Курс лингвистики (Экзаменационные вопросы WinWord) (Linguistic course (exams))

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1. Morphological and genealogical classifications of languages.

Lang-e may be classified in different ways: the morphologically and genealogically.

When we classified the language morphologically we mean the structure of the word of a living language. When we classified the language genealogically we mean the origin of the language. According to the M.C. the language are divided into languages having not affixes and the lang-s with affixes. The words of the lang-e, which has not affixes, are unchangeable (such as где, туда, здесь, там, in, at, for, since, etc). Word order is of a great important in lang-s with has no affixes. Languages with affixes are classified into agglutinative and inflected. Both of them are characterized by affixes but the connection between the root or the steam of the word and the suffixes is quite different. In inflected languages the suffix is characterized by two or more meanings. (домам). To the inflected languages we refer the language of Indo-European family (such as Russian, German, English, Latin, etc). In agglutinative languages the suffix is characterized only by one meaning (in Georgian lang., in English – some words like ox-oxen’s-бык). Agglutinative languages are divided into: Altanian, Agro-Finish, Iberian-Caucasian. According to the G.C. all the lang-s of the world are classified into large families of lang-s. They are: Indo-European, Semitic and Hermitic, Altaic, Iberian-Caucasian, Chinese-Tibet, Indonesian.

2. The Verb in English and in Russian compare.

The verb is a notional part of speech. Both in E&R the verb denote an action (to write - писать), a process (to work) and a state (to sit, stand). Syntactically the verb functions as a simple verbal predicate. (Она пишет письма каждый день. She writes letters every day.) Morphologically the verb in Russian is characterized by the following categories: tense, aspect, mood, person, number, gender. The English forms has the same categories but they has not the category of gender but they has a time of relations. The verbs may be classified into: subjective and objective. Subjective verbs are connected with their subject. In English practically all the verbs are subjective. In Russian – not all. They may be used without their subjects (Темнеет). Objective verbs are closely connected with two nouns or noun equivalents. Objective verbs which are connected with their objects directly are transitive verbs, all others – intransitive.

As to their morphemes we find a greater variety and abundance of stem-building affixes in Russian (в-, вз-, воз-, пери-, за-, из-, на-, над-, низ-, -ова-, -ствова-). In English the number of v-building suffixes is limited (-ify, -ate, -en, etc). Though the number of prefixes in English is greater (mis-, un-, be-, out-, etc).

The most productive way of forming verbs in MoE is conversion. It is not characteristic in Russian (because of the different structures). We find difference in the system of the non-finite forms, we find no gerund in Russian. The Infinitive in English is characterized by such categories as voice, aspect, correlation. The tense-system of the verb is different in the two languages. In English all the tenses but the Past Indefinite and Present Indefinite are analytical. In English all the tenses are tense-aspect forms but the indefinite group. In Russian practically the tenses are synthetically. Only the Future tense may be both synthetically and analytical.

3. The category of tense in English and in Russian compare.

There are 3 tenses in both lang-s: Past, Present and Future. But there is difference in the number of grammatical tenses. This is because the two lang-s are different in their morphological structure. The Russian lang. has a rich morphology while the morphology of the English us poor.

In English all grammatical tenses are divided into 4 large groups. They are: Indefinite, Continues, Perfect, Perfect Continues. The specific feature of the English language is that all the tenses are analytical but the Present and the Past Indefinite. All tenses in English are tense-aspect forms, but the Indefinite tenses. We say that these tenses are tense-aspect forms because they express both the time of an action and the character of an action (He is reading a book now).

The tense-system of the verb is different in the two languages. In English all the tenses but the Past Indefinite and Present Indefinite are analytical. In English all the tenses are tense-aspect forms but the indefinite group. In Russian practically the tenses are synthetically. Only the Future tense may be both synthetically and analytical.

4. The category of aspect in English and in Russian compare.

Both in ER is characterized by the category of aspect. But this category of two languages is quite different. In English the category of aspect shows the character of an action. That is whether the action is shown as a fact or it shown in its progress in its developments (Pete reads books everyday). Practically we have two aspects in English: the continues and the non-continues common aspects. In Russian the c.o.a. expresses the completeness or incompleteness of an action. The perfective aspect. Subject is usually form in MoR with the help of prefixes (внести, вынести, занести…). Different verbs combine with the different number of prefixes. Usually the verb with the suffix ну- express instantanian action. In English we used only one word (толкать, толкнуть – to push). There are some modern verb in Russian with the suffix ну- which do not express instantanians actions. (вянуть, вязнуть, гаснуть, сохнуть) It depends upon the lexical meaning. The imperfective aspect. The words of imperfective aspect are formed by means of such suffixes as ыва-, -ива-, -ва-, -а-, -я-. (переписать – переписывать, забить – забивать). In English the repetition of an action is usually expressed with the help of the prefix “re-“ (to write-to rewrite). In MoR there are exist a group of words of motions which have two forms of the imperfective aspect. The category of aspect in MoR is very closely connected with the lexical meaning of the word.

