Washington is the capital of the USA (39948)Посмотреть архив целиком
Washington is the capital of the USA.
This is the well known fact that Washington – is the capital of the USA. There are government and Capitol there. But Washington is not very big sity, at least not so bid as New York, without skyscrapers and big business part. At all it is forbidden to built the buildings higher than Capitol. Yes, Washington is not the business capital, but as well it can be as a cultural and tourist capital of the USA.
Let us explore a little bit the history of this enigmatic city in order the better understand the present and maybe make some hints to future. So… The founder of Washington was of course George Washington. Black founder of Centralia. George Washington was the son of a slave and a woman of English decent. Soon after his birth, his father was sold to a new owner and his mother took him to the home of the Cochranes, a white couple who later adopted George. Anti-black laws, restrictions, and prejudice followed George and the Cochranes through six moves and six different states from Virginia to Washington. Prior to 1857, a law barring blacks from land ownership prevented George from owning the property he found in Washington. The Cochranes filed for the land chosen by George in order to protect it for him. In 1857 the law was repealed and the Cochranes deeded back to George, the 640 acres he had lived on and developed for the past five years. At last, receiving that title symbolized the attainment of basic rights and in 1875 George filed his intention of laying out a new town, originally named Centerville. In 1889 the town had a population of 1,000 and George had sold his 2,000th lot. In the Panic of 1893, Centralia was hard hit, and George saved the town by purchasing properties gone to the auction block and making wagon trips alone to Portland, Oregon for supplies, and by lending considerable sums of money with no interest or terms for repayment.
The one very big part of present Washington is Georgetown. Georgetown was officially formed in 1751 when the Maryland Assembly authorized the foundation of a town bordering the Potomac River. It was named George Town in honor of King George II, and very soon it prospered. In the beginning, tobacco was the lifeblood of the fledging community, which soon expanded into a profitable shipping community. Because of its access to the Potomac, Georgetown soon had a commercial and industrial hub around the waterfront where flour mills and wharves were constructed. As a result of its prosperity, Georgetown gained a reputation as the fashionable quarter of the capital and was visited by important people from all over the world.
And that famous river Potomac! It has seen enormous changes since the arrival of Native Americans in the first century C.E. The Native American settlements are now gone. Wars have been fought in along its shores; canals, railroads and factories built beside it; and the Nation's Capital built on its banks.
Probably as a result of its popularity, Georgetown was annexed to Washington City in 1871 by Congress. This little plot of land on the Potomac had evolved from a dirt patch to a part of a nation's capital.
After the Civil War, large numbers of freed slaves migrated to Georgetown. These African Americans flourished, becoming increasingly self-reliant. However, all this changed when in 1890 the Colorado and Ohio Canal was severely damaged by a Potomac River flood, and the Canal Company was forced into bankruptcy. The area went into an economic depression, and in the period after the First World War, the area gained a reputation as one of the worst slums in Washington. However, this trend started to reverse itself, when in the 1930s, New Deal government officials discovered Georgetown's beauty and convenience. Georgetown once again became the hip enclave for the affluent and politically inclined.
Today, Georgetown still boasts many attractions. One of these is the C&O Canal. The C & O Canal is scenic park area covered with camping sites, and over 180 miles of biking and hiking trails. Another attraction is the Old Stone House, which is the oldest intact house in the area. It was originally built in 1765 for Christopher Lehman and now is owned by the National Park Service, which opens it to the public.
Georgetown also sports a quiet, darker side. That side is evidenced in its cemeteries. Designed by George de la Roche, Oak Hill Cemetery was a gift to the town from philanthropist William Wilson Corcoran. Its Gothic chapel and gates were the work of the artistic genius of James Renwick, the architect responsible for the Smithsonian Castle and the Renwick Gallery. Among those buried here are Abraham Lincoln's young son Willie and his secretary of war, Edwin M. Stanton; Benjamin Harrison's secretary of state, James G. Blaine; and John Howard Payne, author of “Home, Sweet Home.” The graves of both Confederate and Union soldiers attest to Georgetown's divided loyalties during the Civil War. The Van Ness Mausoleum, also part of the cemetery, was built in 1833 by George Hadfield and eventually was moved to the cemetery in 1872. Another graveyard in Georgetown is the Mount Zion Cemetery. It was established by the Female Union Band Society, a benevolent association that provided free burial for blacks. Even with its darkness, Georgetown is truly a beautiful place.
Washington D.C. was the first carefully planned capital in the world. The capital of the U.S. was transferred from Philadelphia to Washington on Dec. 1, 1800.
In 1978, a proposed constitutional amendment to give the District of Columbia voting representation in the U.S. Congress was passed by Congress; the proposal died in 1985, having failed to get the needed 28 states to approve it.
