# How Many Physical Constants are Truly Fundamental? (24334-1)

Посмотреть архив целиком**Internal Structure of a Proton and New Method of Receiving of Energy**

**Dr. N.V. Kosinov, V. I. Garbaruk**

**Dr. N.V. Kosinov, V. I. Garbaruk****INTRODUCTION**

The
proton was discovered in the early 20-th. in experiments with
alpha-particles. In experiments on dispersion on protons of electrons
and gamma - radiation the authentic proofs of existence of a certain
internal structure from this particle were received. In 1970, it
became possible to receive the direct proof in experiment in the
Stanford centre of the linear accelerator (SLAC), that the proton
really has internal structure [1]. However, the concrete internal
structure of a proton remains unopeneded up. The hypothesis of quark
as fundamental basis of elementary particles, has not resulted in an
establishment of concrete internal structure of a proton. As it is
marked in [1]: "*Quark model was offered for an explanation of variety of adrons. It is nothing telling about an internal structure any of these particles by an obvious image*
" Till Now there is no understanding, on what principles the
mechanism of formation of structure of a proton is constructed. On
this reason there is no explanation of its mass, which is equal to
1836,1526675 (39) masses of electrons. Mass of a proton is determined
experimentally. There are no the theory of mass of a proton
and analytical relation for Яalculation of its mass. >From
all heavy particles the proton is a single steady particle. The
proton is a basis of all complex material formations of the Universe.
The world is obliged by existence to a proton, however level of
knowledge about it does not correspond to its role in universe. To
puzzle out such Яonundrum of problems, it is necessary to open
concrete internal structure and to create the theory of its internal
structure. The physicists have already come closely
to such problem, when it is necessary to give the answer to a
question: ? *what concrete internal structure of particles is, as also what the Nature for them used as a building material?*
¦ There are all reasons to believe, that the theory of
internal structure of a proton will open access to new methods of
receiving of energy. The development of energy of a proton can become
the major factor in the decision of a power problem. This article is
devoted to the decision of this task.

**INTERNAL STRUCTURE of a PROTON**

In articles [2 -5] the steps in a direction of creation of the theory of internal structure of elementary particles are undertaken. The relation reflecting the law of formation of structure of an elementary particle is received:

(1)

Where:
n = 2,3...; m_{e}
- mass of a electron ; j = 1 for neutral particles; j = 0 for
particles having a charge.

From the formula it is visible, that the law of genesis of structure of substance has binary character. Binarity is being kept on each step of structurization of material. Binarity in the laws of genesis of structure reflects, that the charging conjugate particles participate in formation of other particles. The formula reflects dynamics of genesis of structure, according to which a formation of structure of material particles is taking place.

The relations for energies are described by the following mathematical formulas [2 - 5]:

(2)

(3)

The formula (2) is applicable for definition of energy of neutral particles, the formula (3) is applicable for definition of energy of charged particles. Each of formulas (2) and (3) reflects the certain discrete series of power levels, at their correspondence to sequence of material formations in dynamics of genesis of structure. Formulas (2) and (3) show that the energy participating in formation of particles is divided into two components. The first component represents total rest energy of material formations participating in formation of a new particle. So, for neutral material formations, it is presented as:

(4)

The second component is presented by summands, which determine size of binding energy:

(5)

The relations (2) and (3) reflect discrete character of internal energy of elementary particles.

In [5] it is shown, that the internal structure of a proton represents fractal construction.

Fractal, revealed in structure of elementary particles, reflects the determinate process of genesis of structure. For fractal of a proton the alternation of symmetric and asymmetric branches of treelike structure is characteristic. The discovering of a concrete kind of fractal, reflecting law of genesis of structure of a proton, allows to receive the quantitative characteristics of elementary particles by a Яalculated way. In [5] the quantitative characteristics of fractal structures of elementary particles are received and the mathematical description of fractal of a proton is found. The mathematical relation for an elementary cell of fractal of a proton is presented as:

On the bases of the formula for an elementary cell of fractal the generalized mathematical relation describing completed fractal designs of internal structure of elementary particles is received. This mathematical relation is presented as:

,

Where: k = 0 for nucleuses, k = 1 for atoms, k = -1 for neutral particles.

From an above mentioned relation, at n = 11, we receive the formula describing fractal of a proton:

. (6)

The formula for fractal of hydrogen will look like:

.

