Fighting fr wmns librtin (56474)















Fighting fr Wmns Librtin

(ssy)



Intrductin


Tdy, wmn r fcd with wht sms t b cntrdictin. Th first wmns librtin lflt in ustrli ws distributd t dmnstrtin ginst th Vitnm wr in 1969. In ctbr tht yr Zld Dprn nd tw thr wmn chind thmslvs t th ntrnc t th rbitrtin Curt in Mlburn. Fr th first tim tht Curt fund in fvur f qul py fr idnticl wrk. nd in 1972 th Curt ruld in fvur f n py rt fr wrkrs undr n wrd t prvnt mplyrs cntinuing thir vsin f qul py by clssifying jbs wmn did s diffrnt frm mns.

Yt, thirty-tw yrs ltr, ustrlin wmn wrking full tim still rn n vrg 85% f ml rnings. nd whn ll wmn r cmprd with ll mn, th prcntg is still nly 66% bcus 70% f wmn wrk prt tim. nd th gp is incrsing gin. In th yr My 1999 t My 2000, ml rnings fr full tim rdinry tim incrsd 5.1%, but wmns nly by 4%.

W hv plthr f nti-discrimintin lws nd qul mplymnt pprtunity () is nshrind in lgisltin. Yt wmn rmin cncntrtd in th lw pid, ftn prt tim jbs with fw crr prspcts. In th lt nintis, in th Dprtmnt f ductin, mplymnt nd Trining, 50% f mplys wr wmn. In th tw lwst lvls, thy md up 75%, but nly 12% f mngmnt. rviw f stff t Griffith Univrsity in Brisbn rvld th sm inqulitis. In 1999, wmn wr 52% f ll stff, 35% f cdmic stff nd 62% f gnrl stff. Yt wmn wr vr-rprsntd in th lwr clssifictins in bth th cdmic nd gnrl rs. Wmn md up 86% f gnrl stff lvl n, 73% in lvl thr, but nly 45% f lvl tn nd 29% bv lvl tn. Thy md up 55% f cdmic lvl psitins, 38% f lvl B, 33% f lvl C, 20% f lvl D, nd nly 14% f lvl . Whn fcultis wr cmprd, th gndr diffrncs wr striking. Wmn cdmics md up 94% f stff in th schl f Nursing, but nly 9% in nginring, 23% in Scinc, 29% in Intrntinl Businss nd Plitics. nd this is univrsity tht clims its ffirmtiv ctin prgrm is wrking!1

Thirty yrs ftr th sxul librtin mvmnt burst nt th scn, mdi cmmnttrs such s Bttin rndt rgulrly cmpign ginst th right fr singl wmn t hv childrn, singl wmn r dnid IVF in sm stts, ldr wmn wh chs t us IVF r vilifid. Lsbin wmn r still mrginlisd, prtryls f sx in ppulr cultur rmin ml cntrd nd ignrnt f wmns sxul plsurs. nd th Cthlic Church cntinus t discrimint ginst lsbins nd gy mn with impunity. Intrntinlly, brtin rights rmin tnuus with nw cmpign t dfnd wmns rights ginst th Bush dministrtin in th US, nd in thr cuntris it rmins illgl. Wmn r still pnly trtd s if thyr sx bjcts in dvrtising, in ppulr cultur nd in mssivly xpnding sx industry.

Wmns right t wrk is widly ccptd tdy fr instnc thr hs bn n cncrtd cmpign ginst mrrid wmns right t wrk during dcd nd hlf f mss unmplymnt. But it isnt tht simpl. Th Hwrd gvrnmnt slshd funding t cmmunity childcr cntrs, virtully mking wrk fr mny lw-incm wmn n impssibl ptin s child cr cn t up such lrg prcntg f thir incm it is nt wrth it.

S ws th wmns librtin mvmnt wrth th tim nd nrgy? In spit f it ll th nswr shuld b rsunding ys!. It ws wrth vry minut spnt prtsting, mrching, writing lflts, ttnding mtings nd rising hll. In th sixtis, prgnnt wmn wr simply xpctd t lv wrk with n ccss t mtrnity lv r py. Cntrcptin ws primitiv nd unrlibl, nd illgl, bckyrd brtins wr nightmr witing t hppn, mking sx surc f nxity nd guilt. In 1961 wmn wr nly 25% f th wrkfrc. nly 17% f mrrid wmn btwn th gs f 25 nd 34 nd 21% f mrrid wmn 35 t 44 wr in th pid wrkfrc. In 1966 th prticiptin rt in th pid wrkfrc by wmn ws 36% cmprd with 84% f mn. By 1994 wmn wr 43% f th wrkfrc nd 53% f wmn gd 16-54 wr in pid wrk cmprd with 73% f mn. Hwvr, th drmtic chng ws fr mrrid wmn with 63% f mrrid wmn gd 25-34 in pid wrk nd 71% gd 35 t 44. s lt s th rly sixtis wmn wr nt bl t srv n juris, culd nt gt bnk ln in thir wn right, nd thr ws n supprting prnts bnfit fr wmn (r mn fr tht mttr) if prtnrship brk up until 1974. Divrc ws lng drwn ut, xpnsiv ffir nd thr wr n rfugs whr wmn culd scp vilnt rltinship until th 1980s.

S n th n hnd, w hv wn significnt gins, n th thr wmn rmin pprssd. Lik ll scil mvmnts, it tk militnt, bld nd dtrmind pliticl ctins t frc rfrms frm th systm. Withut th mvmnt, wmns rights wuld b vn fwr.

vn thugh w cn win rfrms, whil cpitlism cntinus t xist, thr will cntinu t b wmns pprssin. Cpitlism is dynmic, chnging scity nd is bl t bsrb ll mnnr f prtsts. Mny f th dmnds f th Wmns Librtin Mvmnt fittd with th nds f th dvlpd wrld firly sily, s mplyrs nd gvrnmnts drw in millins f wmn t cp with lbur shrtgs cusd by th mssiv bm. Hwvr, th fundmntls f th systm did nt chng. Scil rltins still rstd n xplittin nd pprssin. Th driving frc f scity rmind cmptitin fr prfits fr th minrity wh mk up th cpitlist clss, rthr thn humn nd. S whil wmns incrsd prticiptin in th pid wrkfrc ws ctully ncurgd, it hd t b n th trms f cpitlism. mplyrs nd gvrnmnts r nt intrstd in nsuring wmn wrk in n nvirnmnt tht fits with thir nd t brst fd thir child, r f fmilis struggling t find th tim fr lng hurs n th jb nd still crry th rspnsibilitis in th hm. n th thr hnd, wmns pprssin plys vitl rl in mintining th systm nd th pwr f ths wh rul. S this minrity hv vry rl mtril intrst in th prptutin f sxism. Tht is why ultimtly w will nd rvlutin t cmpltly vrthrw cpitlism nd build nw scity in rdr t nd wmns pprssin. In scity bsd n cllctiv nd dmcrtic cntrl f ll wlth s tht humn nd cn b th bsis fr scil dcisins, it wuld b pssibl t rgnis wrk nd th scilistin nd cr f childrn n th bsis f ppls nds. Thr wuld nt b ny scil grup wh culd bnfit frm wmns pprssin. Thn wmns librtin will b pssibl.

