub. Whl Bush, Clntn nd thr dvsrs knw tht nw t wuld b uttrly stupd t ttmpt mltry cnfrnttn wth Cub-whch wuld rlly th mjrty f Cubs ppultn rund Cstr n dfnc f Cubs slf-dtrmntn-thy hv bn tryng t tghtn th ns n Cubs cnmy. Th d s t lt Cub, sltd s t s, suffct undr th wght f ts cnmc crss, r t lst t frctur ts pltcl nfrstructur nugh t llw fr n ttmpt t rtk t thrugh th bck-dr. Thus ny hnst nlyss f th Cubn Rvlutn hs t tk s strtng pnt th fct tht th burdn f th blm fr th dffcults tht th Cubn ppl hv ndurd ths cntury flls n U. S. mprlsm, nd n prtculr n th cnmc blckd mpsd by th U. S.rulng clss vr th lst 31 yrs.

t s wthn ths cntxt tht th lgcy nd symblsm f Guvr hs rgnd nw lf. vr th yrs, rnst Ch Guvr hs nsprd mllns f ppl wrldwd wh hv bn strugglng nd rsstng bus, pvrty nd xplttn. Ths ws prtculrly tru durng th lt 1960s nd rly 1970s, whn rdcl mvmnts sprung up n Ltn mrc, th U. S., urp, th Mddl st, nd frc. vry yung mn nd wmn fghtng s prt f gurrll unt r ppulr urbn rgnztn n Ltn mrc dspsd th rlty f mprlst cptlsm, nd frvntly thught tht thy culd succd n dftng t nd buldng just scty, sclst scty. Fr mst f thm, Guvr symblzd ths struggl, spclly n hs wllngnss t ngg th mprlst bst nd t xps ts mrl bnkruptcy. Fr mny, th Ltn mrcn Cmmunst Prts wr ssctd wth th stff burucrcs f Russ nd strn urp tht snt tnks t crush th Czch wrkrs uprsng n 1968. 2 Mst mprtntly, ths Cmmunst Prts, fllwng Mscws plcy f pcfc cxstnc, wr nt nggd n ny knd f struggl nd hd rmrkbly csy rltnshp wth thr rspctv gvrnmnts. Thrfr, th brdd Guvr, wth gun n hnd prsntd rd t chng bsd n ctn. f yu r rvlutnry, mk th rvlutn ws th slgn, Mk tw, thr, fur Vtnms th pltcl mssg.3

n mny Ltn mrcn cuntrs nd thr prts f th wrld thr stll r ppl wh prudly dscrb thmslvs s rvlutnrs, s fghtrs gnst pprssn nd xplttn-gnst th mls f ths nw wrld rdr" w hv nhrtd frm Grg Bush nd cmpny-wh r lkng bck t Guvrs thughts, mthds nd xmpl n n ttmpt t st nw pltcl curs fr th struggl.

Th cnmc crss hs ls gnrtd dbt n Cub nd rsurgnc f Guvrs ds, lthugh fr dffrnt rsns. Th dbt nsd th Cubn Cmmunst prty (PCC) rgrdng th futur curs f th rgm hs shrpnd vr th lst tw yrs. n sctn f th prty, ld by lng-stndng burucrt Crls Rfl Rdrguz4 hs trdtnlly rgud-vn gnst Guvr-fr llwng ch ndvdul ntrprs t prt n th bss f ts ffcncy nd prftblty (fnncl slf-mngmnt), cncpt thrws knwn s th cnmc ccuntng systm. Th thr sctn f th prty, dlgclly ld by cnmst Crls Tbld, wnts th mpstn n th vrll cnmy f wht Guvr trmd th budgtry fnnc systm. Ths systm ws n ffct vr prtn f Cubn ndustry undr th drctn f Guvr (th s clld Mnstry f ndustrs) nd functnd n th bss f hghly cntrlzd fnncng, ccuntng nd dcsn mkng. n ths systm, ch ndvdul ntrprs dd nt hv ccss t th prcds gnrtd by ts prducts, nd ws suppsd t rcv nly th cptl nd rw mtrls llctd t t by th pln" gnrtd by th Mnstry f ndustrs.

Dfndrs f bth sds f th rgumnt hv ttmptd t clm th mntl f Guvr t supprt thr rspctv pstns. t s n surprs thn tht vr th lst thr yrs mny bks nd rtcls hv bn publshd but Guvr nd hs ds, tgthr wth mny rprnts f hs spchs nd rtcls. t th cr f th dscussn s, f curs, th rgumnt f mrl vrsus mtrl ncntvs. n fct, th gvrnmnt s currntly nvlvd n cmpgn strssng th mprtnc f mrl rwrds whn such thngs s th buldng f huss, clncs, nd dy cr cntrs r ccmplshd wth vluntry lbur. t shuld nt cm s surprs thr tht prcsly t ths mmnt whn th cpcty f th gvrnmnt t dlvr gds nd srvcs t th ppultn s curtld whl mpsng hrsh ustrty msurs, t thn dcds tht t s gng t py ts wrkrs wth mrl stsfctn. t ws prcsly durng smlr prd btwn 1965 nd 1970, n whch th cnmc cpcty f th slnd stgntd nd thn shrnk, tht hvy mphss ws ld n th vrtus f mrl ncntvs cupld wth th mpstn f tghtr lbur dscpln. 5 nd frm 1970 t 1986, Cubs cnmc systm ws mdlld n Russs systm. 6

vryn tht s gnunly ntrstd n fghtng U. S. mprlsm shuld uncndtnlly supprt th struggl f th Cubn ppl-rgrdlss f th prtculr pstn n mght hv wth rspct t ts gvrnmnt vctry f U. S. mprlsm n Cub, s dft fr ll f us ntrstd n fghtng pprssn nd xplttn, fr t wll bst th slf-cnfdnc f th mrcn rulng clss nd mk t sr fr t t ttck n thr frnts. qully s mprtnt s th ssu f uncndtnl supprt s tht f crtcl supprt bcus w hv t prvd nswrs t crtcl qustns rgrdng Cubn scty. W cn nt hp t cnvnc th Purt Rcn wrkng clss f th nd t fght fr sclst scty f w d nt ddrss ssus such s th lck f ccuntblty t th Cubn wrkrs by th Cmmunst prty, th xtrm prscutn f gys nd lsbns, th lck f ndpndnc f th unns, tc.

Th currnt dffcults f th Cubn gvrnmnt nd th cllps f th Svt blc gnrt mny mprtnt qustns. Wuld Cub hv vdd th currnt cnmc trubls f t hd cntnud n th pth st by Guvr? Hw dffrnt wr Guvrs schms frm ths f th Russns? s Guvrs rd t sclsm cnsstnt wth tht f Mrx nd Lnn? Ws t nw dvlpmnt dsgnd t tk nt ccunt th rlts f th Thrd Wrld? r ws t smply ntnl lbrtn strtgy tht ws ncrsngly frcd t cm t grps wth th ncssty f n ntrntnl slutn? Ths qustns r mr fr rchng thn th cntxt f Cub, fr thr nswrs cntn th strtgy tht w wll hv t pursu n th struggl gnst cptlst pprssn n wrld-wd scl. Thrfr, th dbt but Guvrs pth t sclsm s wlcm n. n rdr t nswr ths qustns, n frst hs t g bck t th fundrs f rvlutnry sclsm, Mrx nd ngls, nd t ths tht crrd frwrd thr ds, Lnn, Rs Luxmburg, Trtsky.


Th Sclst Trdtn f Mrx, ngls, Lnn, Luxmburg nd Trtsky


t th cr f Mrxs thry f rvlutn nd sclsm s th cncpt f sclsm frm blw. Bsd n hs nlyss f th hstry f humnknd, h clmd tht th hstry f ll hthrt xstng scty s th hstry f clss struggl.7 Thrfr, Mrx ssrtd, nd lng wth hm bth Lnn nd Trtsky, tht sclsm wuld b nly th prduct f th slf-mncptn f th wrkng clss. s ppsd t thr rvlutns, th sclst rvlutn s th cnscus ct f n pprssd clss, th wrkng clss, wh nds t smsh th cptlst stt, buld wrkrs stt t dfnd thr pwr nd bgn grdul prcss f dvlpmnt f clsslss scty n n ntrntnl scl. Ths cncptulstn f wrkng clss rvlutn hs thr mn lmnts. Frst s th wrkng clss s th gnt fr rvlutnry chng. Th wrkng clss s th prducr f mst f th wlth n cptlst scty, nd yt t s strppd f th fruts f ts lbur. By usng ts frc t th pnt whr t s th strngst, t th pnt f prductn - fctrs, ffcs, tc. - t cn brng t hlt th cptlst systm. nd t s th nly clss tht hs n bjctv ntrst n cllctv slutn-t wuld nt mk sns fr wrkrs t bgn splttng th fctrs mng thmslvs: sm scrws fr sm wrkrs, trnsmssn blts fr thrs, sprckts nd grs fr sm thrs nd s n.

ftr wtnssng th vnts f th Prs Cmmun, Mrx rlzd tht wrkrs culd nt smply tk hld f th xstng stt. Thy hd t dstry th cptlst stt pprtus nd buld nw stt wth nw rgns f wrkrs dmcrcy. Thrfr, th scnd lmnt n Mrxs cncpt f sclsm ws dtld by hm n Th Cvl Wr n Frnc whr h dscrbs th wrkrs cuncls s th bsc rgns f prltrn dmcrcy. f th Prs Cmmun ws crushd ftr fw wks nd dd nt ncmpss th whl f Frnc, frty-sx yrs ltr, Lnn, Trtsky nd th Blshvks wr bl t ld th Russn wrkng clss t frm th frst wrkrs stt n whch th wrkrs cuncls wr nmd svts.