Now in the Washington is all the government and White house of course. It exist a very curious rules abut the national symbol – American flag. No record has been found for the earliest date the flag was flown over the east and west fronts of the Capitol. Early engravings and lithographs in the office of the Architect of the Capitol show flags flying on either side of the original low dome above the corridors connecting the areas now known as Statuary Hall and the Old Senate Chamber.
After the addition of the new House and Senate wings in the 1850s, even before the great dome was completed in 1863, photographs of the period show flags flying over each new wing and the central east and west fronts.
The custom of flying the flags 24 hours a day over the east and west fronts was begun during World War I. This was done in response to requests received from all over the country urging that the flag of the United States be flown continuously over the public buildings in Washington, DC.
The east and west front flags, which are 8 x 12 feet, are replaced by new ones when they become worn and unfit for further use. Prior to machine-made flags, individuals were hired by the Congress to handsew these flags.
Presidential proclamations and laws authorize the display of the flag 24 hours a day at the following places:
Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine, Baltimore, Maryland (Presidential Proclamation No. 2795, July 2, 1948).
Flag House Square, Albemarle and Pratt Streets, Baltimore Maryland (Public Law 83-319, approved March 26, 1954).
United States Marine Corp Memorial (Iwo Jima), Arlington, Virginia (Presidential Proclamation No. 3418, June 12, 1961).
On the Green of the Town of Lexington, Massachusetts (Public Law 89-335, approved November 8, 1965).
The White House, Washington, DC. (Presidential Proclamation No. 4000, September 4, 1970).
Washington Monument, Washington, DC. (Presidential Proclamation No. 4064, July 6, 1971, effective July 4, 1971).
Fifty flags of the United States are displayed at the Washington Monument continuously. United States Customs Ports of Entry which are continually open (Presidential Proclamation No. 413 1, May 5, 1972).
Grounds of the National Memorial Arch in Valley Forge State Park, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania (Public Law 94-53, approved July 4,1975).
Many other places fly the flag at night as a patriotic gesture by custom. All America are really proud of its capital and flag if on every corner it fly the flag showing to everybody the power of the democracy.
Washington D.C.'s official tree is the Scarlet oak.
The Washington city is also famous by the famous people that were born here. Among the are: Billie Burke, comedienne and actress best known for playing Glenda the good witch in The Wizard of Oz, Duke Ellington, jazz musician, Goldie Hawn, television and movie actress whose credits include Laugh In and The First Wives Club, J. Edgar Hoover, former director of the F.B.I, John Philip Sousa, composer known for his compositions for marching bands.
Culture and art are everywhere in this city. It is like it says “OK, you don’t want to make a metropolitan area with me, I’m very thankful!” And really who can boast with such a great verity of museums, art galleries and national parks? Who, except Washington? From Art to Zebras, Washington DC is host to world famous aquariums, archives, galleries, historical sites, libraries, museums and parks that offer something that will appeal to even the most diverse interest.
Let we make just little excursion through this marvelous city. Please look to the left, look to the right. Ladies and gentlemen! You are interested in Arts? To your pleasure Art and Industries building. The Arts and Industries building houses a re-creation of the 1881 Exposition for which it is named. The original U.S. National Museum, this architectural wonder once held many specimens (such as the Spirit of St. Louis) that are now on display in other Smithsonian museums. Presently, the museum features exhibition spaces and galleries that host historical artifacts and displays, along with a Discovery theater for educational programs. Maybe on your childhood you’ve read a lot of police stories, you should go to make a tour at FBI building! One of the most popular attractions in D.C. is the one-hour tour of the J. Edgar Hoover F.B.I. Building. The tour gives an inside look at how the F.B.I. works with exhibits on famous cases, a look at the F.B.I.'s "ten most wanted fugitives," a visit to the F.B.I.'s scientific laboratory, and a firearms demonstration by a Special Agent. Tours are free. Maybe you will be so lucky that can meet Edgar Hoover there! And what about something special like for example National Museum of Health and Medicine? Where someone can visit fascinating exhibits which examine the nature and technology of medicine used to treat disease, from as far back as the Civil War until the treatment of AIDS. Medical kits used by Civil War doctors and displays of battlefield injuries bring medical history to life. Learn about staying healthy in today's world and the challenges of modern medicine through computer interactive tools. See 18th century microscopes alongside electron microscopes. The museum's Human Developmental Anatomy Center houses one of the largest embryological collections in the nation. Or The National Postal Museum? Drawing on its vast postal history and philatelic collection, the museum includes six major exhibition galleries touching on a range of topics, from the earliest history of the post office to the art of letter writing and the history of stamp collecting. An impressive atrium features three suspended airmail planes and is one of five exhibit galleries. The museum also has a library and research center, which includes a rare book reading room, an audiovisual room, and a workroom for viewing items from the collection. Educational programs include a Discovery Center for children.