Ths r th thms f this pmphlt.



Why r wmn pprssd?


Frdrick ngls, frind nd cllbrtr f Krl Mrx, shwd tht wmn hv bn pprssd vr sinc th bginning f clss scity. Using cpius nts Mrx hd md thrughut his liftim trying t undrstnd why wmn wr pprssd, in his pth-brking bk Th Fmily, Privt Prprty nd th Stt, publishd in th 1880s, ngls gv th first mtrilist xplntin f wmns pprssin. H rgud tht with th ris f clsss, th ruling clss fund it ncssry t cntrl, fr th first tim in humn histry, wmns sxulity in rdr t dtrmin thir hirs fr th inhritnc f prprty. Th nd t cntrl wmn f th uppr clsss ld ultimtly t ids nd lws which, t b ffctiv, hd t pply t ll wmn, nd s stblishd th pprssin f n hlf f humnity.2 S sxism nd th kind f discrimintin ginst wmn w s vrywhr tdy is dply mbddd in scil nd culturl trditins which strtch bck mny cnturis bfr cpitlism. Hwvr fr th sk f brvity, this pmphlt will nly lk t hw wmns pprssin is prptutd undr cpitlism.3

n f th min institutins f cpitlism is th nuclr fmily tw htrsxul ppl living with thir childrn. In sm culturs th xtndd fmily cntinus, but it plys similr rl s th nuclr fmily in prptuting th gndr strtyps which r cntrl t wmns pprssin. Th strtyps f mn th prtctr, th prvidr, nd wmn th cring, lving wif nd mthr dpndnt n th mn nd dvtd t hr childrn undrpin th trtmnt f wmn s sx bjcts, th id tht wmn r by ntur mr pssiv nd nurturing thn mn, nd prvid rtinl fr lwr wgs nd fwr jb pprtunitis. Frm ths strtyps fllws th pprssin f lsbins nd gy mn, but ls th sxul pprssin f htrsxul wmn. Th mphsis n mngmy nd wmns rl s child brrs lys th bsis fr th dnil f wmns sxul nds, nd th id tht wmn r mr sx bjcts fr mns plsur.

Th fmily prmiss hvn frm th prssurs f wrk, rfug whr lv is th driving frc rthr thn cmptitin nd xplittin. Unfrtuntly, th rlity is nthing lik th prmis. Bcus th fmily is nt sprt frm nd insultd frm scity. Mn tnd t rn mr, hv mr jb pprtunitis, nd thir rl in th pid wrkfrc is vlud mr highly thn wrk dn in th hm. Thrfr, th rltinship n which th fmily is bsd is frm th vry strt unqul. Fr th vst mjrity f fmilis, th gndr rls r impssibl t scp. vn if thy wuld lik th mn t tk tim ff frm pid wrk t ply mr f rl ding child cr nd huswrk, mst fmilis cnnt ffrd t scrific th wg f th highr rnr. In spit f th fct tht mr wmn wrk utsid th hm, nd tht thy r nw 54% f univrsity studnts in cuntry lik ustrli, th gndr strtyps r bing rinfrcd, nt brkn dwn. vn th cnsrvtiv Institut f Fmily ffirs hs cmmntd tht with wmn cncntrtd in prt tim wrk nd mn incrsingly wrking lngr hurs, vn with th bst f intntins, individul fmilis find it virtully impssibl t chllng th strtyp f th wmn tking mjr rspnsibility fr childrn4.

This vry rl inqulity in th fmily, cusd by inqulitis in th wrkplc, is bckd up by th drgtry wy wmn r trtd in dvrtising, ppulr film, nd litrtur. Mn r ncurgd t s wmn s t bst, pssiv bjcts f thir dsirs, t wrst, nt wrthy f ny rspct r cntrl vr thir bdis. Thy r ls ncurgd t s thir msculinity s strng, ggrssiv, dminring, stic, dismissiv f snsitivity. Cmbin ll f this with th tndncy fr cpitlism t turn vrything int cmmdity, sx is smthing fr sl, i. prstitutin, nd s is smthing tht cn b tkn by th strng frm th wk. S instd f hvn f lv nd rst, th fmily is ctully n f th mst vilnt plcs fr wmn t b. Mst sxul vilnc ginst wmn is by mn thy knw in th fmily.

Th rlity f th wrkplc bcks up th inqulitis nd vilnc in th fmily. Wmns lw py mks it difficult t lv lvlss hm, mking thm dpndnt nd mphsising mns uthrity in th fmily. Th cncntrtin f wmn in th lwst pid jbs mns lck f wmn wh xrcis uthrity, rinfrcing mns sxist ttituds nd rinfrcing wmns lck f cnfidnc in thir wn wrth. This ffcts vry r f ur livs frm th mst public t th mst intimt. Wmn wh r public figurs r subjctd t ndlss discussin by th mdi f thir drss sns nd thir pprnc. Wmn wh r ggrssiv nd cnfidnt r ridiculd r trtd s thrtning nd dminring fr th sm bhviur tht is prisd s mbitin r strngth f chrctr in mn. In prsnl rltinships, mst wmn find it difficult t ssrt thir wn dsirs. Rsrch int wmns sxul ctivity fund tht mjrity f wmn in htrsxul rltinships rrly xprinc rgsm, nt bcus thy r frigid s th myth mkrs wuld hv us bliv, but bcus thy cnnt bring thmslvs t tll thir lvrs wht thy njy nd nd. Th rsn wmn gv fr dnying thir wn plsur is vry rvling. Mst instinctivly knw tht th mn ssumd his rl t b th inititr in ll things sxul. T tk wy his cntrl wuld b t undrmin his cnfidnc, nd thrtn th whl bsis f thir rltinship.5