Th thrd lmnt n th Mrxst cncpt f sclsm s ntrntnlsm. Mrx undrstd tht cptlsm ws wrld systm nd tht t culd nly b rplcd by sclsm n wrld scl. Ths ws n lmnt tht ws vtl n th Blshvk strtgy fr sclst rvlutn. Thy wr prmpt n frmng th Cmmunst ntrntnl (Cmntrn) 8, th grupng f Cmmunst Prts frm rund th wrld, bcus thy undrstd tht unlss th rvlutn sprd t th rst f urp, wrkrs pwr n Russ culd nt b sustnd fr t lng. Rvlutn n Grmny ws crucl f th Svt stt ws survv. Unfrtuntly, th Grmn rvlutn fld, lrgly bcus thr ws n mtur mss rvlutnry prty t ld th wy. Trgclly, Rs Luxmburg ws murdrd n 1919 whn sh st ut t buld ths prty. 9

Th flur f th rvlutn t sprd prvd t b ctstrphc fr th Russn rvlutn, fr vn f t survvd th ssult f th wht rmy, 14 thr mprlst rms, nd th cnsquncs f th cvl wr, t dd t t hgh cst. Much f ndustry ws dstryd (cnmc utput ws rducd t 13% f th 1913 pr-Wrld Wr fgurs), hungr nd dss wr wdsprd, thusnds fld th cts fr th cuntrysd, nd th wrkng clss ws dcmtd (St. Ptrsburg sw ts wrkng clss dcrs by mr thn 50% f ts pr-cvl wr lvls). Wht rmnd f th wrkrs stt ws nly shll: th Russn Cmmunst Prty (RCP) hldng n t pwr hpng fr th rvlutn t sprd t th wst. Durng th curs f th cvl wr th RCP nd th stt grdully swlld wth burucrts nd frmr Tsrst functnrs wh hd t b usd t run th stt bcus thr wr n qulfd wrkrs r n wrkrs t ll-mst f th clss cnscus wrkrs thr dd r wr t th frnt dfndng th rvlutn. Thus th lck f ntrntnl rvlutn nd th burucrtstn prprd th grund fr Jsf Stln, n th lt 1920s, t tk hld f th dmnstrtv pprtus nd st bck ll th gns f th rvlutn. Frm ths pnt nwrds, Stln, rprsntng nw burgnng rulng clss (th burucrcy), turnd upsd dwn th trdtn f struggl f th Blshvks, nd whl prsrvng lft-wng rhtrc st ut t lmnt lmst vry Blshvk wh ws nvlvd n th 1917 rvlutn. 10 gnst Mrxsms cntrl rgumnt f ntrntnl rvlutn, Stln put frwrd th slgn f Sclsm n n Cuntry" s cvr fr th burucrcys m f tchnlgcl nd ndustrl dvlpmnt f th Svt Unn n rdr t ctch up wth th wst. Th m ws t ccumult (cptl s mchnry) n rdr t cmpt mltrly. Th wrkrs lst ll cntrl vr thr prty, thr stt nd thr unns. Th cncpt f th fthrlnd ws rntrducd t justfy th pprssn f th dffrnt ntnlts tht cmprsd th Svt Unn-s ppsd t Lnns dfnc f th rght t slf-dtrmntn f pprssd ntns. Wmn, gys, thnc mnrts lst thr rghts, psnt lnd ws frcfully cllctvsd, nd frcd lbur ws ntrducd. Suppsdly, ll n th nm f sclsm, but wth th xplct purps f cmptng wth th wst. Stlns nw Russ, n spt f ts rhtrc f sclsm, functnd s cptlst scty, tht s, stt cptlst scty. Th nw rulng clss ws th burucrcy, th cmpny Russ nc.

Such s th lgcy f Stlnsm. t dstrtd th tru mnng f Mrxsm fr dcds t cm. t turnd th Cmntrn nt frgn plcy nstrumnt f Mscw. t btryd mny rvlutnry stutns such s th dftd rvlutn n Chn n 1927, nd th Spnsh cvl wr n 1936. 11 Thn, ftr WW th ldrs f gnun nd succssful ntnl lbrtn struggls, such s M n Chn trd t cpy th mthds f Stln, but wth lss succss. 12

f Stlns rvlutnry ppnnts n Russ, nly Ln Trtsky survvd lng nugh t prsnt dtrmnd struggl gnst hs dcttrshp nd t crry n th tru Mrxst trdtn f sclsm frm blw. n f hs mst mprtnt cntrbutns t Mrxsm s th thry f prmnnt rvlutn, whch s bsd n th xprnc f th Russn rvlutn. Trtsky rgud tht vn f cuntry ws undrdvlpd by wrld cptlst stndrds, t ws prcsly th ntrntnl chrctr f cptlsm whch md t pssbl fr tny wrkng clss, cmprd t th psntry, t tk stt pwr, mplmnt th dmcrtc rfrms prpr f burgs rvlutn (such s grrn rfrm), rgnz th cnmy lng sclst lns, wthn th tmprry lmts mpsd by th cuntrys lvl f dvlpmnt, nd hld n t stt pwr n th cndtn tht th rvlutn sprd t thr dvncd cuntrs n prcss f prmnnt rvlutn. 13 Trtsky undrstd tht th nly clss cpbl f ldng th psntry nd thr pprssd clsss n rvltng gnst th stt ws th wrkng clss. Wht h dd nt frs ws th fct tht s rsult f th wrld-wd dmnnc f Stlnsm vr th bulk f th lft, whn th wrkng clss mvmnt ws wk, mddl clss grups nd ndvduls wuld fll ths gp nd ld ntnl lbrtn (nt sclst) rvlutns, tk stt pwr nd us sclst rhtrc nd ntnlztns t ffct thr ntnl dvlpmnt strtgs. 14 Th Chns, frcn, nd Cubn rvlutns r xmpls f ths.

Wth th cllps f Stlnsm n wrld scl, t s nw sr t rdscvr th tru mnng f Mrxsm: tht sclst rvlutn s th cnscus ct f wrkrs thmslvs, tht th bsc rgns f wrkrs pwr r th wrkrs cuncls, nd tht sclsm s nly pssbl thrugh ntrntnl rvlutn.


Guvrs Pth t Sclsm: Grbbng Stt Pwr nd ntrntnlsm


rsrch f Guvrs lf, hs struggls, hs spchs nd wrtngs, hs trvls, nd hs dth, lvs n dubt f th sncrty f hs ntntns, f hs blf tht hs ffrts (nd f ths n th PCC) wr n n wy r nthr, mr r lss ffcntly, ldng n th drctn f th cnstructn f truly humn nd sclst scty. scty tht wuld vntully ncmpss th whl wrld:

wthut frgttng, f curs, tht th humn bng, th rsn fr ur rvlutn nd ur ffrts, cnnt b rducd t mr frmul nd hs ncssts wll bcm mr cmplx, vrflwng th smpl stsfctn f mtrl nds. Th dffrnt brnchs f prductn wll bcm utmtd, mmnsly ncrsng th prductvty f ch wrkr nd th fr tm wll b dvtd t culturl, sprts, nd scntfc tsks n thr hghst lvl nd wrk wll bcm scl ncssty.15

Th rvlutnry, dlgcl ngn f th rvlutn wthn hs prty, s nggd n ths unntrruptd ctvty whch hs n thr nd xcpt dth, unlss th cnstructn [f sclsm] s ttnd t wrld scl. f hs rvlutnry zl bcms dull whn th mst prssng tsks r chvd n lcl scl nd h frgts but prltrn ntrntnlsm, th rvlutn tht h s ldng stps bng prpllng frc nd flls nt cmfrtbl spr, t b tkn dvntg f by ur rrcnclbl nms, mprlsm,whch thn gns grund. Prltrn ntrntnlsm s duty but ls s rvlutnry ncssty. Ths wy w tch ur ppl.16

Whl Cstr nd thr mmbrs f th July 26th Mvmnt dd nt clm t b sclst whn thy frst ttckd th Mncd brrcks n 1953, th sm cnnt b sd f Guvr. Yrs bfr jnng th mvmnt Guvr hd bgun rdng Mrx, ngls nd Lnn. 17 Gvn th rqurmnts f hs mdcn studs nd th fct tht th nly vsbl brrs f Mrxsm" n Ltn mrc wr th dscrdtd Cmmunst Prts, much f wht Guvr lrnd but Mrxsm ws slf-tught nd vrtully dscnnctd frm ny wrkrs slf-ctvty. Whl trvllng thrugh Ltn mrc bcus f hs mdcn studs, h ws bl t s frst hnd th grt pvrty fflctng lrg sctrs f th ppultn. S h cm t dntfy hmslf wth th pr nd th dwntrddn s vctms f U. S. mprlsm, nd dcdd tht smthng hd t b dn but t. Shrtly ftrwrds h jnd Cstr nd fw thrs n thr qust t lbrt Cub frm th bus nd crruptn f th U. S. supprtd Btst rgm. 18

Guvr ccptd Mrxs ssrtn tht t ws cptlsm tht crtd th msry nd suffrng tht h sw n Ltn mrc, whl t th sm tm gnrng Mrxs cntrl rgumnt f sclst rvlutn bng th ct f th wrkng clss tslf. Snc th wrkng clss ws cnsdrd t b cmplcnt nd nn-rvlutnry, t ws thr grups f ppl, lrgly rcrutd frm th urbn mddl clss plus sm psnts, whch cm t frm th gurrll. nd by tslf, dmttd by Cstr hmslf, t ws vry smll grup ndd-sm 800 t th tm f Btsts fll. 19 Bth Mrx nd ngls cnsdrd sclst rvlutn t b th rsult f th prltrt bcmng th subjct nd nt th bjct f hstry: Whn th Frst ntrntnl ws frmd w xprssly frmultd th bttl-cry: Th mncptn f th wrkng clss s cnqurd by th wrkng clsss thmslvs.20 Guvr, hwvr, nsstd tht t ws nly wll-mnt nd substntlly smll grup f gurrlls tht wuld mk th rvlutn fr th pr nd th wrkrs. Ths s n xtrmly mrlstc-nd Mrx wuld dd ptty burgs vw f rvlutn n whch th bulk f th pprssd clsss r sn s vctms nd nt s gnts f chng, nd gs hnd n hnd wth Guvrs mrlst thry f buldng sclsm. Guvr vn wnt t th xtrm f sng n th cts n bstcl n th struggl:

t s mr dffcult t prpr gurrll bnds n ths cuntrs tht hv undrgn cncntrtn f ppultn n grt cntrs nd hv mr dvlpd lght nd mdum ndustry, vn thugh nt nythng lk ffctv ndustrlztn. Th dlgcl nflunc f th cts nhbts th gurrll struggl 21

n rdr t rcncl hs gurrll rvlutn wth th prfssd m f th rvlutn, th buldng f wrkrs stt, Guvr gn rsrts t mrlsm nd turns th prltrnstn" f th rvlutn nt mrl ct. Th gurrlls bcm prltrn by dntfyng thmslvs wth th psnts nd th dsttut durng th curs f th wr, by suffrng thr sm knd f hungr nd msry bcus f thr sltn n th muntns-n ct f purfctn:

