Formation in England (42859)Посмотреть архив целиком
Education Department of the Russian Federation
Perm Financial-Economic College
State educational institution’s branch of higher professional education “Financial academy under the Russian Federation’s Government”
Report about the
«Formation in England»
1. Formation in England
All children, who live in the United Kingdom, according to law, are obligated to learn and to obtain formation. In England, Scotland and on Wales the period of required instruction is designated from five of up to sixteen years. In North Ireland - from four to sixteen. According to law, their parents bear responsibility for visit by the children of the schools or other educational institutions. After the performance of 16 years the instruction ceases to bear required nature, and young people can select, according to their possibilities and aspirations, further formation or to begin working activity. About 70% of young people of Britain, which stepped over 16-year boundary, select further instruction, continuing it either in the same school, where they learned in the previous years or passing into the colleges. About 10% begin to work, and rest 20% is selected obtaining working qualification on so-called government of training of programs - special government programs of working preparation. In 1998-1999 in England and on Wales in these programs were begun to operate 285 thousand young people. In Scotland 1999-2000- m the same programs covered 38400.
2. System of management and financing of schools
For the formation in Britain the government of the country answers. It achieves its activity in this direction together with the following state institutes: By department on the formation and the labor (Department of education and Employment) in England; By national assembly (National of assembly) on Wales; By department of formation and by the department.
Higher and further education, preparation and employment (Department of education and Department of higher and Further of education, Training and Employment) in North Ireland.
The public schools of England and Wales are subordinate local to committees on formation. The same system of management and financing of schools by the local educational organs of authority exists and in Scotland, true, here is two schools of gossektora, which are found on the self-guidance. In North Ireland of five committees on formation they manage, lead and govern all subordinate by them by schools.
The system of financing schools is achieved in Britain through the local authorities, which distribute funds the dependence, mainly, on the number of students in one or other school or another. Separately are separated budgets to the so-called special programs, for example, for the support of information texnologies or the development of procedures on the basis of an improvement in the teaching of grammar and arithmetic.
In the specific numbers of the means, isolated from the state budget to the educational purposes, they appear as follows: 2000-2001- m in that connected Kingdom for the formation it will be spent by 4,8% of GNP. In July 2000 the government of the country declared about the fact that as a whole the expenditures for formation in Britain will increase by 6,6% per year. This means that into the period between 1999-2000 and 2003-2004 yr. they are achieved the order 58 billion of pounds sterling.
3. Pre-school instruction
Although the required instruction of children in the schools of Britain begins from the five-year age (in North Ireland - from the four year old), it went in the recent decades rapid development and the expansion of the sphere of pre-school instruction, which made precisely this sphere of one of the most “undergone” reform. The statistics of the familiarizing of British little-ones with the schools in recent years speaks itself for itself: if into 1970 - 1971 only 20% of children of 3-4- summer age they attended schools, then to 1999 - 2000 g. their number grew to 64 percent, i.e., it increased more than three. The fundamental idea of the attraction of little-ones into the schools became concept about the fact that to begin “official” instruction five-year children must not from zero, but already having initial knowledge in the letter and the calculation. The following purposes were specifically designated: to ensure to all children of England and Wales, who reached age of four years, whose parents would want to return them to the preparatory departments schools to the complete or incomplete day, a similar possibility; to increase the percentage of the security of three year children with the free by places in the establishments of pre-school instruction and training to 34% by January 1997 and to 100% by 2004. The program of pre-school instruction obtained solid financial injections. Expenditures for it grew from 1 billion of pounds sterling into 1996 - 1997 to 1,6 billions into 2000 - 2001. To 2003 - 2004 g. the sum of assignments must reach 2 billions. In 1998 in Britain started the general national program, called to accomplish aid in instruction and training of children at the age of up to 14 years, it is named “The Of national Of childcare Of strategy”, i.e., the program national strategy of child care.
4. Elementary schools
Required instruction begins for the British children in so called of praymeri of schools, i.e., in the elementary schools. First five-year children go into the Infant- departments (children's subdivisions) of these schools, and at the age of seven years they pass within the framework the same school into the junior- departments, or into the individual junior- schools. At the age of 11 years the children are transferred from praymeri in secondary of schools (i.e., from elementary schools - to secondary schools). In Scotland law about compulsory education stipulated, that the initial instruction is intended for the children, who did not reach 12-year age. The elementary schools of Scotland are organized to the classes of different steps depending on the age of students - from the first class to the seventh. Thus, attending to 12 years in Scotland the seventh class student still it remains in the elementary school. All classes of the elementary schools of Scotland mixed - there learn both boys and girls (in |Of England there is much Schools with separate training), are not present allocation of classes or streams on progress or abilities of pupils that is why all pupils with achievement of the certain age automatically are translated in a class following on a serial number.
In Northern Ireland after execution it starts to study in the child of four years in the first class initial. Schools. Training at this school lasts seven years then in the age of 11 years children are translated in high school. At will before translation in high school.
The graduate of an elementary school can pass special "translation" testing.
In elementary schools of the country the British educational authorities consider as the major parameter of quality of formation the size of classes that is quantity of pupils in one class. Especially serious influence on training, in opinion of experts, renders this factor in classes of a younger step of an elementary school. Measures on reduction of number of pupils in similar classes are designated among priority in programs Educational reforms of the ruling labour government. According to operating specifications local educational bodies in England and on the Wales are obliged to distribute children of younger age in elementary schools so that number of five, шести-, and seven-year pupils did not exceed 30 in one class.
5. Secondary schools
It is more than 87% all studying state secondary schools in England and 100% of studying state secondary schools of Wales attend so those called of comprehensive of schools, which is transferred as average charter schools. In them on the reaching by the students of 16 years concludes obtaining compulsory education. In their overwhelming majority these schools assume students from the elementary schools without the testing, without the characteristics and the references to progress or behavior, providing thus possibility to all children, who live in this region, obtaining compulsory secondary education. British general education secondary schools in their majority bear no specialization in the sciences studied by them. All objects are studied in each state secondary school for one and the same program.
In Scotland general education secondary schools also assume students on the general bases without the selection. Then in North Ireland the secondary school it is organized according to the principle of electivity depending on the quality of knowledge and abilities of students. Successfully pasts testing on the English, mathematics, chemistry and biology can be enrolled into gremmer of skulz (grammar of schools) - so there are secondary schools for the gifted children, which were preserved in North Ireland. Rest continue required instruction in the usual average charter schools. Percentage of studying in the North of Ireland, attending gremmer of school, in 1999-2000 it composed 40 from the total number of students of secondary schools.
6. Specialized schools
Special school occupies inadmissibly modest place according to the thinking of present reformers today in the system of secondary education. In England were by September 2000 counted in all 530 special schools, which include 312 technical colleges, 99 lingual colleges, 67 sport colleges even 57 colleges of skill. Programs for the special schools appeared in England only very recently - in 1993. These programs provide for the intensified study of special objects together with the study of the general education program of secondary schools. All these schools are also state. Among the outlined reforms in the system of public education, the specialization of schools is registered first and foremost. Half of all charter schools of the country the Labor Government is intended to make specialized, with the intensified study of one or several related objects. By 2006 7500 the schools, which train today according to the general routine, they will become the specialized colleges, which prepare personnel for different regions of British industry. The creation of the special schools of the business, where they will prepare future owners, is provided, all this, in addition within the framework of compulsory secondary education. In a word, the present system of the state charter schools, which train the raznosposobnykh and raznoodarennykh children according to one and the same levelling individual program, it will undergo radical reconstruction: abilities and inclinations of student will be set as the chief concern free compulsory education.