Th inqulitis btwn wmn nd mn, whil bsd in th scil situtin f hw cpitlism rgniss wrk, r rflctd in th wy wmn nd mn r scilisd frm birth. Studis hv fund tht mthrs smil mr t thir ml childrn whn thyr ctiv, such s using building blcks, mving rund, but smil mr t thir dughtrs whn thy r quit nd pssiv. Prnts tnd t intrrupt thir dughtrs mr rdily thn thir sns in cnvrstin. thr studis shw tht dults rspnd in rdiclly diffrnt wys t child in th sm circumstncs, dpnding n whthr thy think thy r ml r fml.6 Th gndr strtyps s cntrl t wmns pprssin r s much prt f th wy w r scilisd frm th rlist g, discrimintry bhviur twrds wmn gs lrgly unnticd. Rsrch int th wy ppl cmmunict rvld tht mn initit mst tpics f discussin, intrrupt thrs vstly mr thn wmn, nd gnrlly dmint scil situtins.7 Ths lrnd rspnss bgin with ur rlist cmmunictins with thr humn bings nd r ftn trtd s if thy r purly psychlgicl, r vn ccptd s rprsnttiv f wmn nd mns diffrnt nturs. But thy cnnt b undrstd utsid th scil circumstncs tht prduc th inqulitis btwn wmn nd mn.

Ths studis, whil imprtnt in undrstnding hw ur scilistin int th strtyps wrks, nd hw wmn nd mn cm t viw thmslvs nd thrs in gndrd wys, d nt xplin why wmns pprssin cnnt b rtd ut undr cpitlism. n wy t undrstnd why is t lk t wh bnfits frm this stt f ffirs.


Wh gins frm wmns pprssin?


Sm fminists gr with Mrxists tht wmns pprssin is cntrd in th fmily. Hwvr, w disgr but wh bnfits frm th fmily. Hidi Hrtmnn, still widly rd in univrsitis, ppulrisd th id tht th fmily ws th rsult f c-prtin btwn ruling clss nd wrking clss mn t frc wmn t srvic mn in th fmily:

Th mtril bs upn which ptrirchy rsts lis mst fundmntlly in mns cntrl vr wmns lbr pwr. Mn mintin this cntrl by xcluding wmn frm ccss t sm ssntil prductiv rsurcs (in cpitlist scitis, fr xmpl, jbs tht py living wgs) nd by rstricting wmns sxulity. Mngmus htrsxul mrrig is n rltivly rcnt nd fficint frm tht sms t llw mn t cntrl bth ths rs. Cntrlling wmns ccss t rsurcs nd thir sxulity, in turn, llws mn t cntrl wmns lbr pwr, bth fr th purps f srving mn in mny prsnl nd sxul wys nd fr th purps f rring childrn.8

It sms slf-vidnt tht mn r th bnficiris f wmns pprssin thts why its such ppulr id. Th unqul rltinships btwn wmn nd mn in th fmily, th discrimintin ginst wmn in th wrkfrc, plus prstitutin, nd sxism in gnrl, mn tht mn cn buy sx, cn crc thir wivs, lrd it vr th fmily, brgt thir rspnsibilitis t thir childrn, nd yt b prisd fr thir msculinity. Wmn wh build crr, r simply tk tim wy frm th fmily r much mr likly t b ccusd f nglcting th childrn.

Hwvr, cpitlism is scity fundmntlly dividd by clss, with tiny minrity in pwr vr th vst mjrity thrugh thir wnrship nd cntrl f th mns f prducing scitys wlth. It fllws tht th ids tht dmint scity r ids prpgtd by tht ruling clss nd thir supprtrs. Yu nly hv t think f wh wns nd cntrls th mss mdi, wh wns th publishing huss, wh sts th curricul in schls nd univrsitis. But fundmntlly, it is ths wh hv th pwr vr th right t wrk, wgs nd cnditins, nd th prvisin f scil srvics (r nt) wh crt th mtril bsis n which th ids flurish. It is mplyrs, nt mn in gnrl, wh fight t kp wgs s lw s pssibl. n wy thy d this is trgt grups which cn b pid lss, r mplyd with fwr rights, such s wmn (r migrnts fr xmpl). It is mplyrs nd thir mngrs wh hir nd fir in wy tht kps wmn t th bttm f th rnks, wh dny mtrnity nd ptrnity lv, wh dmnd tht mn wrk lng hurs f vrtim t rduc thir utlys n xtr stff. It is gvrnmnts wh rfus t prvid qulity child cr fr wrking clss cmmunitis. It hs bn gvrnmnt plicis f bth Lbr in th ightis nd rly nintis nd th Clitin sinc 1996, cmbind with mplyrs ttcks n wrking cnditins tht hv md lw pid, prt tim r csulisd wrk th nrm fr s mny wmn. S it is ths in pwr, bth mn nd wmn, wh hv crtd th circumstncs tht ntrnch th gndr strtyps in th fmily.

Th fmily is clrly nt mintind nd rgud fr in rdr t srvic mn. Sinc Wrld Wr II, it hs suitd cpitlists t mply mrrid wmn in vr incrsing numbrs. Did thy vr cnsult wrking clss mn but hw tht wuld ffct th srvics t thm? Th whl histry f th fmily undr cpitlism shws tht it ws cnsidrd by cpitlists t b th bst institutin t fd, clth nd scilis wrking clss childrn t th lwst pssibl cst. Th unpid lbur f wmn (nd t lssr xtnt f mn t) in th fmily svs th cpitlist stt billins f dllrs vry yr. Tht is why it is gvrnmnts, nd nt mn in gnrl wh ppl t fmily rspnsibilitis t justify ductin fs, dnil f living wg t unmplyd yuth, cuts t hlth cr nd pplling fcilitis fr th gd. Whil th systm ws bming, th wlfr stt culd tk vr sm f th fmilys rspnsibilitis. Nw tht bm is lng pst, th fmily cn b clld upn t fill th gps lft by cut bcks t scil srvics. f curs, in mny lss dvlpd cuntris, wlfr hs nvr tkn th burdn frm th fmily, which is why wmn tk th brunt f pvrty in th third wrld.