Ths vngurd ws th ctlytc gnt, th n tht crtd th cndtns fr vctry. t ws ls n t [th vngurd], wthn th frmwrk f th prcss f prltrnstn f ur thught, f th rvlutn prtng n ur hbts, n ur mnds, tht th ndvdul bcm th fundmntl fctr.22

Ths cntrdctns hv dpr rt thn th tctcl dscrpncs: th rbl rmy s lrdy dlgclly prltrn nd thnks n functn f th dspssssd clss; th plns [rfrrng t th cstl rgns nd th cts] r stll ptty burgs, wth thr futur trtrs n thr drctn nd vry nfluncd by th mdum n whch thy functn.23

Guvr s wll knwn fr hs dfnc f ntrntnlsm. lthugh n th rly 1960s h hd bn mprssd by th ntrntnlst" wllngnss f th Svt gvrnmnt t ngg n trd nd ffr tchncl ssstnc t Cub, grdully h bcm frustrtd wth wht h prcvd s th Svt Unns mtvs. Hs vws n rvlutn nd ntrntnlsm bcm shrpr nd mr prgmtc. n 1965, h md trp t lgr t ttnd th scnd cnmc Smnr f fr-sn Sldrty. H dlvrd spch n whch h rptdly md vdnt th dsstsfctn f th Cubn rgm wth th rltnshp t hd dvlpd wth th Svt blc nd wht t prcvd s unfr nd un-rvlutnry trtmnt:

Hw culd t mn mutul bnft" t sll t wrld mrkt prcs th rw mtrls tht cst bundlss swt nd suffrng t th undrdvlpd cuntrs nd t buy t wrld mrkt prcs th mchns prducd n th grt utmtc fctrs f tdy? f w stblsh ths typ f rltnshp btwn th tw grups f ntns, w hv t gr tht th sclst cuntrs r, n crtn wy, ccmplcs f th mprlst xplttn.24

Th Cubn gvrnmnt hd plcd grt hp n th knd f d tht t culd btn frm th Svt blc n rdr t pull Cub ut f ts undrdvlpmnt. xcpt fr th sugr trts, th lvl f d ws unvn nd t tms unscrupulus. Durng th sm spch n whch Fdl ndrsd th Russn nvsn f Czchslvk, h ls xpsd hw th Czch gvrnmnt hd sld th Cubns Wrld Wr guns cnfsctd frm Nz trps nd fctrs wth utdtd tchnlgs whch h dscrbd s scrp rn.

Thrfr, Guvrs lgrs spch hd s ts cntrl thm th ncssty f th rcntly lbrtd undrdvlpd cuntrs t unt n cmmn curs nt nly n thr bttls gnst mprlsm, but ls s mns t dvlp thr rspctv cnms by cprtn nd by jnt ctn n prssurng th Svt Unn fr mr fnncl nd tchncl d. n fct, tw yrs ltr h dnuncd th pltcl nd mltry unrlblty f bth th Svt Unn nd Chn n trms f drct supprt t cuntrs undr ttck by U. S. mprlsm:

Ths ppl hv t wthstnd th rvgs f Nrth mrcn tchnqu but lwys ln. Th sldrty f th prgrssv wrld wth th ppl f Vtnm rsmbls th sur rny tht th ncurgmnt f th ppulc sgnfd fr th gldtrs f th Rmn Crcus t s nt mttr f wshng succss t cuntry undr ttck, but f runnng ts sm luck; t ccmpny t t dth r t vctry nd thy r gulty, ths wh mntn wr f nsults nd dct bgun whl g by th rprsnttvs f th tw lrgst pwrs f th sclst cmp [USSR nd Chn]... s Vtnm sltd r nt, mkng blncng ct btwn ths tw pwrs n cnflct?25

Snc Guvr dd nt s th ntrntnl wrkng clss s th gnt f rvlutnry chng, h ws cught up n cntrdctn. n n hnd, h undrstd vry clrly tht sm srt f ntrntnl slutn ws ndd t sntch th pr cuntrs wy frm th grp f wstrn mprlsm nd t prssur th sclst blc ut f ts nrt". n th thr hnd, snc h sw th stt s th gnt f cnmc dvlpmnt nd ts ny f functnrs s th cdr f th rvlutn, th ntrntnl chrctr f th rvlutn ws t tk shp, nt s wrld rvlutn f th ntrntnl wrkng clss brkng th ntnl bundrs mpsd by cptlsm, but s srs f ndvdul ntnlst rvlutns whch culd cm tgthr t xrt sm ntrntnl clut. (ll f Cubs ttmpts t buld n ntrntnl grupng f Thrd Wrld rvlutnrs wr shrt-lvd nd pprtunstclly bndnd. Th mst ntrus n, th rgnztn f Ltn mrcn Sldrty CLS) frst mt n L Hbn n 1967. t ws ttndd by rvlutnrs frm ll vr th wrld, nd vn by Russn nd Chns dlgts, wh fr th mst prt wr gnrd. t ws hld s th brth nw ntrntnl". ut f cnmc ncssty, LS ws dscrdd whn Cub strngthnd ts pltcl nd cnmc ts wth th Svt Unn n 1970-dptng t th USSR plcy f pcfc cxstnc) 26 Guvrs mn cncrn ws th fstst pc f cnmc dvlpmnt f ch cuntry s s t vd mprlst dmntn nd Svt blc btryl. Thus fr Guvr, cnmc slf-rlnc mnt th buldng f sclsm n QM cuntry-s ppsd t ntrntnl sclsm-wth th prcss bng rptd vr nd vr n ch undrdvlpd cuntry. t mnt th schzphrnc strtgy f mng t cnmc slf-suffcncy nd utrchy (fllwng th Chns xmpl), but hvng t rly n ntrntnl cmmrc nd th ncrsd xplttn f th Cubn wrkng clss t chv t:

n thr wrds, f thr ws vngurd f th prltrt whch ws cpbl f tkng th fundmntl dmnds f th prltrt, nd f ls hvng clr d f whr t g, nd whch culd ttmpt t tk pwr, t bgn stblshng nw scty, w culd dvnc nd burn stgs, nd, furthrmr, th sclst scty culd b dvlpd n n sltd cuntry [my mphss, HRR), vn undr th wrst cndtns f mprlst sg 27

th cs f tbcc, whch s md n wy whch s bslutly crft-lk, vry wll dn, th bst n th wrld, but, hwvr, thr r mchns whch dsplc tns nd tns f wrkrs, ch n f thm. Lgclly, t cmpt n th wrld mrkts [my mphss, HRR], wth th hgh prc f ur brnch, thr s n thr chc but t mchnz [grcultur].28

t ws durng th prd btwn 1963 nd 1969 tht Cub gnd ts rputtn s th ldr f n-clnl nd clnl ntns fghtng gnst pprssn, s th brr f th flg f lbrtn nd nw rvlutnry sprt- sprt whch Guvr, ftr hs dth, cm t symblz n th mnds f mllns f rvlutnrs wrldwd. Yt, n spt f wht mght hv bn Guvrs ntntns, th rl drvng frcs thrustng Cub nt th scn s th mdl fr prltrn ntrntnlsm hd t d mr wth th rgms m f ntnl dvlpmnt nd th U. S.rulng clss stubbrn wllngnss t prvnt t. Th U. S.rulng clss undrstd vry clrly tht t llw Cub t prt frly n ttmptng t gn sm dgr f cnmc utnmy n tp f th pltcl ndpndnc lrdy chvd wuld st dngrus prcdnt (nd xmpl) tht wuld jprdz th dmntn t hd vr ts bckyrd (whch hppns t run frm l R Grnd dwn t Ptgn). nd unlk thr mprs whch lst thr drct cntrl vr thr frmr clns (s t hs bn th cs btwn Wstrn urp nd frc) nd rchd sm typ f ccmmdtn wth thr frmr subjcts n rdr t cntnu thr cnmc dmntn t dffrnt lvl, th U. S. hs bn nflxbl n ts trtmnt f Cub. Fr Cub ths hs mnt cntnuus xrcs f ttmptng t ssrt ts ndpndnc.


Buldng Sclsm: Th Ftsh f th Stt


Whl Ch Guvr ws prt nd prcl f th Cubn rgm, prvdng t wth much f th dlgy tht ws usd t justfy bth dmstc nd ntrntnl plcs, t s ls tru tht h rprsntd th mst lft-lnng sctn f th burgnng burucrcy nd tht wth sm frquncy h fund hmslf sltd du t hs bjctns t sm f th stt plcs. H dsgrd vr mttrs f ntrntnlsm, Russn cnmc nd pltcl prctcs, burucrtsm, tc.; smthng whch tdy, n th ftrmth f th cllps f th Svt Unn, hs turnd hm nt th cn f sclsm nsd Cub, nd th rprsnttv f th tru pth twrd sclsm fr scttrd grups f rvlutnrs rund th wrld.

Guvrs thry f rvlutn nd sclsm rvlvs rund wht cn b bst dscrbd s sculr rvlutnry mrlsm. Hs cntrl cncrn ws rvlutnzng th mrls f Cubn scty n rdr t crt th nw mn" whl t th sm tm tryng t xtrct s much lbur frm ch wrkr s pssbl. n mny rspcts, hs vws nd hs mphss n wll pwr nd slf-scrfc hv much n cmmn wth th vluntrsm typcl f Msm. Bth th Chns nd Cubn rvlutns hd t tk s strtng pnt cuntrs wth xtrmly undrdvlpd cnms nd thrfr hd t rly n xtrctng frm thr ppultns s much lbur s pssbl. Guvrs cmpgns f sclst multn hv much n cmmn wth Ms mnumntlly unsuccssful Grt Lp Frwrd" by whch h ws hpng t prduc nugh wlth t mv Chn n th drctn f ndustrlztn. 29 Guvr sught t buld th nw mn" f sclsm bsd n mrl xhrttns, cmpltly gnrng tht ny mrls hv t b grundd n pltcs. Th mrls f th wrkng clss dpnd n thr pltcl ntrsts nd slf-rgnztn nd r ndd ppst f th mrls f th rulng nd mddl clsss. Fr wrkng clss tht hd n rl pwr, Guvrs clls fr scrfc nd slflssnss muntd t srmnzng nd gult trppng.