5. The category of voice in English and in Russian compare.

There are different points of view concerning the number of voices both in ER. There is an opinion that there are 3 voices in MoR: active, middle reflexive and passive. Grammatically we have only 2 voices in English; active and passive. (Boy reads the book. The book is read by the boy.) In the active voice the subject is the doer of an action while in the passive voice the subject is not the doer of an action. There are some group of verbs in MoR which are not used in the passive voice: 1) all the intransitive verbs without the suffix «ся» (идти, ехать, ходить), 2) reflexive verbs built upon intransitive ones (споткнуться, улыбнуться), 3) some verbs with the suffix «ся» having a special meaning (слушать-слушаться, нести-нестись).

The specific feature of the English language is that the Passive voice may be formed the verbs connected with the indirect object. (She gave me a book. I was given a book by her. – adv.modifier.) Let us compare the number of active-passive oppositions in both languages. We see that Russian have two: пишет - пишется. In English we have 10 active-passive opposition. The forms of the Future Continues, Present Perfect Continues, Past Perfect Continues, Future Perfect Continues are not used in the Passive Voice. The category of voice is closely connected with the text (братья переписываются, бумаги переписываются секретарем). The instrumental case in Russian corresponds to the by-phrase in English. When the Past Particle expresses a state – Active voice, when it expresses the action – Passive voice. The action is emphasized by the by-phrase, the adv.modifier and sometimes by the form itself. The continues perfect forms usually emphasize an action (the door has been shut – s.v.pr.).

7. The category of mood in English and in Russian compare.

We find 3 moods both in ER. The category of mood expresses the relation of an action to reality. (We were at home at 6 o’clock – reality, If we were at home at 6 o’clock – unreality). The relation of an action to reality may be expressed lexically. Then we use modal verbs: конечно, обязательно, точно, etc. (Of course he will be at home now). The relation of an action may be expressed lexically and grammatically at the same time. Then we use modal verbs (He can do it. He may do it.). It may be phonetically with the help of intonation. The category of mood is one of the most complicated categories especially in English. Usually we speak about three moods in Russian. (Изъявительное, повелительное и сослагательное). The number of moods in MoE is greater. The best classification of moods was introduced by Смирнитский. He finds six moods, which must be divided into direct (Indicative, imperative) and indirect (Subjunctive I, II, suppositional and conditional) moods.

8. The Subjunctive mood in English and in Russian compare.

In both languages the Subjunctive mood expresses a probable, possible, imaginary or unreal action. (If I had time I should visit you – если бы у меня было время, я бы посетил тебя.) There are many opinions exists concerning the number of moods both in ER. Smirnitsky finds 4 subjunctive moods in MoE: Subjunctive I, II, conditional and suppositional. There is an opinion that in MoR there are 5 subjunctive moods such as the conditional, the optative, the suppositional, the conditional optative and the subjunctive moods. But practically we have only 4 moods. The suppositional and subjunctive I are grammatical synonyms. They express probable, possible, imaginary actions. But there are quite different in their forms. Subjunctive I is a syntactical form of the mood. It has only one form. Which coincides with infinitive without “to”. (I write, he write, she write). The suppositional mood is an analytical form. It is formed with the help of a mood auxiliary “should +Infinitive”. (I should write, He should write). The SI is used both in simple and in complex sentences. (It is necessary that all the students be present at the classroom). The suppositional mood is used only in complex sentences (It is necessary that all the students should be present.). SI is archaic form and it is often replaced by the suppositional mood. The SII and the conditional mood are also grammatical synonyms. They express unreal actions or non-fact actions. SII is considered to be a syntactical mood. It has two forms. If the action is referred to the present or to the future it’s form coincides with the past indefinite indicative (wrote, read). The verb “to be” is used to be “were”. If the actions refer to the past the form of SII coincides with the Past Perfect Indicative. (If I knew it. If I had know it.) It is usually used in subordinate clauses of the complex sentence. The conditional mood is an analytical. It is formed with the help of a mood auxiliary (“Should or Would”). (I should read, You would read). The conditional mood is usually used in principle clauses of complex sentences. (If I were you I should do it. – SII, conditional mood). (Referring to the past – If I had been you I should have done it).

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