Hwvr, whil th cntrl rl f th fmily is t rr childrn nd prvid hlthy wrkfrc hpfully scilisd int pprprit, submissiv bhviur, th fmily ds prvid plc whr dult wrkrs spir t rst, lv, nd rcuprt frm th drrinss f wrk. It is t lrg xtnt this drm tht nsurs th cntinuing ppulrity f th idl f th fmily vn thugh incrsing numbrs f mrrigs nd in divrc nd mny hms r nything but rstful nd lving. But it is th cs tht whn it suits th nds f cpitlism, mn cn b trn frm th fmily with n rgrd fr thir nds, unlik childrn.9 Fr much f th rly histry f whit ustrli, mn did itinrnt wrk sprtd frm thir wivs nd childrn. Mn r snt ff t fight in wrs, r in th Grt Dprssin frcd t rm th cuntry lking fr wrk. Thir nd t b srvicd did nt ntitl thm t rmin in th fmily. Thris which rgu s Hrtmnn did tht ll mn cnspird t gin th srvics f wmn in th fmily cnnt xplin why wrking clss mn ccptd this trtmnt. If thy culd influnc th stblishmnt f th fmily, surly thy culd insist thy rmin in it.

In th prcss f invsin nd crtin f nw cpitlist stt in ustrli, th middl nd uppr clss ppl wh rgud fr th fmily rcgnisd nt just crud cnmic bnfits in th fmily, but ls its imprtnc s n institutin tht culd hlp stbilis th clnis.10 Sm f thm xplicitly undrstd th imprtnt rl it wuld ply in stblishing idlgis nd scil bhviur tht wuld b th bulwrk f thir xplittiv systm. Crlin Chishlm ws quit xplicit but it whn sh bgn hr cmpign t stblish th wrking clss fmily in ustrli in 1847:

Fr ll th clrgy yu cn disptch, ll th schlmstrs yu cn ppint, ll th churchs yu cn build, nd ll th bks yu cn xprt, will nvr d much gd withut wht gntlmn in tht Clny vry pprpritly clld Gds plic wivs nd littl childrn gd nd virtuus wmn.11

Chishlm plyd much mr significnt rl thn ny wrking clss mn in pushing wmn nd mn int th cnstrints f th nuclr fmily. Lding fminists t th turn f th twntith cntury ulgisd mthrhd.12 Fminist writrs thmslvs such s Mrilyn Lk hv dcumntd hw in fct, wrking clss mn rsistd ttmpts t frc thm t liv th sttld lif f mngmus mrrig.13

It is still th cs tdy tht sm middl clss wmn ply mr imprtnt rl in prptuting wmns pprssin thn mst mn. Wmn wh ld th Right t Lif, cmpign ginst wmns right t brtin. In th lt nintis it ws middl clss wmn such s Lsli Cnnld nd Drusill Mdjwsk wh ld cmpign ttcking pr-chic ctivists fr nt cnsidring th mrl dilmms invlvd in brtin, implying thy wr wrng t supprt fr sf brtin n dmnd, but shuld supprt stt cntrls vr wmns right t chs. Pru Gwrd, ppintd s Sx Discrimintin Cmmissinr in mid-2001, wll knwn frind nd supprtr f Jhn Hwrd, influntil nwsppr clumnist, nd dfndr f big businss, cn hrdly b xpctd t fight fr th rights nd cnditins tht wrking clss wmn nd t cmbt thir pprssin. Jclyn Nwmn, mnd Vnstn nd Brnwyn Bishp prsid vr rs such s scil srvics, th lgl systm nd gd cr tht ffct wmns livs. Ths wmn nd thrs lik thm such s Lbr Prty wmn prlimntrins wh hv supprtd cnmic rtinlist plicis, hv vstly mr pwr vr plicis ffcting wmn, thn ny wrking clss mn. Bttin rndt is wll knwn fr hr ttcks n singl mthrs nd supprt fr th gndr strtyps, rciving wid publicity in th mdi.

It cn b shwn tht th sxism tht prmts ll f ur livs crts dirct bnfits t th cpitlist clss. Thy gt chpr lbur t hlp prp up prfits thn thy wuld thrwis gt, by pying wmn lss nd subjcting thm t gnrlly wrs cnditins thn if wmns rights wr rcgnisd. vn ruling clss wmn bnfit frm th pprssin f wrking clss wmn s thy t liv ff prfits nd mply chp lbur t d thir huswrk nd child cr. Th fmily frs thm f rspnsibility t py fr th hurs f wrk ndd t rr childrn rdy t b cmplint wrkfrc in th fctris nd ffics which gnrt th prfits n which ths ruling clss wmn liv.

Hwvr, thr is nthr vry imprtnt dvntg which flws frm th sxism ngndrd by th fmily nd inqulitis t wrk. Tht is th dp divisins it cuss mng wrkrs. Fr wrkrs t imprv thir cnditins, t win rfrms, thy nd cllctiv rgnistin nd struggl. Sxism (lng with rcism nd hmphbi) mks it mr difficult t build such struggls thn it wuld thrwis b. If mn think wmn blng t hm, thy miss n pprtunity t invlv wmn in th struggl whr thy r ndd. If thy r s usd t tlling sxist jks nd dnigrting wmn thy mk wmn fl unwlcm t strik mting, n pickt r t dmnstrtin, thy hrm n n but thmslvs nd th wmn thy ffnd. Bcus thy mk it much sir fr thir bsss t win. If wmn fl lss cnfidnt f thir rights thy r lss likly t jin unin, r t jin pickt. It ds nt bnfit wrking clss mn t hv wmn wrkrs, wh culd b fightrs in th unins, unrgnisd nd undr cnfidnt. It bnfits thir bsss.

S thr r mssiv nd bvius rsns why sxist ids r rgnrtd nd prpgtd, n mttr wht rfrms wmn my win. Ths wh wn nd cntrl th wlth f scity ls cntrl th dminnt ids.

But if sxism is nt in wrking clss mns intrsts, why d thy ccpt sxist ids? Th vst mjrity f us hv littl r n cntrl vr th wrk w d, vr wht is prducd, vr wh will b bl t buy wht w prduc, r hw ur wrkplc is rgnisd. This lck f cntrl vr cntrl prt f ur livs lys th bsis fr th id tht ur bsss r brn t rul, r t th vry lst, tht w r pwrlss t d nything but thir uthrity vr us. nd in th vrydy run f vnts this is t ll intnts nd purpss tru. Th nly wy w cn chllng thir rul is by bnding tgthr with thrs, pint w will nd with blw.

nc th cntrl id justifying th xplittin by minrity f th mjrity is stblishd, rjcting ny f th ids tht g lng with tht is vry difficult. Th id tht wmn r wkr physiclly, tht thy r nturlly mr cring nd pssiv thn mn, rsts n crtin rlity. Th fmily dmnds tht wmn ply tht rl, thir cnditining nsurs tht mst wmn r physiclly lss strng thn mn. Just s th dispssssin f Indignus ppl cndmns thm t trribl living cnditins nd lintin, which brds substnc bus, which in turn sms t justify th rcist strtyps but thm, s th ctul situtin f wmn bcks up th sxism.