Fr Guvr, th mkr f th rvlutn ws nt th wrkng clss, but th gurrlls, nd crrspndngly, th buldr f sclsm ws nt th wrkng clss thr but th stt. Ths stt tht ws th gnt f sclsm ws stffd by n rmy f dmnstrtrs mny f wh blngd t th Cmmunst Prty nd wh wr suppsd t ncrnt th rvlutnry nd pur sprt f th rvlutn. Ths dmnstrtrs, whthr cnmsts, mddl lvl mngrs, ccuntnts, r xmplry wrkrs cnnzd nt th prty, wr mnt t pssss suprr mrl qults, bv ll wllngnss fr slf-scrfc nd dsr t mprv thr tchncl sklls. Ths wr th cdrs. t s ls wthn th cntxt f th functnlty nd dntty f purps btwn th cdr nd stt functnrs tht th ln dvdng th prty frm th stt bcms blurrd:

Th prty s vngurd rgnztn. Th bst wrkrs r nmntd by thr wrkmts t jn t Ths [th prty] s mnrty but f grt uthrty bcus f th qulty f ts cdrs. ur m s fr t t b mss prty, but whn th msss hv chvd th lvl f dvlpmnt f th vngurd, n thr wrds, whn thy r lrdy ductd fr cmmunsm. Th prty s th lvng xmpl; ts cdrs must lctur n lbrusnss nd scrfc 30

W must sy tht th cdr s n ndvdul wh hs rchd suffcnt pltcl dvlpmnt s t b bl t ntrprt th grt drctvs mntd frm th cntrl pwr, mk thm hs wn nd trnsmt thm s rnttn t th mss, ls prcvng ny mnfsttns md by t [th mss] cncrnng thr wshs nd thr mst ntmt mtvtns wh knws hw t prctc n th [sphr f] prductn th prncpl f cllctv dscussn nd sngl dcsn nd rspnsblty; whs fdlty s prvn nd whs physcl nd mrl vlur hs dvlpd t th pc f hs dlgcl dvlpmnt, n such wy tht h s rdy t fc ny dbt nd t nswr vn wth hs wn lf fr th gd curs f th rvlutn.31

nc yu dnt nd th wrkrs t mk th rvlutn, nthr thy bcm cntrl n buldng sclsm; thy r tls n th hnds f th stt. nstd f bng th subjct f hstry, th wrkng clss bcms n bjct, r t bst, dpstr f th gdwll f th stt. Tht s why Guvr fls s cmfrtbl wth th ssrtn tht n dy, tw yrs ftr th rvlutn tht tppld Btst, Fdl culd just dclr th rvlutn t b sclst (prl, 1961):

Wth crrct ldrshp frm thr vngurd, Cubs rvlutnry frcs tk dvntg f spcl hstrcl crcumstncs nd cnqurd pwr. Snc suffcnt bjctv cndtns lrdy xstd n Cub n trms f th sclztn f lbur, thy skppd stgs, dclrd th sclst chrctr f th rvlutn, nd bgn t buld sclsm.32

n tun wth Guvrs mrlst pprch t pltcs, hs whl xplntn f th sclst rdclstn f th rvlutnry ldrshp nd ts subsqunt dcsn t ntnlz mst f ndustry ( rsult f th prcss f cnfrnttn wth U. S. mprlsm) dpnds n th cncptn f Cstr nd thr ldrs s bcmng llumntd wth th d f th ncssty f buldng sclsm nd dcdng t us th stt t d s. vry msur f ntmdtn by th U. S. frcd cuntrmsur by th Cubn gvrnmnt whch n turn lctd nthr rspns by th U. S., gnrtng n ths wy chn f vnts ldng t th ntnlztn f th mjr ntrprss n Cub by ctbr f 1960. vn bfr ths vnts, bth Cstr nd Guvr undrstd tht n rdr t dvlp th ntnl cnmy thy ndd t mk xtnsv us th pwrs f th stt. Thus ftr th whlsl ntnlztns f th nd f 1960, th gurrlls fund thmslvs n cntrl f stt whch wnd lmst ll ndustry nd mst f cmmrc.

Hr s whr th USSR bcms mprtnt. By th 1960s vry rvlutnry ntnlst (nd mny nn-rvlutnry t) ws wr f hw Jsph Stln hd usd th pwrs f th stt frm th lt 1920s t th 1950s t pull th Svt Unn ut f ts undrdvlpmnt nd t cnvrt t nt mjr ndustrl pwr. Th mystqu f Russn sclsm wnt bynd ts mprssv chvmnts nd ws supprtd by th Svt wllngnss t us ny cnfrnttn btwn th wstrn mprl pwrs nd thr clns s mns f dvncng ts gpltcl ntrsts by prvdng (vrbl munts f) d nd trd t ny cuntry whch hd scpd th wstrn rbt. Unlk prsnt tms, durng th 1960s, th rthdxy ws t ccpt th usfulnss f th stt n drctng th cnmy n hlthy drctn ( fct vn ccptd by th wstrn cnms n th frm f Kynsnsm), nd th Svt cnmy rprsntd prtculrly mprssv mdl. t ws tm n whch n burucrt wuld vn drm f dcryng th vrtus f th cmmnd cnmy n xchng fr th ncts f th fr mrkt, s rnfrcd by th USSRs rts f grwth durng th ffts whch vrgd vr 9% pr yr. 33

Thus ftr bng pushd t ntnlz ndustry, sltd frm wstrn mrkts by th blckd, mltrly thrtnd, nd wth th cnvctn f th ncssty f yldng th pwrs f th stt t ndustrlz th cnmy, th nxt lgcl stp fr th gurrlls n pwr ws t dclr th rvlutn sclst n th hp f btnng much ndd cnmc nd tchnlgcl d, trd nd mltry supprt frm th Svt cmp. Th gl wuld b t mult smdy th succss f th Svts. lthugh ftr whl, Guvr bcm crtcl f svrl spcts f th Svt systm whch h clmd mrrrd th cptlst systm, nnthlss, h nvr qustnd th sclst chrctr f th systm nd tk t fr grntd:

Myb t s n th Svt Unn whr n cn fl t th mst. Frty thr yrs f rvlutn hv lpsd, vryn hs th hghst dgr f pltcl cultur, nd t s rlly xctng sng hw strngrs wuld rcgnz m 34

Thr r dffrncs btwn th cnmc ccuntng systm [th Svt dmnstrtv systm] nd th budgtry fnnc systm [Guvrs systm] t vrus dgrs t s cnvnnt t clrfy nw tht wht w r lkng fr s mr ffcnt frm t rch cmmunsm; thr s n dscrpncy n prncpl.35

vntully, Guvr bcm dsnchntd wth sm f th spcts f th Russn systm. n fct, t ws nt Guvr ln wh flt ths wy. ftr th fld 1961-63 ffrts t dvrsfy th cnmy-whch cm t th xpns f sugr prductn th gvrnmnt trd t r-mphss th usfulnss f sugr s mns f gnrtng ncm. Frm 1963 t 1965, sugr prductn ncrsd, but much f t ws dstnd fr th USSR. nd s w hv sn, th Cubn ldrshp bcm dsppntd wth th xtnt f th d thy wr rcvng frm th Svt Unn. Ths s prcsly th prd ftr whch th Cubns dcdd t ttmpt n ndpndnt curs whch dd nt lst t lng. Hwvr, Cubs cnmc nfrstructur ws t wk t sustn tslf ndpndntly n th ntrntnl mrkt. t ndd n ndustrl pwr s spnsr n rdr t survv, nd snc Chn ws nt wllng nd ws nt bl t d t, th Cubn gvrnmnt hd n chc but t pprch th Svt Unn. lrdy by 1968 Cstr bgn mkng vrturs t th USSR-th bst knwn f whch s th cncltry spch n whch Cstr ndrsd th brutl clmp dwn by Svt trps f th wrkrs uprsng n Czchslvk. 36


cnmc Plcy


Sympthzrs f th Cubn systm rgu tht n Cub mrkt mchnsms d nt prt bcus th stt wns th mns f prductn, cntrls th dstrbutn f mst gds (lthugh gd prtn f grcultur s stll prvt) nd hs mnply vr ntrntnl cmmrc. vr snc th rvlutn ws cnsldtd n th rly 1960s, thr hv nt bn prvt wnrs f cptl n Cub-th nly llwbl wnr f cptl hs bn th stt. Th ppl n cntrl f th stt nd cptl hv bn burucrts whs prprtn nd dlgy hd chngd snc th 1959 rvlutn. n th frst fw yrs f th rvlutn, mny f th burucrts tht stffd th stt pprtus wr prduct f th Btst rgm. Mny wr thr hstl t th rvlutn r plnly crrupt. n th thr hnd, th gurrlls tht culd nd dd rplc thm dd nt hv th sklls ncssry t dmnstr th stt. Ths s why Guvr plcd s much mphss n th dvlpmnt f th cdrs tht wr bth dlgclly nd tchnclly ft. 37 Thrfr cuntry n whch th mns f prductn r ntnlzd, n whch cntrl vr ths mns f prductn nd ll thr frms f cptl s nt n th hnds f th wrkng clss but n ths f n unccuntbl mnrty prsnfd by th burucrcy rsmbls mr hug prvt crprtn thn wrkrs stt.

ntrnlly, nd pprntly, th mrkt hs n brngs vr th cnmc trnsctns n Cub. Prcs culd b st rtfclly nd cmmdty trnsctns-s Guvr nvsnd fr th whl f th Cubn cnmy-btwn ntrprss culd b blshd. Hwvr, hr ls th bg cntrdctn btwn Guvrs ms nd hs strtgy. n pursung th gl f th quckst ntnl dvlpmnt f th cnmy n rdr t cmpt fvurbly n th ntrntnl mrkt, th Cubn ldrshp ws subjctng th whl f th cnmy t th frcs f such mrkt. Guvr ws t lst prtlly wr f ths cnsqunc:

n th prc t wuld b rflctd, n ths cs, th utmtc nlyss f th prftblty n rltn t wrld prcs... t s ncssry t lbrt whl systm f cst nlyss whch wrds systmtclly nd punshs wth qul prsvrnc th trumphs nd dfts n th struggl t lwr thm [th csts].38

Thus, vn f ndrctly, th full wght f th mrkt nd ntrntnl cmpttn flls hvly n th undrdvlpd Cubn cnmy-n ts dcsns vr nvstmnt (ccumultn) nd cnsumptn whch shp hw fvurbly t cn cmpt n th wrld mrkt. ll f ths fctrs ncssrly dfn Cub nc. s cptlst cnmy. cptlst cnmy whch s dmntd by smll burucrcy thrugh th stt, . ., burucrtc stt cptlsm.

