Advertising in our Life (9972-1)Посмотреть архив целиком
Advertising in our Life
Applicant: Anna Puchnina
The student of the 10 “A” form
The History of Advertising
Types and Functions of Advertising
Advertising in mass media.
It is impossible to imagine our television, newspapers, radio, Internet and even streets without advertisements. Nowadays advertising plays an important role in modern life and in the life of every person. We can’t imagine our life without advertising because every day we hear or see advertising, we try to find information we need in hundreds of advertisements. Even when we go for a walk or just shopping we see a lot of different advertisements in the streets. I think that “Advertising” is a very interesting topic, because in the XXI century every minute of our life is connected with advertising. It is hard to believe but the origins of advertising antedate the Christian era by many centuries. One of the first known methods of advertising was outdoor display, usually an eye-catching sign painted on the wall of a building. From this unsophisticated beginnings in ancient times advertising has turned into a worldwide industry.
The word “advertising” comes from the French word "reclame". Advertising if to speak a simple language, serves to notify in various ways (sometimes all available) the new goods or services and their consumer properties, and is directed to the potential consumer, paid by the sponsor and serves for promotion of its production and ideas. Advertising is a part of communication activity of a firm, alongside with publicity and stimulation of selling. Advertising unessentially imposes the goods on the buyer. Sometimes it simply forces to recollect the last concrete mark or the name of the goods or service when the customer makes the choice. At the beginning the consumer decides to choose from what, and already then what mark to prefer, on the basis of the representation about it, a stereotype or a developed image of concrete mark of the goods or service. There are a lot of definitions of the word “advertising”. For example, advertising is collective term for public announcements designed to promote the sale of specific commodities or services. Advertising is a form of mass selling, employed when the use of direct, person-to-person selling is impractical, impossible, or simply inefficient. It is to be distinguished from other activities intended to persuade the public, such as propaganda, publicity, and public relations. Advertising techniques range in complexity from the publishing of simple, straightforward notices in the classified – advertising columns of newspapers to the concerted use of newspapers, magazines, television, radio, internet and other communication media in the course of a single advertising campaign. In the US alone in the late 1980s approximately $120 billion was spent in a single year on advertising to influence the purchase of commodities and services.
Advertising has achieved the greatest blossoming in the United States of America. American advertising leads the world not only in volume of business but in the complexity of its organization and of its procedures. Modern advertising is an integral segment of urban industrial civilization, reflecting contemporary life in its best and worst aspects. Having proved its force in the movement of economic goods and services, advertising since the early 1960s has been directed in increasing quantity toward matters of social concern. The continuing cancer and antidrug abuse campaigns are only two examples of the use of the advertising industry as a means to promote public welfare.
The basic underlying advertising idea is the idea of human needs. Need is the feeling of shortage of something experienced by the person. If the need is not satisfied, the person feels like destitute and unfortunate. Unsatisfied person will do one of the following things: either will be engaged in search of the object, capable to satisfy his or her need, or will try to muffle it.
The second initial idea of advertising is the idea of human requirements. Requirement is the need which has accepted the specific form according to a cultural level and the personal features of the individual. Requirements of people are practically boundless,but resources for their satisfaction are limited. So the person will choose those goods which will give him or her the greatest satisfaction within the framework of his or her financial opportunities.
The inquiry is the requirement supported by purchasing capacity. So, for example, in Europe automobile " Volkswagen " personifies an elementary automobile, a low purchase price, and "Cadillac" - high comfort, luxury and prestige. Russian people choose "Zhiguli" as they have no opportunity to buy such expensive cars and "Zhiguli" gives them the greatest satisfaction for money available for them.
And, at last, human needs and requirements and inquiries suggest about the existence of the goods for their satisfaction. The goods are everything, that can satisfy requirements or needs and they are offered to the market with the purpose of gaining the attention of the consumers, purchasing, using or consuming.
The structure of advertising contains the following five basic moments:
The first one, it possesses the ability to draw attention. It is very important to draw attention of readers by headings and televiewers by a video series. It is necessary to find out whether advertising influences those categories of potential consumers for which it is designed.
The second one, the force of influence of advertising on the emotions of consumers. It is necessary to know what feelings are born in them under the influence of advertising, whether the advertising argument is successful and whether it is made correctly.
The third one, how strong is the force of influence. We should admit whether the consumer will run to buy these goods after viewing advertising or will continue sitting in an armchair in spite of the fact that he or she likes advertising it and there is a necessity to purchase the advertising goods.
The fourth one is its informative value. We must be sure that the advertising is stated clearly, the utility of promoted thing is shown correctly and profoundly.
And the last, the fifth one, we should know for sure whether the person will want to read the message or to see an advertising roller up to the end. We must know how effectively advertising gains attention of the people.
Nevertheless, we should admit that advertising actually enriches our lives. Commercial television is able to provide us with free programmes thanks to its advertising revenues, local newspapers and magazines derive also much revenue from advertising, which allows them to exist. At least, advertising makes people mind go far in their creativity, generating over and over new interesting ideas.
At first when trade began to develop wide and fast advertising was oral. Traders, dealers and vagrant handicraftsmen offered their highly praised goods and various services in eager rivalry filling with shouts the streets of their cities and towns. The early advertising was carried out by the city heralds or town/city criers. "Golden Age" of ancient Greece saw many heralds who went along the streets of Athenes, proclaiming about sales of slaves, cattle and other goods.
One more early version of advertising was a brand which handicraftsmen put on their goods, such, as pottery. As rumours brought information of a skilful handicraftsman, buyers started to search for the goods with his brand. Today for the same purpose trade marks and branded names are used. In the process of centralization of manufacture value of a brand constantly grew.
We can see advertisements in the early documents of written history. During excavations on the territory of the countries belonging to the Mediterranean region archeologists found the signboards informing on various events and offers. The Romans painted walls with announcements of gladiatorial fights, and the Phoenicians painted rocks on routes of different trade processions, in every possible way praising to the skies their goods. One of the inscriptions on the walls of the house in Pompeii highly praised one outstanding politician and called people to give their voices for him voting that time. All these things are predecessors of modern outdoor advertising.
The first advertising in written form is considered to be information on Egyptian papyrus which tells about the sale of the slave and nowadays this papyrus is kept in the British Museum in London.
Advertising began long before the Christian era. One of the first known methods of advertising was the outdoor display, usually eye-catching signs painted on the wall of a building. Archaeologists found many such like signs, in the ruins of ancient Rome and Pompeii. An outdoor advertisement excavated in Rome offers property for rent, and one more found advertisement painted on a wall in Pompeii calls the attention of travellers to a tavern situated in another town.
Messages of commercial character were drawn on rocks along trading ways. Greeks engraved advertising messages on stones, copper, bones and they cut them out on wooden columns. The stone column with the inscription on it: “Here I live, Minos, from the island Cyprus. On favour of Gods I am allocated with the ability to interpret dreams for a very moderate pay” was found in the ruins of an ancient Egyptian city Memphis. A fine example of announcement: brevity and market capacity.
In medieval times word-of-mouth praise of products gave rise to a simple but effective form of advertising, the use of so-called town criers. The criers were citizens who read public notices aloud and were also employed by merchants to shout the praises of their wares.