It my b th cs s sm scilgists nd psychlgists rgu tht dnigrting ths mr pprssd givs th pprssd sns f pwr. mn wh cms hm frm drdful, bring, dngrus jb, tird nd frustrtd with his lck f pwr my gt sm stisfctin frm tking it ut n th wmn with whm h livs, knwing it will b mstly ccptd s his right. But this bhviur ds nt ctully giv him ny rl pwr. It simply rflcts his pwrlssnss. Tht it is lck f pwr, nd nt pwr itslf tht lds t sxism nd ultimtly sxul bus mng rdinry ppl is rflctd in th sttistics f sxul vilnc. It is wll knwn tht lvls f sxul vilnc twrds wmn r high in Indignus cmmunitis in ustrli. Why? Prcisly bcus f th rcist pprssin f thir cmmunitis, th lss f cultur nd lintin, lck f jbs, discrimintin by plic nd uthritis which incrs th sns f pwrlssnss.

This is nt t sy tht ll sxul bus f wmn stms frm pwrlssnss. Vst numbrs f css rsult frm th pwr rltinships crtd by ur clss bsd, xplittiv scity. Th pwr th churchs hd vr Indignus childrn stln frm thir fmilis, r f pstrlists vr Indignus wmn cndmnd t dmstic lbur nd sxul slvry n thir prprtis until nly littl vr tw dcds g ld t sm f th mst hrrndus bus rcrdd. In churchs, th hirrchy f clrgy vr thir chrgs givs thm th pwr t bus ths in thir cr. Th rgulr xpsur f such vilnc mphsiss hw intgrl sxul pprssin is t cpitlism. Sxul bus by scrws is prt f vrydy lif in jils. Th pwr f mplyrs nd mngrs in th wrkplc givs thm prticulr licnc t bus wmn. In scity in which ths in uthrity cn us thir psitin with impunity t us wmn nd childrn s sx bjcts it is littl wndr tht ths wh wnt t lsh ut ginst thir wn pwrlssnss nd lintin mimic th bhviur f ths in pwr nd ccpt th ids tht justify it.


Hw cn w fight sxism?


Th stry s fr is srry tl f pprssin nd divisin. nd yt, scilists r cnfidnt w cn fight wmns pprssin. Cntrry t th crictur f us prmtd by mny f ur critics, w d nt think w hv t wit rund until ftr rvlutin t mk imprvmnts in wmns livs. It ws scilists wh wr cntrl t th Wmns Librtin Mvmnt f th 1970s. ccrding t nn Curthys, prticipnt in ths hdy dys, idlgiclly, t first, th scilist trditin ws dminnt14.

Bcus Scilist ltrntiv rcgniss th wy sxism diminishs wmns livs nd th divisiv rl sxist ids ply in th wrking clss, it is imprtiv tht w tk stnd ginst it whrvr w xprinc sxism. W rgu fr mn t tk dwn sxist picturs f wmn, w bjct t sxist jks, w discurg ths w wrk r liv with frm using sxist lngug. W discuss th prblms f sxism, nd hw it ffcts vn th lft. W tk stps t ncurg wmn t ply lding rls in cmpigns nd rgnistins nd dfnd thir right t dfy th gndr strtyps. W ncurg ml ctivists nd scilists t gin n undrstnding f wmns pprssin, hw th gndr divisins disdvntg wmn nd hw t stnd up t sxism. Ths r ncssry stps in rdr t nsur w r cnscius f th ffcts f sxism in vrydy lif nd th wy it cn cnstrin wmns invlvmnt in plitics.

But w knw tht it is ut f th struggls fr rfrms tht it is mst likly tht msss f ppl cn bgin t chllng th hrribl ids f cpitlism nd build th ncssry rgnistin t mk th rvlutin. S w supprt ffrts by wmn t rdrss thir inqulitis in whtvr wy thy cn. W ctivly supprt nd smtims initit cmpigns ginst right wing ttcks n wmn such s Right t Lif mrchs, r Jhn Hwrd nd thrs ttmpts t dny singl wmn ccss t IVF.

s with ll th ffcts f cpitlism, it is in th fight fr rfrms tht rvlutinry mvmnt will b built. nd if in ths struggls, wrkrs dnt vrcm th divisins cusd by sxism, rcism nd hmphbi thr will b n succssful scilist rvlutin. But hw cn tht hppn, if th ids f cpitlism r s dminnt, nd s wll grundd?

Th mst fundmntl fctr is th cntrdictins btwn th prmiss f cpitlism nd th ctul xprinc f rdinry ppl. n th n hnd thr is th myth f qulity bfr th lw, th rmntic id f vrlsting lv in mngmus mrrig, th mphsis n ur individulity t nm just fw. Hwvr th clss divisins in scity nd th fct tht xplittin nd pprssin dmn ppl mns ths myths mk mckry f mst ppls livs. Thr is ppulr id tht ppl will nly fight bck whn thir livs bcm unbrbl s rsult f flling living stndrds. But th prcss by which ppl rsist is much mr cmplx. Lck f pwr brds lck f cnfidnc. But in th lng pst-wr bm, rising living stndrds ctully risd lvls f cnfidnc. Th fct f th bm mvd ppl t xpct mr frm lif thn prvius gnrtins. But f curs, bsss nd gvrnmnts shrd n such spirtins. But ls, it incrsingly bcm vidnt tht in spit f th bm, rcism, nd thr frms f pprssin wuld nt b wipd ut withut fight. n f th first signs f this rcgnitin ws th Civil Rights Mvmnt in th US. This in turn highlightd th nd t struggl t thrs. Fr instnc, it ws th US Civil Rights Mvmnt tht inspird mstly whit, nd n blck univrsity studnt, Chrls Prkins, t rgnis Frdm Rid frm Sydny Univrsity rund th utbck NSW twns whr nti-briginl rcism ws rif. This ld t incrsd nti-rcist ctivity. gin, th Wmns Librtin Mvmnt rs frm th cntrdictins highlightd by th bm. s wmn wr pulld int th wrkfrc in grwing numbrs, s cntrcptin bcm vilbl, nd mr wmn ntrd trtiry ductin, spcilly s tchrs (pulld in by shrtg f tchrs in n xpnding ductin systm), th id tht thy shuld b cntnt t b huswivs nd mthrs bgn t cm unstuck. It is nt insignificnt tht it ws wrking clss wmn, mny f whm hd bn influncd by th Cmmunist Prty f ustrli (CP), tht hit th hdlins in 1969 prtsting vr qul py. Wrking lngsid mn, ctching public trnsprt whr thy pid th sm frs, but bing pid lss, fcing th prblms f childcr whil xprincing discrimintin t wrk drv n t first tiny minrity t tk stnd.