vn thugh Guvr ws fllwng stt cptlst pth, h ws bl t s nd crtczd mny f th fturs f cptlsm n th Russn vrsn f stt cptlsm (vn f h nvr qustnd th sclst chrctr f th Svt Unn). Ths crtcl pstn ws pssbl bcus Guvr ws lkng frm th vntg pnt f pr nd undrdvlpd cuntry undr mprlst sg by th U. S., nd cmprng Cubs pstn nd xpcttns t ths f th Svt Unn wth ts ndustrlzd cnmy nd ts wn mprlst dsgns. Much f Guvrs plmcs cntrd n th pplcblty f th lw f vlu, cmmdty prductn, nd mtrl nd mrl ncntvs n th buldng f sclsm. Rfrrng t dscussn n Russn mnul f pltcl cnmy but th succssful us by th USSR f cnmc nstrumnts such s mny, prc, cmmrc, crdt nd fnncs n th buldng f sclsm nd cmmunsm, Guvr hd t sy:

Ths cn nly b cnsdrd xct wth rspct t th ttl mgntud f prducd vlus fr drct us f th ppultn nd th rspctv vlbl funds fr thr cqustn, smthng whch culd b dn by ny cptlst fnnc mnstr wth sm rltvly qulbrtd fnncs... Th tndncy must b, n ur cncpt, t lqudt s vgrusly s pssbl th ld ctgrs mng whch r ncludd th mrkt, mny, nd f curs, th lvr f mtrl ntrst r, n bttr wrds, th cndtns whch prvk thr [ctgrs] xstnc.39

Th fct tht Guvr cknwldgd th cptlst tndncs" f hs Russn lls dd nt put hm r hs pprch clsr t sclsm thr, s mny f hs fllwrs rgu. Guvr smply blvd n tghtr vrsn f th Svt cmmnd cnmy-n clsr t th ntl vrsn mpsd by Stln durng th tw dcds f hs dcttrshp nd whch hs succssrs bndnd n fvur f th suppsdly mr ffcnt cnmc ccuntng systm (BS). Th S ws suppsd t crrct wst nd burucrtsm by frcng ch ntrprs t functn n th bss f ts prftblty. n prctc, ths pprch ws unsuccssful bcus nffcnt ntrprss cntnud t prt by mns f ddtnl trnsfr f rsurcs, cptl, nd by pln frud thrugh mnpultn f th bkkpng. Thrfr, unprductv fctrs wr nt llwd t cls, smthng whch Mkhl Grbchv st but t crrct wth hs prstrk. 40 Prstrk s th lgcl utcm f such prcss n whch stt cntrlld cptlsm s frcd t sk rfrms n rdr t rmn cmpttv wth th rst f th wrld cnms. Guvrs ntutn tld hm tht th BS wuld ld dwn th rd f th nly knd f cptlsm whch h cknwldgd, mrkt cptlsm. Tht s why h mvd n Stlns drctn, puttng ll hs fth n th chvmnt f th hghst lvl f cntrlztn f th fnncs nd cnmc dcsn mkng f th Cubn cnmy. Tht s th bss f hs budgtry fnnc systm (BFS). t s prtculrly rvlng tht prctclly th nly nstncs n whch Guvr quts Stln s whn h s dfndng hs cnmc thss nd prmtng th vrtus f th BFS.

Guvr hd llusns tht h culd blsh th lw f vlu n Cub by blshng th mntry trnsctns btwn ntrprss, . ., by blshng th ntrnl mrkt. Tht culd b tru f Cub xstd n cmplt sltn t th rst f th wrld. Hwvr, Guvr ws wr tht t ws nt pssbl. Furthrmr, ccrdng t hs cntrl m f th dvlpng th cnmy t th quckst pc pssbl, cmplt sltn ws nthr dsrbl. s hv dscrbd bv, th whl f th Cubn ldrshp hd grt hps n th lvl f cmmrcl xchng tht culd b gnrtd wth th rst f th wrld, nd ftr 1965 bcm pnfully wr tht t lst fr sm tm much f t wuld rvlv rund sugr prductn. Thrfr, th lw f vlu, nd ll ts cnsquncs, nt nly prts n Cub, but ts ffct bcms mr prnuncd s th Cubn cnmy bcms mr ntngld n th wrld cnmy-th strtgy hs lwys bn t cmpt mr ffcntly n th wrld mrkts.


Wrkrs nd Dmcrcy n Cub: Pst nd Prsnt


Guvr hd fught n uncmprmsng struggl gnst bth ruthlss dcttr nd hs mprlst spnsrs n th U. S. Furthrmr, th mrcn gvrnmnt ws st n th d f tpplng th Cubn rvlutnry gvrnmnt nd cntnuusly thrtnd t. Ths stutn, tgthr wth Guvrs cmmtmnt t th pr nd th pprssd, stutd hm mls t th lft f th burucrts rulng th Svt Unn. Hwvr, bth shrd th wllngnss t us burucrtc stt t stsfy thr gls. Th Russn burucrts-vr snc Jsf Stln ld th cuntr-rvlutn gnst th Blshvk gvrnmnt t th nd f th 1920s-hd lng csd t prtnd thy wr buldng sclsm fr th Russn msss nd ctd pnly usng th Svt stt t ccmplsh thr pltcl nd cnmc schms. Guvr, n mttr hw gd hs ntntns wr, ntndd t us th sm burucrtc stt t chv hs vsn f sclsm. Hs vsn ws, s hv dscrbd bv, n f sclsm mpsd frm th tp dwn n th msss:

Ths s wht wntd t pnt ut wth rspct t th wrkng clss whch stll nds t mk grtr ffrt, sncrly t nds grtr ffrt. W r n n pch, n rvlutn, whch hs bn prclmd sclst, nd sclsm s nt wrds, but t s th rsult f cnmc dds nd cnscusnss dds Fr xmpl, w hv crtn f th rvlutn: sm dys g w wr rdng n lttl nwsppr tht w hv hr, nt wrth rfrrng t, but t s Trtskyst nwsppr Vz Prltr md crtqu f th dvsry tchncl cuncls, frm th Trtskyst pnt f vw. Thn t sd tht th dvsry tchncl cuncls hd bn crtd by ths chckn-hrtd ptty burgs tht w hv n gvrnmnt s n ttmpt t gv smthng t th msss whch wr dmndng th drctn f th fctrs, wthut rlly dlvrng nythng.

nd tht, frm th thrtcl pnt f vw s n bsurdty, but frm th prctcl pnt f vw s n nfmy r hug quvctn. Prcsly th sn cmmttd by th dvsry tchncl cmmtts s tht thy wr nt crtd by th prssur f th msss, t ws burucrtc crtn frm th tp dwn t prvd th msss wth vhcl tht thy hv nt skd fr, nd thr s whr sn by th msss ls Bcus t s tru, n t th tp, t th mnstry, cnfnd, wth r cndtnr nd ll ths thngs, n cnt hr th plpttn f th wrkr, tht s why w r lkng fr th vhcls f xprssn.41

n thr wrds, th rulrs f cuntry wh dntfy thmslvs wth thr ppl, thnk wht s bst fr ths ppl, thy put t n mr r lss rbtrry numbrs, but nturlly wth lgcl bss, snsbl, nd g n sndng t frm tp dwn, fr xmpl, frm th Cntrl Cuncl f Plnnng t th Mnstry f ndustrs, whr th Mnstry f ndustrs mks th crrctns t dms cnvnnt, bcus t s clsr t rlty thn ths thr ffcs. Frm thr t kps gng dwn t th ntrprss, whch mk thr crrctns. Frm th ntrprss t gs dwn t th fctrs, whr thr crrctns r md nd frm th fctrs t gs t th wrkrs, whr thy hv t sy th fnl wrd but th pln.42

Wth such tp-dwn hrrchy, t s prcsly t sy th lst wrd th nly thng tht wrkrs cn d. By th tm th pln rchs th wrkplc, t s lrdy dcdd pln nd th wrkrs r lmtd t xprss mr r lss ccptnc r dsplsur - smthng whch th fctry mngr cn py ttntn t r dcd t gnr. t bst, th wrkrs my hv sm flxblty n th mplmnttn f th pln. Thy my b ncurgd t fnd mr ffcnt nd nnvtv wys t mplmnt th pln, t shrpn thr sklls, t b mr prductv - n pprch vry smlr t th tm cncpt mplyd by mngmnt n th mrcn ut ndustry - but n n wy thy my b llwd t chllng n wd scl th bss f th pln. nd ths s xctly wht rvls th dtur tht Guvr tks n hs rd t sclsm. Th wrkng clss n Cub dd nt tk stt pwr n 1959, nr n 1961 whn Cstr prclmd hs rgm sclst. Sclsm s bsd n wrkrs dmcrcy, nd tht mns th wrkrs dcdng wht hppns n scty thrugh thr bsc rgns f dmcrcy: th wrkrs cuncls. Currntly, thr r n wrkrs cuncls n Cub nd nvr hd bn n th 33 yrs snc th rvlutn. ldrshp wh slf-prptuts tslf n gvrnmnt, wh hs unlmtd pwr t dvs plns nd lws nd t mps thm n th ppl, bsd n thr prsnl cncptn f wht s bst fr th ppl, ldrshp wh s nt drctly ccuntbl t ths ppl, s nt buldng sclsm. t ds nt mttr f thy burst thr lungs shutng tht thy r sclsts nd tht thy hv th bst f ntntns.

Th crtcl ssu hr s nt th gd ntntns, but wh s n pwr. Supprtrs f Cubs rgm pnt ut t th smbls dl pdr ppulr (PP, Ppls Pwr ssmbls) s n xmpl f dmcrcy. 43 Hwvr, qut frquntly, th PP r nly nggd n dscussn nd dcsn-mkng f lcl chrctr whch ds nt ffct mttrs f ntnl plcy, nd, s mntnd bv, whch hv mr t d wth th wys t mplmnt th dcsns md by th Mnstrs -whs drctrs r nt lctd by nr ccuntbl t Cubn wrkrs. n ny nstnc, th PP r bds tht r lctd t rgnl r muncpl lvl (. ., bsd n ggrphcl crtrn) nd whch t mst culd spr t prfrm th sm tsks s th muncpl ssmbls undr burgs prlmntry dmcrcy. Ths s fr cry frm th systm f wrkrs cuncls whr wrkrs mk dcsns t thr wrkplc nd by drctly lctng dlgts t rprsnt thm t th ntnl lvl.

