Examples of modern determinations of culture (42850)Посмотреть архив целиком
Theme of abstract: Examples of modern determinations of culture
1. Reasoning of Roy of Dandrad
2. Reasoning of М. Segall
3. Reasoning of Robert Levin
4. Reasoning of Harry Triadic
5. Reasoning of Michael Koul
6. Reasoning of Gustavo Jagod
7. Reasoning R. Rohner
8. Reasoning of Ken Richardson
9. Reasoning of Denyse Jenkins
10. Reasoning of Jerome Barkow
11. Reasoning of Sara Harkin’s
12. Reasoning of Elisabeth Thomson
13. Reasoning of Robert Taylor
14. Reasoning of Peggy Miller
15. Reasoning of Alexandra Jeffry
16. Reasoning of Pier Rabardel
17. Reasoning of Howard Hardener
LIST OF LITERATURE
Consent in what culture it was not and it is not till today. At deeper consideration of question a yet greater variety is revealed only. Model in that behalf it is possible to count the book of Kreber and Klackhon «Culture: critical review of conceptions and determinations». Considering more than 150 determinations of culture, authors analyzed the great number of different ways of conceptions of this term. In final analysis they came to next determination: "Culture consists of implicit models of conduct, acquired and transferrable by means of symbols, making distinctive achievement of human groups, including them embodiment in embodiments; the core of culture consists of traditional ideas and, especially, from the valued values added to them; system cultures can be examined, from one side, as derivatives from activity, and from other - as elements, stipulating further activity" But "today only not many from modern anthropologists allude to this determination. It went out from a fashion, as it seems to too wide (and that is why, probably, too uncomfortable), used in research aims". The known cultural researcher Harry Triantis writes: «Culture is one of those determinations which always are in work of social researchers, but which are determined by such amount of different ways, that a consensus is not foreseen» The same position remains to date. "One conception which prevails in a modern social idea is conception of culture. Cultural anthropologists and sociologists agree on the whole, that a human culture is acquired by a man as member of society and she widely transforms by means of symbolism of language. However there is a consent in that, how to determine a culture and what functions to add" her. In the classic review of determinations of culture of Kreber and Klackhon cultures, meeting in anthropological literature, distinguish five classes of determinations:
1. Descriptive determinations, when aim to describe everything or some aspects of human life and activity.
2. Historical determinations which do an accent on tradition of the pasts.
3. Normative determinations do an accent on rules which manage activity of group of people. In a difference from descriptive and historical definitions which imply obvious expression of cultural life, normative determinations require, that we scrutinized in that activity which we can look after and made an effort open, that stands after her.
4. Psychological determinations underline multiplicity of psychological aspects, including such concepts as adaptation, permission of problems, teaching, habits. For example, a culture allows a group to adapt to the permanent (repetitive) problems, a culture is learned and the result of it teaching is establishment in this group of certain habits. This determination is more wide and includes on implicit (for example, adaptation) and looked (after for example, habits) are the cultural phenomena.
5. Structural determinations underline a model or organization of culture. This look is related to the first (descriptive) category in that does an accent on integrity, totality of picture. Modern cultural researchers add to another this list, sixth point: "Structural determinations are required from us, that we glanced for the visible cultural phenomena, to open as a culture is arranged. A culture is not the list of customs, and is a computer-integrated model of associate lines. Genetic determinations underline a source or genesis of culture. Thus a culture consists of adaptation, social co-operation and creative process, which is distinctive description of human family". However in the modern theories of culture of such points counted considerably anymore.
We will consider a few separate, but authoritative today utterances or reasoning about the concept of "culture".
1. Reasoning of Roy of Dandrad
«One of the oldest terminology disputes in anthropology is a dispute about a term «culture». Some problems, seems, and caused by a circumstance that this term has two senses: culture as process (that is passed, to be studied by subsequent generations) and culture as the special class of the phenomena (id est the organized cognition). It is possible to think that these two aspects of term can coexist, if a process undertakes for determination of maintenance. In such determination a culture there will be all that is passed to the subsequent generations through a study. Difficulty in this determination consists of that many things are passed and not all their anthropologists wish to examine as a culture. For example, Adipow a complex is trained and widely widespread, but his most anthropologists usually do not examine him as a culture, so this complex is indirect, unintentional, unrealized investigation of teaching to other things. The second strategy is determination of culture as ideas of the special maintenance. Problem with this determination in that different births of maintenance are - what from them to consider a culture».
«Presently there are three basic looks to nature of culture. First is determination of culture as cognitions, as accumulations of information. According to this look, a culture accumulates and does not need that, to be divided, if distribution of cognition is such, that the own incorporated cognition is supported. Information content in the cultural pool of cognition is very great - even in simple societies. According to this look, a culture is not highly computer-integrated, cognitions about that, how to treat illnesses unconnected with cognition necessary for building of house. According to the second look - a culture consists of conceptual structures which create central reality of people, so that he "lives in the that world which imagines to itself» or according to determination of Shneydor, a culture consists of «elements which are certain and разделяемы in concrete society as presenting reality - not simply social reality, and integral reality of life in which human creatures live and operate». According to this approach, a culture is not simply divided, she subjectively is divided, so that everybody supposes that other see the same things which he sees. In this approach a culture is not especially accumulated, no more, than grammar is accumulated. The third look to nature of culture stands between positions "culture as cognition" and "culture as the constructed reality". This approach interprets a culture and society almost as consoling realities, something, consisting of institutes, such as family, market, economy, church, the country etc., id est systems of norms, qualificatory roles, related to different statuses. For Neydla, for example, an accumulation takes place, but relatively poorly; the volume of information which must be trained is very wide, the degree of integration is important, but problematic. Distinction between these looks consists of accenting of different functions of values : directive function for approach centered on "cognition", potential of the systems of values for approach cantered on "constructing of reality". Although there is differentiation between symbols and values - some seem foremost presenting, some - foremost by a directive, some - foremost constructing reality. These distinctions are indistinct and at times exist only in conceptual scopes.
2. Reasoning of М. Segall
In obedience to Segall, a culture is the factor of high order, which cannot have status of independent variation; he is too difficult, to measure him. Rather a culture must be divided into separate contextual factors. They include social institutes, such as school, language, governed, qualificatory interpersonally relations, features of physical surroundings. General for cultural researchers is that that they push off from important distinctions in a conduct and aim to find preceding distinctions which can explain these distinctions. We must find the phenomena which are important and interesting and only then to search explanation to them. Look to the culture as on the knot of terms has two investigations. The first consists of that determination of culture is no more, than general label and cannot have status of theoretical conception. Talked not about a culture on the whole, and only about specific variations which explain specific cultural distinctions. The second investigation consists of that psychological laws and conceptions on determination must be universal. If certain theoretical statements have warrants in one culture, but does not have in other, these statements are false and a theory must be rejected. In this approach an accent is done on cultural relations in their different aspects into a group. A culture appears as the organized unit. The study of the isolated variations, taken from an integral complex by the representatives of this direction, is examined as very doubtful practice. A culture is perceived as a system, in which a cultural context is inseparable from a that method which psychological lines and functions are organized. The systems as such cannot be compared, compared there can be only parts and properties of the systems. Gustavo Jagod preferred going near a culture as to the system, but asserted that cultural psychology did not have a method to transform this conception of culture so that she was suitable for empiric researches. We also consider so. Till to define the object of cultural researches, we must decide, what from determinations of culture more acceptable to us. The complete falling short of between a culture (in objective sense) and conduct is created difficulty in application to researches of any of three analyzed approaches. A «culture plugs in itself the part of surroundings» produced by a man.