Th bm ld t wrkrs xpcting highr living stndrds, but fcing hug fins fr thir unin vry tim thy tk industril ctin bcus f th nti-unin lws f th right wing Mnzis gvrnmnt. It ws n ccidnt tht in th sm yr wmn chind thmslvs t buildings t dmnd qul py, millin wrkrs hd tkn ctin rlir tht yr nd succssfully smshd th Pnl Pwrs s th nti-unin lws wr knwn. Whn n grup shws tht gins cn b md, nd slidrity is pssibl, it givs thrs incrsd cnfidnc. This cn b spcilly imprtnt in hlping pprssd grups mk thir first mv. ut f this grwing lvl f cnfidnc nd struggl in th lt sixtis, th Buildrs Lburrs Fdrtin (BLF), ftr mny yrs f struggl t uninis thir industry nd win sfr wrking cnditins, tk th ld in urbn nvirnmntl cmpigns t sv histric wrking clss rs nd prks rund Sydny. Thir cmpign in turn inspird nvirnmntlists wh tk up thir phrs grn bns nd pplid it t thir mvmnt.15 This ll-ml wrkfrc bcm fmus fr thir supprt fr wmns struggls, in prticulr, fr th right f wmn t wrk in th building industry. Thy inspird ctivists with thir bns t Mcquri Univrsity in dfnc f gy studnt victimisd bcus f his sxulity. Nn f this ws simply ccidntl r mrly pisdic. It is th ntur f clss struggl t ncurg ids f slidrity. Bcus wrkrs find tht n thir wn thy cm up ginst th pwr f gvrnmnts nd bsss. nc slidrity hs bn wn, th issus f nw supprtrs gin nw hring nd s n.

But it is nt simply tht issus link up in linr wy. Qulittiv chngs bcm pssibl nc th nrmlity f vrydy lif nd its subsrvinc is brkn. In th turmil f struggl, ids which sm sttld nd undisputd cm up fr grbs. Bcus nc wrkrs bgin t tk sm cntrl vr thir livs, th sns f pwrlssnss is wknd. This thn prvids th bsis t xmin lng hld blifs. Thr is nthing s ncurging thn t win n rgumnt with wrkrs rgnising pickt tht wmn shuld prticipt ginst thir dubts. nd it is nt nly mn wh ccpt sxist ids but th rl f wmn. Wll, prhps mr inspiring is t witnss wmn (r ny wrkrs fr tht mttr) fling thir wn pwr. n f my rlist pliticl xprincs ws strik by txtil wrkrs t th Krtx fctry in Mlburn. Thir jy whn thy turnd bck truck frm ntring th plnt is smthing mbddd in my mmry tht hlps m kp ging in th lwst pints f struggl.16

Thr is n frmul fr hw struggls will bgin. Th rdicl mvmnts f th sixtis nd svntis wr undrpinnd by th cntrst btwn xpcttins fulld by th cnmic bm nd th rlity f cpitlism. Smtims it is bcus f bittrnss strd up bcus f pprssin, r ttcks n living stndrds by bsss nd gvrnmnts, which is th driving frc fr th wrld wid nw mvmnt ginst crprtistin.

S scilists r n th lkut fr pprtunitis t win ppl t th id tht thy cn win rfrms by fighting, rthr thn rlying n pliticins r th bnvlnc f mplyrs r th suppsd nutrlity f th curts. In tht sns, scilists dnt ccpt tht t fight fr wmns librtin w lwys nd vrywhr hv t b invlvd in s-clld wmns issus. Striks vr wgs, r th right t hv unin, cn vry sily ld t gins in cnsciusnss which lssn th sxism wmn hv t ndur. ctivists wh prticiptd in th mny pickt lins during th lt ightis in Mlburn t dfnd th BLF, wh wr fcing drgistrtin by th Lbr gvrnmnt, wr struck by th hightnd wrnss f nd ppsitin t sxism mng ths vrwhlmingly ml wrkrs. Thir yrs f militnt industril struggl hd ld t pliticl discussin, cntct with th lft nd cnsciusnss f pprssin. Mny yung wmn ctivists wh hd nt xprincd n industril struggl wr similrly surprisd t th MU (Mritim Unin f ustrli) mss pickts in 1988 whn thusnds mbilisd t dfnd thir unin. t pickts whr th vrwhlming mjrity wr t tims ml, wmn cmmntd tht thy did nt fl thrtnd. Sxist ids such s xpcting wmn nt t b cpbl f mintining th pickt lins in th vnt f plic ttck wr pnly rgud ginst. gin, this ws cmbintin f th immdit struggl nd its xprinc nd lng histry by wtrsid wrkrs in pliticl nd industril cmpigns which hd crtd lyr f ctivists with n undrstnding f th rl f sxism nd thr pprssiv ids in scity, nd hw t fight thm.

S struggl is cntrl t building mvmnt tht cn unit wmn nd mn in th fight ginst sxism. But scilists d nt ssum this is utmtic. Sxist ids r strng nd mny vrid. S bing rgnisd s scilists, dvlping n undrstnding f sxism, whr it stms frm, hw t fight it is prt nd prcl f building n th pprtunitis tht mrg whn struggls brk ut. Th intrvntin f ctivists t xplicitly rgu ginst sxism is still ftn ndd. Th diffrnc is, w cn gt hring tht in nrml tims might sm impssibl. Bcus th nd fr slidrity cn b strngr thn th cmmitmnt t th hrribl ids f cpitlism.


Hw shuld w rgnis?