Th prncpl ftur f th Blshvk Rvlutn ws th wrkrs cuncls, r svts, whch prtd undr th prncpl f mmdt rcllblty f th dlgts f th wrkrs thy wr rprsntng wr dsstsfd wth thr functnng. n ddtn, n lctd functnry ws llwd t rn wg hghr thn tht f n vrg wrkr. nd f ny dubt rmnd but wh ws n pwr, th wrkrs wr rmd nd rgnsd nt mlts wh, tgthr wth th sldrs cuncls, cntrlld th flw f rms. Mltry rnks nd sluts wr blshd, nd th sldrs lctd thr wn ffcrs. 44 Lnn, n Stt nd Rvlutn, quts ngls pprvngly n dscussn but th dmcrtc chrctr f th wrkrs cuncls durng th Prs Cmmun:

gnst ths trnsfrmtn f th stt nd th rgns f th stt frm srvnts f scty nt th mstrs f scty - prcss whch hd bn nvtbl n ll prvus stts - th Cmmun md us f tw nfllbl rmds. n th frst plc, t flld ll psts-dmnstrtv, judcl nd ductnl - by lctn n th bss f unvrsl suffrg f ll cncrnd, wth th rght f ths lctrs t rcll ll thr dlgts t ny tm. nd n th scnd plc, ll ffcls, hgh r lw, wr pd nly th wgs rcvd by thr wrkrs.45

Th fct s tht n Cub nthr f th fundmntl cndtns f wrkrs stt wr vr cnsdrd r put nt prctc. Nthr Cstr, r hs Mnstrs, r th fctry mngrs r ccuntbl t th wrkrs, th fctrs r bvusly nt undr wrkrs cntrl, th burucrcy s knwn t hv bttr stndrd f lvng thn th rst f th ppultn, nd th flw f rms s strctly cntrlld frm th tp by hrrchcl rmy. Bsds, th prblms ssctd wth wstrn cptlsm such s sxsm, rcsm nd spclly prscutn f gys nd lsbns r stll prvsv n Cub. rcnt study by th ntrntnl Lbur rgnztn rprtd tht 82% f wmn n L Hbn d ll th dmstc wrk. 46 Bth Cstr nd Guvr hv xltd th fmly gnrng tht th fmly unt s th nstrumnt f pprssn f wmn. t s n th prvtsd fmly unt whr wmn r stuck wth th burdn f tkng cr f th ncssts f ll fmly mmbrs t th xpns f hr ductn. nd culturl nd pltcl dvlpmnt. n cntrst th Blshvks, rght ftr gnng stt pwr prcdd t sclz ll th functns f th fmly by stblshng chldcr fclts, cmmunl ktchns nd lundrs. brtn ws md fr n dmnd. Dvrc ws md lgl nd hmsxulty ws dcrmnlzd. 47 n Cub, hmsxulty s crm nd DS vctms r sgrgtd n th sl f Pns. 48 Sclsm s but th lbrtn f ll ppl nd rgm tht systmtclly nd rmrslssly pprsss dffrnt sctrs f t ppultn hs lttl t d wth sclsm.

vn f th wrkng clss hs nvr bn n pwr n Cub, t s tru tht Cstrs gvrnmnt hs usully cuntd n gd dl f ppulrty mng dffrnt sctrs f th ppultn. T n xtnt, Cstr hs nt rld n frc but n ppulr mblztns t mntn hs cntrl. spclly, durng th frst yrs f th rvlutn, n whch th gvrnmnt st ut t mdrnz th cnmc nd scl nfrstructur, mny ppl bnftd frm th grrn rfrms, th ltrcy cmpgns, th mprvmnt f publc hlth nd ductn. s lng s th lvng stndrds f th mjrty f th ppultn mprvd - s wth ny thr knd f rgm - th gdwll f mst f ths ppl twrd th gvrnmnt ws ssurd. Th rllyng cry n th dfnc f slf-dtrmntn nd th gns f th rvlutn gnst th cnstnt thrt f U. S. mprlsm hs lwys bn n mprtnt lmnt n mntnng th lylty f Cubns t thr gvrnmnt. Hwvr, ths stutn gnrts cntrdctn. t s cntrdctn btwn th lck f wrkrs cntrl nd dmcrcy n n hnd, nd th llusns tht th ppl hv n Cstrs rgm n ccunt f th gns f th rvlutn n th thr -llusns tht r cnstntly nflmd by ll srts f ppulr mblztns nd cmpgns gnst th nn-mgnry thrt f n ttck by U. S. frcs. Nnthlss. Cstr s n cntrl f n lbrt pprtus f rprssn, whch h hs usd t qull publc nd rgnzd dssnt, usng s n xcus cncrns f ntnl scurty. Whl thr wr prds n whch vry dfnsv msur dd nt sm suffcnt - s n th ftrmth f th 1961 By f Pgs nvsn - th 1970s nd 1980s wr nt prds f mmdt dngr durng whch th rprssv bds cntnud t prt nd nyn wllng t dssnt publcly ws rrstd, hrssd r t lst ccusd f bng n usful fl fr th purpss f Ynk mprlsm. Th rl qustn hr s why s ths lbrt rprssv pprtus rqurd f Cstr s s ppulr - s hs mst rdnt supprtrs rgu-f th mjrty f th ppl hs wllngly rnuncd thr ntrst n dmcrcy ut f dp trust fr Cstr.

Rgrdlss f th crcumstncs th Cubn burucrcy hs lwys hd nd t mps th strctst dscpln n ts wrkng clss. Fr ths purps th gvrnmnt rld nt nly n tughr lbur lws, but hs md us f th lbur unns t nduc thr mmbrshp nt ncrsng thr prductvty nd ccptng th wrkng cndtns s ppsd t prfrmng th bsc functn f ny unn: th dfnc f th wrkrs rghts. Th unns r vwd by th Cubn ldrshp s trnsmssn blts fr th mplmnttn f th prductn plns. Thus n 1971, n yr ftr nw lbur lws wr nctd tht suppsdly gv th unns mr dfnsv rl nd prtcptn n dcsn mkng nd ntrprs mngmnt. Rul Cstr (Fdls brthr nd scnd n cmmnd n Cub) culd sy:

Th prncpl tsks [n whch th unns shuld b nvlvd] r prductvty nd wrk dscpln; mr ffcnt utlztn f th wrk dy; nrmng nd rgnstn; qulty, cnsrvtn, nd th mst ffcnt nd rtnl us f bth mtrl nd humn rsurcs.49

n th sm yr, Lbur Mnstr Jrg Rsqut, clrly dfnd th lmts f th unns wth rgrds t ntrprs mngmnt:

Th dcsn nd rspnsblty [n th ntrprs] fll t th mngmnt, whs jb s t tk th dly, ncssry msurs rqurd by th prcss f prductn... n thng tht s prfctly clr s tht th mngmnt shuld hv-nd ds hv-ll th uthrty t ct. t s chrgd wth rspnsblty nd t hs th uthrty t mk dcsns.50

Guvr sw th wrkrs s scl grup tht ndd t b ductd fr sclsm, nt s ppl tht wuld buld sclsm nd duct thmslvs n th prcss. Th FCC (r th FURS s th FCC ws nmd durng th rly yrs f th rvlutn51) ws th wll-ntntnd tchr nd th msss" wr th pssv rcptrs f rvlutnry wsdm nd upn whm cnscusnss hd t b nstlld. t s nt dffcult t undrstnd, thn, why th wrkrs wr vwd s f undr cnstnt dngr f succumbng t th tmpttns prpr f cptlst scty. Thrfr, n rdr t buld th nw mn" - bsds dvlpng th mns f prductn s quckly s pssbl - th ntdt t ndvdulsm ws cntnuus brrg f prpgnd xtllng th vrtus f vluntry wrk. Cnnctd t ths d ws th ssu f mtrl vrsus mrl ncntvs. Mrl ncntvs wr cnsdrd s th bss upn whch sclst scty shuld functn. f curs, ny gnun sclst blvs tht t dvlpd stg f sclsm, th mn crtrn fr th functnng f scty must b whthr r nt th bsc nds (nd thn sm mr) f vry sngl ndvdul r mt. Ths mns tht nw st f vlus r mrls hv bn ccptd by ths sclst scty. Hwvr, th ssu f ncntvs s such cqurs n ddtnl wght n Guvrs schm bcus h s tryng t fnd lvr tht h cn us frm wthut th wrkng clss-mr crrctly frm bv - t cmpl t t mv n th dsrd dlgcl drctn nd t ttn th rqurd lvls f prductvty. Whn th wrkrs r nt n pwr, nd n nsttutn such s th FURS mnplzs th dcsn mkng prcss wth rspct t ll th mjr spcts f Cubn lf, t bcms vry crtcl fr th FURS t dqutly slct th bst wys t mtvt th wrkng clss. n Guvrs cs, snc h stll blvd n scl justc, t mnt tht h tndd t mphsz mrl ncntvs whl hs Russn lls, bng vry clr but th clss chrctr f thr rul, mphszd mtrl ncntvs bcus thy wr mr ffcnt wy f mprvng prductvty. vntully, durng th 1970s, th Cubn burucrcy mvd wy frm mrl ncntvs nd vluntry wrk,52 nd t hs nt bn untl th scnd hlf f th 1980s tht t bgn t rly gn n ths schms lrgly bcus t dd nt hv th mns t prvd ths mtrl ncntvs, . ., bttr py r gds whch culd b bught wth xtr ncm.

