Classic philosophy of quality (42805)

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Classic philosophy of quality

  1. What is quality?

That correctly and it is good to live, it is needed to be able and want to live it is correct well».

If even everybody will do everything, that in his forces is however is an answer, adequate complication of problem of quality» Edvards V. Deming Quality and necessities of Man.

The Modern picture of quality of wares is based on principle of the most complete implementation of requirements and wishes of user, and this principle must be stopped up in basis of project of any good. The user of good can be both a separate man and collectives of people are enterprises, organizations or society on the whole (picture 1).

Picture 1. Good as mean of satisfaction of necessities

In any case necessities are related to properties of human personality. The psyche of man is uttery difficult, and the enough complete theories of necessities of man are not yet built. Nevertheless, now there is a row of theories, describing kinds and mutual relations of necessities on the basis of which the developer of wares can operate sufficiently sure and to labour for good practical results.

One of the most widespread theories is a theory of hierarchy of necessities of English scientific Abraham Maslou (Abraham Maslow) [1], pulled out them in 50th of our age. On Maslou, there are 5 groups or levels of necessities (see of Ris.2). A lower level is basic or physiological necessities, such, as requirements are in food, clothes, dwelling et cetera, which are determined biological nature of man. More high level is requirements in protected from the “shots of fate», such, as accidents, illnesses, disability, poverty and other which can violate possibility of satisfaction of necessities of previous level – physiological necessities. Yet more high level is social necessities, that requirements in socializing, mutual relations with other people. On Maslou, the necessities of every level are related to possibility of satisfaction of necessities of previous level, and social necessities are caused aspiration more fully to satisfy requirements in protected. A next level is necessities of confession, or necessities of “Ego». It is requirements in prestige, respect of circumferential, to glory et cetera The greatest level of necessities is requirements in self-perfection, or necessity of development. It is possible to consider that all these types of necessities exist not only for a separate man but also for the collectives of people, including enterprises and society on the whole.





Picture 2. Role of good in satisfaction of necessities on the basis of theory of A. Maslou

In times of the use of theory the row of clarifications major which it is been from was done:

  • on Maslou, passing to the necessity takes place more high level, if the necessity of previous level is satisfied on 100%; modern psychologists consider that this percent less than – poryadka 70% and even less;

  • the hierarchy of necessities of concrete man is in a great deal determined the level of development of his psyche, it changes from a man to the man and different for one man in different periods of his life. With development of psyche of man of necessity more high level become major as compared to the necessities of more low level.

2. Quality, value and cost of good

In an order to satisfy the necessities of man, good must be certain characteristics, and degree of accordance between properties of good and determines quality of good the necessities satisfied with his help. The degree of satisfaction of user good serves as a measure of quality of wares presently, determined correlation of cost and value (to the use value) of good: {Quality} = {Satisfaction of user} = {Value} / {Ctoimost'}.

For a producer all products, not containing defects which would hinder a sale this products, have a value. For an user those properties of products, which correspond his expectations, have a value only. For us three basic between's are important by a value and cost:

  • between a value and cost of products for an user (Q);

  • between a value and cost of products for a producer (QP);

  • between a value for an user and producer (Ê); this correlation determines the competitiveness of production to a great extent.

We will consider, as these correlations changed in the process of development of production in a 20-mcode age.

Conceptions of enterprise and quality

Approach to the problem is more important, than its decision» Law of Hall.

There always are internal and external aims in entrepreneurial activity. Internal aims are put before itself by a businessman, beginning or developing business. They, as a rule, personal is an increase of own profit, satisfaction what – that the personal ambitions and inclinations et cetera External aims of enterprise are those aims on which expects society, letting a businessman his activity. For society not enough, that a businessman only deducted him a certain stake arrived as taxes, it is necessary for him, that activity of businessman helped to decide those tasks, which society before itself puts.

In the most general sense, these tasks are related to upgrading life in society, on the principle that society understands under such quality. Activity of businessman is always social, and in the developed society businessman it realizes perfectly. He builds the activity on the basis of philosophy of enterprise are conceptions, describing most general principles, going near the production of wares and services, management of such operations, mutual relations between a businessman, employees of enterprise, society, state, natural environment. Philosophy of enterprise is based on cultural and national traditions, general conceptions of development of technical civilization. Major component part of philosophy of enterprise is philosophy of quality, which has a social orientation also. We will look, as maintenance of modern management of quality is determined in accordance with the international standard of ISO 8402:

"Method of management organization, based on the collaboration of all its workers, oriented to quality and providing through satisfaction of queries of users, achievement of aims of of long duration enterprise success and benefit for all workers of organization and economy on the whole".

Note 1. “all its workers» are meant by all personnel of organization, at all levels of hierarchy of its organizational structure.

Note 2. Substantial for providing of success of this method is the convinced and persistent guidance from the side of higher administration and teaching and retraining of all workers of organization.

Note 3. Term “quality» at the total management of quality absorbs in itself and achievement of all aims of management.

Note 4. “benefits for… economies are on the whole meant» by implementation of requirements of all subjects of economy».

In this determination we see how follow in one unit success of businessman, benefits for the employees of enterprise, – the hired workers, being not owners, – and benefits for a public economy on the whole. Practice shows, what only at such harmonious concordance of interests of all participants of entrepreneurial activity is arrived at steady of long duration success.

In the modern industrial-developed countries at the beginning of 20th age philosophy of enterprise, based on conception of the so-called "society of consumption", began to be folded, I.e. societies, the purpose of existence of which is satisfaction of necessities of fellow-citizens. Finally this conception of society was formulated in 50th. A major contribution to embodiment of this conception in life brought in president of the USA John Ficzheral'd Kennedy, pulling out conception of state defense of rights for an user at the beginning of 60th. In obedience to this conception, the state is under an obligation actively to interfere in the mutual relations of producer of commodities and services and user on a side last, barriering him from of poor quality products and undertaking defense of his rights. A law was accepted on defense of rights for users.

The main figure of such society is an user. His requirements (if they are socially safe) possess priority above possibilities of producer, and are on the defensive establishments of the state and society. Can be considered major achievements of "society of consumption":

  • successive making reality of ideas of trade freedom, that resulted in international market of commodities and services creation – an user in any country can acquire a commodity, produced in any country; investigation of it is the sharp intensifying of competition of producers, intensifying of their fight for upgrading products and competition prices, for the decline of terms of output of commodity to the market and at the same time strengthening of co-operation and collaboration in a production and advancement of commodities to the market;

  • development of the systems of state and public defense of rights for users on high-quality products and services; these systems of defense not only allow an user to exact from a producer harm for of poor quality products and services but also warn the market entry of such products, and also limit monopolization of market a producer; investigation of it is a necessity of producer to give an user the system of proofs of quality of commodity yet till user this commodity purchased;

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