Thr r ths wh rgu tht wmn nd t b rgnisd utnmusly, thrwis thir issus wnt b tkn sriusly, r thy wnt b bl t prticipt s quls in th struggls. But this ignrs th vry rl clss nd thrfr pliticl divisins which ncssrily divid wmn. Unlik th divisins mng wrkrs cusd by sxism, ths divisins cnnt b vrcm in ny prmnnt wy. Tk pst wmns struggls. In th cmpigns fr wmns suffrg it ws cmmn fr middl nd uppr clss wmn t nly supprt prprty bsd vting rights (which dnid th vt t wrking clss wmn nd mn) t giv thm qul rights with mn f thir wn clss. It ws nly vr th wrking clss mvmnt tht cnsistntly supprtd univrsl suffrg. It might sm tht ll wmn cn unit fr brtin rights. Hwvr, lving sid th rligius viws f mny wmn wh will nvr supprt tht right, vn wmn wh wnt brtin rights dnt hv th sm nds. S brtin cmpigns hv lwys bn dividd btwn mr middl clss wmn wh simply wnt lglisd brtin nd wrking clss wmn wh nd fr, sf brtins n dmnd. nd whn it cms dwn t it, ruling clss wmn dnt nd th right t wrk r qul py, s thy liv ff prfits s d th mn f thir clss. S invitbly, ll wmns mvmnts, including th Wmns Librtin Mvmnt, whil it culd ris slgns such s wmn unitd will nvr b dftd in its first flush, wr in th nd trn prt by clss diffrncs which wr rflctd in diffrnt pliticl trnds frm th cmmitmnt t wrking clss struggl nd unity f scilism t rdicl fminism which rgud tht ll mn pprss ll wmn, nd thrfr ll wmn culd unit, but culd nt xpct slidrity frm mn. Th first signs f th shifts ccurring ws th dispprnc f Librtin frm th nm f th mvmnt. Jny Stn, rvlutinry scilist t th tim nd n ctivist in th Wmns Librtin Mvmnt, prdictd whr things wr hding.

It might b pssibl t find issus which d unit wmn cmpltly. But wht fr? T chiv thir librtin, pr nd wrking clss wmn nd rvlutinry chng in thir scil situtin nt unity with thir clss pprssrs rund illusry cmmn intrsts.

Th utnmy cncpt is bsd n th id tht thr r issus cmmn t ll wmn, nd tht ths r th mst imprtnt fr wmn t rgnis rund.

s n rgnising principl tdy it is stril nd dd-nd. s pliticl principl it is nt nly frgmnting nd dpliticising it is ptntilly rctinry.17

Just s th rdiclism f th rly mvmnt hd bn rltd t th rising tid f rdiclism nd industril ctin, s th incrsing dminnc f th mr right wing ids f fminism ccmpnid th rtrts f th wrking clss nd thr mvmnts. Ths qustins mttr, nt bcus f sm bstrct shibblth dvisd by scilists. Whn ctivists mbrk n prgrm f struggl bsd n unchivbl gls in this cs, th hp tht ll wmn culd unit th ultimt, prdictbl filur, lds mny ctivists t dmrlistin. Th disillusinmnt f mny wmn cmmittd t wmns rights is plpbl in studnt publictins. In th Mlburn Univrsity wmns studnt mgzin, Judys Punch in 1995, n wmn wrt tht mrch ginst fs, rgnisd frm NWS (th ntinl cnfrnc f wmn studnts) ws grt until th cps ttckd it. Thn slidrity cllpsd. Sh xprssd hr disillusinmnt thus:

T m sistrhd quls HMGNITY smthring nd silncing f dissnt in th nm f fminist unity. Sistrhd is DISMPWRING.

This ws shcking nd cnfrnttinl thing t writ in th hight f th dminnc f idntity plitics nd th lmst unchllngd hgmny f fminism. In Judys Punch f 2000, n pg thr, Typs f Fminism wr utlind, cncluding: it shuld b sttd tht fminism cnstntly nd justifibly cms undr criticism fr bing rcist nd thncntric prctic tht frquntly fils t tk int ccunt th situtin nd cncrns f indignus, sin, fricn-mricn nd NSB wmn.

Yt w r xpctd t tk th ids f fminism sriusly! nthr wmn wrt tht sh hd hpd tht NWS wuld pull fminism prt, nlysing why th mvmnt ws in disrry. But sh ws disppintd tht it didnt. It is imprtnt w lrn th lssns frm th lst Wmns Librtin Mvmnt nd th dvlpmnts vr th lst dcd nd hlf, s tht if th pssibility f mss struggls fr wmns rights ccmpny th nw nti-cpitlist mvmnt w my vid sm f th pitflls.

ut f th turmil f dbts in th lst dcd thr r ths wh gr tht ll wmn (ruling clss nd wrking clss) cnnt unit. Hwvr, thy rgu tht ll lft wing wmn shuld rgnis utnmusly. Hwvr wmn with fundmntl pliticl diffrncs will cm up ginst th sm diffrncs f principl tht kp thm in diffrnt rgnistins. nd thy will find mr in cmmn n ths mttrs f principl with mn with whm thy gr. This rgumnt, whil cknwldging clss diffrncs is still cncssin t th id tht ur idntity frms ur plitics, rthr thn xprinc nd thry. If ny grup f wmn hs fundmntl pliticl grmnt, thy will b mst ffctiv if thy r rgnisd tgthr with mn with th sm plitics. Th id tht wmn nd sprt rgnistin is cncssin t th id tht mn nturlly nd lwys will dmint, nd tht wmn r incpbl f plying lding rl in thir wn right in rgnistins. Tk fr xmpl th disgrmnts tht hv cm up vr whthr t pps Right t Lif Clubs n cmpus. Nt ll lft wing wmn gr n th tctics f dmnstrting t thir stlls nd mtings. S ths wh d, hv much strngr prsnc nd bility t dft th pr-lif clubs if thy ntil th slidrity f mn wh gr.