s w hv sn, th unns wr nt llwd t ndpndntly prfrm vn thr bsc dfnsv functns, nd wrkrs cntrl thrugh wrkrs cuncls nvr xstd. Thn, th nly thr nsttutn lft fr th wrkng clss t nflunc th dcsn mkng prcss ws th FURS/PCC. Th prty cdrs wr suppsd t mbdy th sprt f scrfc f th rvlutn, t hv ldrshp qults, nd ncrsngly, t hv th tchncl sklls ncssry t prfrm thr duts wthn th stt dmnstrtv pprtus. Wrkrs hd lmtd ccss t th prty. W must rcll tht Guvr dd nt cnsdr th Ltn mrcn wrkng clss s ptntlly rvlutnry bcus thy wr pthtc nd cmplcnt du t thr rltvly hghr stndrd f lvng cmprd t th rst f th mpvrshd msss. Thy hd t b ductd nd nly slct fw wuld b dmttd t th prty. t s wrth qutng gn Guvrs vw n th chrctr f th prty: ur m s fr t t b mss prty, but whn th msss hv chvd th lvl f dvlpmnt f th vngurd, n thr wrds, whn thy r lrdy ductd fr cmmunsm." Ths s vry cnvnnt wy f prptutng th ncssty f th prty. Whn th msss" hv chvd cmmunst cnscusnss thr s n dstnctn btwn th msss" nd th vngurd, nd thrfr thr s n ncssty fr th prty thr! By rfusng t pn th prty nd llwng rvlutnry wrkrs t tk cntrl f t, th Cubn ldrshp ws thus gurntng tht th mjrty f th msss wuld nvr chv cmmunst cnscusnss. n cn cntrst ths tttud wth tht f Lnn durng th Russn rvlutn f 1905:

mk vry ffrt t strngthn th ts btwn th prty nd th msss f th wrkng clss by rsng stll wdr sctns f prltrns nd sm-prltrns t full Scl Dmcrtc cnscusnss, by dvlpng thr rvlutnry Scl Dmcrtc ctvty, by sng t t tht th grtst pssbl numbr f wrkrs cpbl f ldng th mvmnt nd th prty rgnztns b dvncd frm mng th mss f th wrkng clss t mmbrshp n th lcl cntrs nd th ll-prty cntr兔53

n dbt t th thrd Cngrss f th Blshvk prty durng th sprng f 1905, Lnn ws vry clr but th wrkng clss chrctr f th prty: n cnnt rly n smll prphry f ntllctuls, but n cn nd shuld rly n hundrds f rgnzd wrkrs.54

n Guvrs Cub, dmssn f wrkr nt th prty rsmbld mr cnnztn nt snthd thn n ct cnscus pltcl wll. nly th wrkrs wh xhbtd th prscrbd vrtus culd gt n, nd nly ftr bng nmntd by th rst f thr wrkmts wh wr nt prty mmbrs nd wh n spt f rmnng - pltclly mpur rcgnzd th pus trts n thr prtnrs. Th rdr mght thnk tht m xggrtng n mkng my pnt, but th fllwng qut-n f dzns n whch Guvr uss smlr rhtrc-shuld suffc n sttng my cs: n vry mmnt kndr, purr, mr humn thn th thrs, must th cdrs f ur prty b.55 Th fct tht nn-mmbrs f th prty lctd th wrkrs tht wuld jn th prty mght sm vry dmcrtc but n rlty th ppst s tru. Snc th prty nd th stt mrgd wth n nthr n Cub, nc th nw mmbrs wr vtd n, thy, tgthr wth th thr mmbrs f th prty, wr n prctc gvn unlmtd nd ndfnt sty n pwr. Th Cubn msss culd vt sm f thr wrkrs n, but culd vt n n ut.

Guvr tndd t lump tgthr fctry mngrs nd stt burucrts wth th wrkrs. H cnsstntly spk n trms f th mss" s ths srt f bstrct lmnt n th pltcl rn. Nt th wrkng clss, but th mss" ws th llgd wnr f th nw Cub. Bth burucrt nd wrkr wr prt pf th sm tm, ch n mkng hs rspctv cntrbutn. Th ncssry clss chrctr f th wrkrs stt ws cmpltly gnrd r blurrd. Th mss ws ths mrphus cllctn f pr, wrkrs, psnts n n hnd, nd prfssnls, tchncns, stt nd prty burucrts n th thr, n whs wll-ntntnd hnds ws th ctul cntrl vr th runnng f scty. Th rhtrc f th mss" llwd fr th dntfctn f prty nd stt, nd fr th justfctn f ny ctn s n th nm f sclsm. t s ls n ths cntxt tht ntnlsm s frquntly clld upn s scl dhsv. f th cncpt f th mss blurs ny clss dstnctns, thn ll th clsss cn b summnd n th dfnc f th fthrlnd. Th struggl gnst U. S. mprlsm s nrrwd t ntnlst fght fr slf-dtrmntn s ppsd t wrkng clss cnscus struggl gnst ntrntnl cptlsm. s t s th cs wth ny thr pprssd cuntry, r pprssd thnc grup, ntnlst rspns s nt nugh t nd th pprssn nd xplttn f th lburng msss. Ctln flk sngr Jn Mnul Srrt wrt sng n whch h dscrbs Spnsh ppulr fst n whch bth pr nd rch mngl, gt drunk, nd dnc tgthr whl t lsts. Thn, ftr t s vr th rch gs t hs rchnss nd th pr gs t hs pvrty. n Cub, t th nd f vry mblztn, th burucrt gs t hs ffc nd pwr, nd th wrkr t hs shp nd dscpln.


Cnclusn


Durng th lst fur yrs w hv wtnssd sm mprtnt stbcks fr ppulr mvmnts rund th wrld. Th dft f th Sndnsts n th Ncrgun lctns s prhps th mst dsturbng n, spclly fr ppl tht hd llusns n th ntur f th FSLN. Hwvr, w hv ls sn hw svrl thr gurrll mvmnts hv ld dwn thr rms nd trd t ngtt thr wy nt th lctrl lndscp f cuntrs lk Clmb nd l Slvdr. Th flur f th gurrll strtgy nd f th ntnlst pltcs tht ccmpny t hs frcd mny pltcl grups t sk thr ltrntvs. Th mpct f th cllps f Stlnsm n th frmr Svt blc hs hd trmndus ffct n mst f th ppl tht cnsdrd thmslvs sclsts nd wh hd ny llusns but th chrctr f th Svt Unn. Th nt rsult hs bn uncrtnty, dmrlztn, nd n sm sctrs wllngnss t ccmmdt t rght-wng ds, t vn cnsdr th vblty f th mrkt nd t drp Mrxsm ltgthr. n mny Ltn mrcn cuntrs th dbt wthn th lft s bng frmd btwn tw fls pls. n n nd ls th rfrmst tndncy whch rgus tht th lctrl rn shuld b mbrcd nd usd t btn n xtrmly wknd vrsn f th dmnds tht wr nt wn thrugh rmd struggl. n th thr xtrm, t lst shwng sm gd pltcl nstncts, r ths ctvsts tht rgu crrctly tht rvlutn s stll ncssry t chng th lvng cndtns f th mmns mjrty f th ppl. Hwvr, thy stll plc thr hps n sm vrnt f th gurrll strtgy. Th rl nswr lys lswhr, n th buldng f mss mvmnt bsd n th slf-ctvty f th wrkng clss ldng ny thr pprssd sctrs such s th psntry.

Whl thr r smll grups tht hv bgun prcss f rthnkng th mnng f Mrxsm nd scrppng Stlnst frmultns tht usd t pss s Mrxst, t s nt surprsng tht stll mny thr lftsts nd ntnlsts hv turnd thr ttntn t Cub s th lst hp, s th lst plc n rth whch s stll cpbl f cnfrntng th llnc f cptlst pwrs ld by th U. S. Unfrtuntly, s w hv sn, Guvrs pltcl prjct culd nt nd dd nt ld n th drctn f sclsm, but n tht f rfrmultng Cubn cptlsm.

Fr mny yrs th Cubn cnmy ws prtlly cushnd gnst th rgrs f th ntrntnl mrkt thrugh ts prtcptn n th Cmcn (th Svt blcs cmmn mrkt) nd by rcvng bllns f dllrs pr yr n subsds frm th frmr Svt Unn. Th Cmcn s nw dfunct, th subsds hv ls dspprd nd cmmrc wth frmr Svt Blc cuntrs hs bn rducd drstclly. nd th U. S. cnmc blckd hs bn tghtnd by th pssg f th Trrcll bll. Th dc hv bn rlld. Cubs cnmy hs bn thrust nkd nt th wrld mrkt. Th mplctns f ths vnts r dsstrus fr th Cubn wrkng clss. Th nd fr Cubs ndustrs t chv nd mntn cmpttvnss n th wrld mrkt mns n ncrs n prductvty nd cnsquntly n ncrs n th rt f xplttn f th wrkng clss. Cupld wth th hrsh ustrty msurs bng mplmntd by Cstrs gvrnmnt, Cubns hv sn thr stndrd f lvng drp shrply durng th lst tw yrs. Dsprt fr cptl, th gvrnmnt hs rsrtd fr srs f jnt vnturs wth frgn cptlsts frm Mxc nd urp. Ths r knwn s th mxd ntrprss. Wrkng cndtns nd dscpln r vn tughr n ths ntrprss. rnclly, ths knd f rrngmnt ws xplctly cndmnd by Guvr. Thus n spt f ll th hpl rund Guvrs ds, t s Crls Rfl Rdrguz wth hs xplct prft-bsd systm wh s crryng th dy n th struggl wthn th burucrcy fr th dtrmntn f th cnmc pth whch Cub s gng t fllw. n spt f th l shrtg, th pc fr th lbrtn f cnmc nd tchncl ltrntvs t th scrc rw mtrls nd cnsumptn gds s frnzd vn ngnrs n th prmsng bndustrs r wrkng 12 hurs pr dy nd wknds. 56 Sm sympthzrs f th Rvlutn xprss n prvt tht t my survv th currnt crss (mnng tht th gvrnmnt culd survv), but tht t wll b t th xpns f wht trdtnlly hv bn cnsdrd th gns f th Rvlutn.

ny srus rvlutnry hs t plc th blm fr th shrtgs nd vcsstuds tht th Cubn ppl r ndurng, frst f ll, t th drstp f th mrcn rulng clss nd th blckd t hs nfrcd vr th lst 31 yrs. Hwvr, th strtgy tht th Cubn ldrshp hs fllwd n dlng wth ths stutn s crucl. Uncrtcl supprtrs f Cstrs rgm rgu tht undr th currnt crcumstncs h hs n chc but t ntrduc ths hrsh ustrty msurs, nd tht t lst thy r vnly dstrbutd crss th ppultn. Th prblm s nt tht undr prtculr st f crcumstncs tght systm f rtnng f gds nd srvcs my nd t b mpsd. Th prblm s wh s mkng ths dcsns, nd undr wht crtr. Currntly, th Cubn wrkng clss s nt mkng ths dcsns, nd wrst f ll, th llctn f rsurcs s md n th bss f llwng th mst ffcnt sctrs f th cnmy t survv nd t rmn cmpttv n n ntrntnl scl, . g., th btchnlgy ndustry, tursm. t ds nt mttr f whtvr s lft vr s dstrbutd mr r lss vnly mng th wrkng msss, stll wh nd wht must b scrfcd fr th sk f cmpttvnss s th prrgtv f th burucrcy. nd nyn cught qustnng ths lgc s mmdtly ccusd f bng cuntr-rvlutnry nd subjct t hrssmnt nd mprsnmnt. Thus n 1981, hstry nd phlsphy tchr rl Hdlg ndd up n prsn fr rsng th ntn tht Cub ws bng gvrnd by nw burucrtc clss" nd prpsng ts vrthrw. 57 t s wrth mphszng tht ncdnts lk ths r cknwldgd by wll-rspctd nd bslut dfndrs f th Cubn Rvlutn such s Jn Stubbs, nd nt by C muthpcs s sm supprtrs f Cstrs rgm wuld lk us t blv.