Considering law of genesis of structure of a proton, it is visible to see reflection of self-similarity in its internal structure on various steps of genesis of structure. On each step of formation of structure of a particle the uniform algorithm of shape formation, resulting in original topology of a proton is traced. Fractal of a proton is described by the following topological formula [2]:

**P**_{p}** =2(2(2(2(2(2(2(2(2(2+1)+1)+1)+1)+1)+1)+1)+1)+1)+1 (7)**

The graphic image of the topological formula of a proton represents treelike fractal design. The process of formation of a proton is realized as a result of the consecutive acts of energy saturation of vacuum [2, 3, 4]. The internal structure of a proton is formed by system of consecutive enclosures based on uniform algorithm. On each step of genesis of structure of a proton the fractal substructure repeats fractal of the previous step of structurization. The research of fractal of a proton shows that the internal structure of a proton has brightly expressed quantization and hierarchy structure. In this hierarchy each subsystem is created on the same image: each bigger part of structure in accuracy repeats a smaller part of structure. Thus spatial arrangement at formation of internal structure of a proton is displaied. According to the formulas (4), (6), (7) there is a hierarchical discrete series of internal levels of energy of a proton. Proceeding from the law of preservation of energy, it is visible, that for internal structure of a proton the hierarchy of characteristic frequencies is taking place. As a result, spatial arrangement exists alongside with temporary arrangement. For internal structure of a proton each part of the higher order is constructed by means of unification of two structures of the lower order.

It results in the special grid of characteristic of internal frequencies being created by a principle of DOUBLING of the period.

It is demonstrated by the topological formula of a proton (7). Recursive algorithm is applicable for discribing of dynamics of genesis of structure of a proton and topological formula of a proton in language of algorithms [9]. Recurcity is copying small in large and large in small, keeping a uniform principle of construction of structure of a proton. The formulas of genesis of structure of elementary particles and topological formula of a proton have allowed to receive by theoretical calculation a fundamental constant mp/me, that specifies experimental confirmation of the theory [5, 7, 8, 10].

Besides of, these formulas have allowed to find the mechanism crucial for steadiness of a proton, that opens new methods of receiving of energy. It will be shown below.

**ENERGY OF VACUUM AND ENERGY OF A PROTON**

In the quantum theory is proved, that the minimal possible energy of oscillator cannot be less than 0.5hl (6). These halves at a wide range of waves give very high level of energy of vacuum. It, so-called, zero - point energy of electromagnetic fluctuations. Experimentally energy of vacuum is observed in Lemba-Ryzerford effect and in Kazimir effect. Density of energy of vacuum is defined by relation (6) :

,

where: h -Planck`s constant, a - coefficient, h - frequency .

From here follows, that the energy of vacuum can be very large. According to R. Feynman and G. Whiller, the energy potential of vacuum is so huge, that " in vacuum enclosed in volume of an ordinary electrical bulb, energy such plenty, that it would suffice to boil all oceans on the Earth ".

However, due to high symmetry of vacuum, the direct access to this energy is very inconvenient. As a result, being found, in essence, among ocean of energy, the mankind is compelled to use only traditional methods of receiving of energy based on burning natural energy carriers.

Nevertheless, at infringement of symmetry of vacuum the access to ocean of energy is possible.

The modern methods of receiving of energy can schematically be presented as:

**C + O**_{2
}**CO**_{2}** + 0,0046 MeV,**

^{235}**U
0,85
MeV / nucleon + radioactive waste,**

**D
+ T
**^{4}**He + 17,6 MeV .**

When analysing these methods of receiving of energy, it is possible to see, that a final product in circuit of power transformations is the substance. And, this final substance becomes, as a rule, more dangerous to biosphere, than initial energy carriar. The world already get used to an idea, that for receiving of energy is necessary to have an effect on substance and at a final stage also to receive substance. It concerns energy power based on burning of natural fuel, both to atomic engineering, and to thermonuclear synthesis. Thus cost of received energy remains high, and waste are very dangerous to biosphere. For such methods of receiving of energy the formulation suits: " substance in the beginning of energy transformations - substance in the end of energy transformations ". The task is to find new methods of receiving of energy, free from drawbacks of the traditional scheme. The new scheme of energy transformations should look as: " Substance in the beginning of energy transformations - energy in the end ". Then at a final stage of energy transformations there will be no substance, dangerous to biosphere. It is possible only in case when there are no reactions of synthesis in the circuit of energy transformations, and instead of them the reactions destructurization of substance are realized. It is possible in medium of energy saturated vacuum, where there is an infringement of its symmetry. As a result, there is no direct access to energy of vacuum, but the exchange of energy of vacuum on energy contained in substance is carried out. The transformation of substance to energy will allow considerably to increase quantity of received energy and to make process of receiving of energy by ecologically clean. The new scheme of energy transformations can be realized at presence of a high level of excitation energy of vacuum and influence of this energy on substance. For this purpose a proton ideally suitable as "fuel".

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