Th crux f th qustn ls n whthr yu fllw ntnlst strtgy, drssd up n sclst rhtrc tht mks us f th stt t drct th cuntrys ntrvntn nd cmpttn n th wrld mrkt, r whthr yu pursu th pth f wrkng clss rvlutn md nd ld by th wrkrs thmslvs, bsd n th bsc rgns f wrkrs dmcrcy, th wrkrs cuncls, nd cmpltly cnscus f th ncssty fr t t sprd t th nghburng cuntrs (ncludng th U. S), nd thn t th rst f th wrld (. ., Trtskys Prmnnt Rvlutn). Ths lttr ltrntv mght sm unrlstc r vry dffcult-nd n n hs clmd tht buldng sclsm wuldnt b dffcult - but thr r n shrtcuts n th prcss f rdctng cptlsm. Cstrs nd Guvrs shrtcut hs ld Cub n drctn tht, rgrdlss f thr ntntns, frcs thm t submt thr wrkng clss t vr ncrsng lvls f xplttn n rdr t cmpt fvurbly wth th mr dvncd cptlst cnms. t hs ld nt dd nd, whch bcms bvus n th mdst f th currnt crss. Th strk ptns r cptlst cmpttn (n thr th cmmnd r mrkt cnmy vrts) r th wrldwd smshng f cptlsm thrugh wrkrs rvlutn. Guvrs ntutn pulld hm n th drctn f ntrntnl rvlutn-lthugh, s w hv sn, fr hm t hd dffrnt chrctr. Fr Guvr, t mnt cllctn f ndvdul ntnlst rvlutns, whl fr th wrkng clss t must truly hv n ntrntnl mnng, brkng th ntnl bundrs mpsd by cptlsm.

Twnty-fv yrs ftr Guvrs dth w cn gr wth hs sprt, wth hs cntmpt fr systm whch cn smultnusly prduc s much wlth nd s much pvrty, bus, nglct, nd dth. W cn gr wth hs rg, hs wllngnss fr ctn, nd hs dspstn t scrfc vn hs lf n th struggl t buld dffrnt scty n whch th nw mn nd wmn wll hv thr bsc ncssts mt nd wll b bl t gt nggd n ll srts f culturl nd pltcl ctvts. But w hv t dsgr wth hs strtgy nd hs mthds. W hv t g bck nd rclm th rl Mrxst trdtn f Mrx, ngls, Rs Luxmburg, Lnn nd Trtsky. Ths s th trdtn f wrkrs, rdnry mn nd wmn, tkng cntrl vr thr wn lvs, buldng thr wn rgnztns, mkng thr wn rvlutn, nd n th prcss mkng thr wn mstks nd succsss whch wll prpr thm t run thr truly wn scty. W hv t rs th bttl cry f sclsm frm blw nd ntrntnl rvlutn.

1 Th Sn Jun Str, Mrch 13th, 1992

2 Fr n ccunt f th uprsng s c. Hrmn, 1h Fr Lst Tm: 1968 nd ftr, Bkmrks, 1988

3 . Gbsn, Sclst Wrkr, Nvmbr 1987

4 Rdrguz s n ld-tm prty hck f th Btst r wh ftr th rvlutn bcm th rvlutnry gvrnmnts bst cnnctn t Mscw. H ws n f th tp ldrs f th PSP (frmr nm f th PCC) t th tm f th cllps f Btsts rgm, nd thrfr hd nthng t d wth th July 26 Mvmnt tht drv Btst ut f pwr.

5 Qutd n P. Bnns nd M. Gnzls, Cstr. Cub nd Sclsm, Hr Prss, Clvlnd, H, 1981, p. 22

6 S M. Gnzlz, Cn Cstr Survv?, ntrntnl Sclsm Jurnl, utumn 1992

7 Qutd n . Cllncs, Th Rvlutnry ds f Mrx, Bkmrks, Lndn, 1983, p. 96

8 S D. Hlls, Th Cmntrn, Bkmrks, Lndn, 1985

9 S C. Hrmn, Th Lst Rvlutn: Grmny 1918-1923, Bkmrks, Lndn, 1982

10 S T. Clff, Stl Cptlsm n Russ, Plut Prss, Lndn, 1974

11 S C. Hr, Spn 1936: Ppulr Frnt r Wrkrs Pwr? , ntrntnl Sclst rgnztn, Chcg, 1986

12 S C. Hr, Th Rd t Tnmn Squr, Bkmrks, Lndn, 1991

13 L. Trtsky , Th Prmnnt Rvlutn nd Rsults nd Prspcts, Pthfndr Prss, NY , 1986

14 T. Clff, Dflctd Prmnnt Rvlutn, Bkmrks, Chcg, L, 1986, p. 14

15 . Guvr, Cnsdrcns sbr ls Csts d Prducc6n cm Bs dl nlss cn6mc d ls mprss Sujts t Sstm Prsupustru, n l Sclsm y l Hmbr Nuv, Js rc6, dtr, Sgl Vtun, Mxc, D.F., 1988, pp. 262-263

16 . Guvr, l Sclsm y l Hmbr n Cub, bd., pp. 15-16

17 C. Tbld, Th Crtvty f Chs cnmc Thught, Nw ntrntnl, 8 (1991), pp. 67-96

18 bd

19 Qutd n T. Clff, Dflctd Prmnnt Rvlutn, p. ct., p. 14

20 Qutd n . Cllncs, p. ct., p. 141

21 Qutd n T. Clff, p ct., pp. 14-15

22 . Guvr, l Sclsm y l Hmbr n Cub, p. ct., p. 4

23 . Guvr, l Prtd Mrxst-Lnnst, p. ct., pp. 48-49

24 . Guvr, L Luch ntmprlst N Tn Frntrs, p. ct, pp. 231-232

25 Qutd n ftnt n l Sclsm y l Hmbr Nuv, Js rc, dtr, Sgl Vtun, Mxc, D.F., 1988, p. 420

26 rnclly, th nly lstng Thrd Wrld cltn whch Cub ws bl t jn nd nflunc ws th Nn-lgnd Cuntrs Mvmnt whch ncludd cuntrs ruld by rght-wng nd mltry dcttrs frm Ltn mrc nd s nd whch trd t us th cnflct btwn th U.S. nd th USSR t btn cncssns frm n sd r th thr. Guvr hd xplctly rjctd such knd f cltn.

27 . Guvr, Sbr l Cnstrucc6n dl Prtd, p ct., pp. 40-41

28 . Guvr, L ndustrlzc6n n Cub, p. ct, p. 132

29 S C. Hr, Chn, Whs Rvlutn? , Bkmrks, Chcg, 1987

30 . Guvr, l Sclsm y l Hmbr n Cub, p. ct., p. 14

31 . Guvr, l Cudr, Clumn Vrtbrl d l Rvluc6n, p. ct., pp. 30-31

32 . Guvr, Th Mnng f Sclst Plnnng, 1988, Nw ntrntnl, 8 (1991), p. 166

33 P. Bnns, Th Thry f Stt Cptlsm, n Russ: Frm Wrkrs Stt t Stt Cptlsm, T. Clff, dtr, Bkmrks, Lndn, 1987, p. 97

34 . Guvr, L yud dl Blqu Sclst, n l Sclsm y l Hmbr Nuv, Js rc, dtr, Sgl Vtun, Mxc, D.F., 1988,p. 120

35 . Guvr, Sbr l Sstm Prsupustr d Fnncmnt, bd., p. 277. Ths rtcl ws wrttn n rly 1964, nd by tht tm, Guvr hd lrdy dvlpd mrkd phlsphcl nd cnmc dffrncs wth th Svts n th bst wy t buld sclsm.

36 Fr n ccunt f th uprsng s C. Hrmn, Th Fr Lst Tm: 1968 nd ftr, Bkmrks, 1988

37 . Guvr, l Cudr, Clumn Vrtbrl d l Rvluc6n, p ct, pp. 29-33

38 . Guvr, Cnsdrcns sbr ls Csts d Prducc6n cm Bs dl nlss cn6mc d ls mprss Sujts Sstm Prsupustr, p. ct, p. 260

39 . Guvr, Sbr l Sstm Prsupustr d Fnncmnt, bd., p. 286

40 S C. Hrmn, Th Strm Brks, ntrntnl Sclsm 46, Sprng 1990.

41 . Guvr, L ndustrlzc6n n Cub, p. ct., pp. 163-164

42 bd., p. 138

43 J. Stubbs, Cub: Th Tst f Tm, Ltn mrc Buru, Lndn, 1980, pp. 84-86

44 T. Clff, ll Pwr t th Svts, 1985, nd Rvlutn Bsgd, 1987, Bkmrks, Lndn.

45 V .1. Lnn, Stt nd Rvlutn, ntrntnl Publshrs C., Nw Yrk, 1943, p. 64

46 Trnt Str. Sptmbr 7. 1992

47 S C. Ptty. D. Rbrts nd S. Smth. Wmns Lbrtn nd Sclsm. Bkmrks, Chcg, 1987

48 M. Gnzlz, Cn Cstr Survv?, p. ct., p.113

49 Qutd n C. Ms-Lg, Cub n th 1970s, Unvrsty f Nw Mxc Prss, lbuqurqu, 1978, p. 88

50 bd

51 PURS stnds fr Prtd Unc d l Rvluc6n Sclst (Sl Prty f th Sclst Rvlutn) nd t ws th mmdt prdcssr f th Cubn Cmmunst Prty (PCC). Th nm f th Mscw ld Cmmunst Prty n Cub durng th Btst yrs ws th PSP (ppls Sclst Prty). t vrtully hd nthng t d wth th rvlutn, wth mny f ts mmbrs hvng bn cllbrtrs f th Btst rgm. Tht s why th gurrlls, ftr tkng pwr, frmd th PURS n whch mmbrs f th PSP wr dmttd nd sm f whm wr vntully purgd du t pwr struggls. Th PCC ws fundd n 1965.

52 Ms-l.g, Crml, p ct.

53 Qutd n T. Clff, Buldng th Prty, Bkmrks, Lndn, 1986, pp. 172-173

54 bd., p. 175

55 . Guvr, l Prtd Mrxst-Lnnst, p ct, p. 51

56 ntrvw wth rcnt vstr t Cub

57 Stubbs, p. ct, p. 82