Wrking Clss Struggl


Th scilist nswr t th qustin hw cn w win wmns librtin is t lk t th trditins f cllctiv struggl f th wrking clss. Nt tht thr grups in scity d nt tk up thir wn dmnds nd ld cmpigns. Th pint is t s tht linking ths t ths f th wrking clss is th wy t build mvmnt cpbl f uniting millins, nd f frcing chng. Mrxists d nt put this mphsis n th wrking clss bcus w think wrkrs r smhw mr virtuus, gd, r mr dsrving thn thrs. It is bcus s clss unitd in struggl, thy hv th pwr t dft ths in pwr, nd ultimtly, t bring cpitlism crshing dwn nd t build nw scity bsd n cllctivity ut f th ruins. Th dynmic in th wrkrs mvmnt is in th ppsit dirctin t wht w hv sn in th wmns mvmnt. t first, th ld divisins cn sm insuprbl t tims. But if wrkrs cnfidnc cntinus nd thy cntinu t wnt t fight thir rulrs, thy hv t bgin t vrcm ids such s sxism, bringing th pprssd int th struggl by rising thir dmnds. In ny cs, wmn r hlf th wrking clss, whthr thyr in pid wrk r nt. It is ncssry t rmind us f tht bcus thr is, vn ftr th unprcdntd ntry f wmn int th pid wrkfrc, strtyp f th wrkr s ml nd blu cllr. This crictur f th wrking clss lis bhind th fr tht th wrking clss wnt fight fr wmns issus. Th wrking clss tdy includs incrsing numbrs f whit cllr wrkrs, ftn univrsity ductd, wh might think f thmslvs s middl clss, but nvrthlss find thmslvs rgnising unins lik ny thr wrkrs. Bnk nd finnc wrkrs r gd xmpl, lding militnt struggls in cuntris such s Suth Kr in th lst dcd.

Thr is nthing invitbl but th spcific dmnds f wmn bing prt f wrking clss struggl, spcilly if it invlvs t first mstly ml wrkrs. Hwvr, th nd fr unity, fr invlving s wid lyr f wrkrs s pssibl t gin th strngth t dft gvrnmnts nd mplyrs pns th wy fr ld prjudics t b smshd. Tht is n imprtnt rsn fr scilists t b rgnisd, nd t hv ids but hw t win th ncssry rgumnts. Bcus it is ftn th intrvntin f scilists int spntnus struggls tht ncurgs ths stps t b tkn. If thy r nt tkn, nin tims ut f tn th struggl will fil bcus f its wn divisins.

It is nt ccidntl tht survys hv shwn tht skilld ml wrkrs ftn hv th mst prgrssiv ids but wmns rights vn thn mst wmn. Bcus thy r th sctin f th wrking clss ftn with th highst lvls f uninistin, thy lrn th lssns f unity.

S th scilist nswr t sxism is struggl. nd fundmntlly, t nd cpitlism, struggl ld by th wrking clss wh hv th pwr t stp prductin nd thrfr th cpitlist systm. In th first tw yrs f th twnty first cntury, th nti-cpitlist mvmnt hs tkn ff rund th wrld mrkd by mss mbilistins ginst bdis such s th Wrld Trd rgnistin, th IMF nd th Wrld Bnk, r gthrings f hds f gvrnmnts. This mvmnt hs its wn fturs nd dynmic. Th tns f thusnds wh turn ut t th mss mbilistins bviusly tk hrt frm th fct tht lts f diffrnt struggls cm tgthr t thm, tht ll kinds f issus cn b risd, discussd nd prtstd but. ngr vr swtshp cnditins hs risd prtinnt wmns issu. In this climt, th dfnsivnss f utnmus wmns rgnistins is cmpltly ut f stp with vnts. Th mss prtsts shuld b th fcus f vryn wh wnts t fight sxism, nd fr wmns librtin. In Prt lgr t mss mbilistin ginst th Wrld cnmic Frum, unity btwn th 15-20,000 wh prtstd n th strts illustrtd th ptntil fr this nw mvmnt. Th issus risd includd (prt frm cnmic dmnds t dl with pvrty) ppsitin t US bcking fr crrupt militry dicttrs in Ltin mric, supprt fr brtin rights, nd drg qun ld cntingnt clling fr Lsbin nd Gy rights. t th My 1 prtst in Mlburn in 2001, scilists wr bl t invlv mrchrs in chnting slgns but issus frm Third Wrld dbt, t unin rights, t Qur librtin. Tns f thusnds f wmn jin with qul numbrs f mn t ch nd vry n f ths mss prtsts, lying th bsis fr mvmnt which cn fundmntlly chllng th vry bsis f wmns pprssin. nd tht is th xistnc f clss scity itslf. Fr tht, w nd mvmnt cntrd n th wrking clss.

Fr nly with th nd t th undrlying clss divisins which mk sxism ncssry nd usful t th systm will wmns librtin b pssibl.



Nts


1 Rprt f Griffith Univrsity Humn Rsurcs Mngmnt Cmmitt cmpild n rqust frm mmbr f th Ntinl Trtiry ductin Unin, 2000. (cpy in pssssin f uthr)

2 Frdrick ngls, rigins f th Fmily, Prprty nd th Stt

Fr n rgumnt ginst th id tht wmn hv lwys bn pprssd, s Sndr Bldwrth, Rp, Sxul Vilnc nd Cpitlism in Scilist Rviw, N. 5, utumn 1992 Bkmrks, Mlburn. Cpis vilbl frm Scilist ltrntiv.

3 Fr n xplntin f hw wmns pprssin ws r-muldd nd incrprtd int cpitlism in th trnsitin frm fudlism, s Lindsy Grmn Sx, Clss nd Scilism, Bkmrks, Lndn.

Fr th histry f its trnsltin int ustrli s Sndr Bldwrth, Th Pvrty f Ptrirchy Thry in Scilist Rviw, N. 1, Bkmrks, Mlburn, 1990. Cpis vilbl frm Scilist ltrntiv.

4 Irn Wlctt nd Hln Glzr, Wrk nd Fmily Lif. chiving Intgrtin, ustrlin Institut f Fmily Studis, Mlburn, 1995.

5 Rigmr Brg, Sxulity: Why D Wmn Cm ff Scnd Bst? in Nrm Griv nd ils Burns (ds), ustrlin Wmn. Nw Fminist Prspctivs, xfrd Univrsity Prss, Mlburn, 1987, pp. 165-168.

6 Ky Bussy, Th First Sciliztin, in Nrm Griv nd ils Burns, ustrlin Wmn. Nw Fminist Prspctivs, pp. 90-104. Fr furthr rding n th scilistin f wmn nd th scil cnstructin f sxulity s th whl sctin Th Mking f Wmn in ustrlin Wmn.

7 Infrmtin givn in curs n Cmmunictin t RMIT nd prvidd t m by n f th prticipting studnts.

8 Hidi Hrtmnn, Th Unhppy Mrrig f Mrxism nd Fminism: Twrds Mr Prgrssiv Unin, in Lydi Srgnt (d), Wmn nd Rvlutin. discussin f th unhppy mrrig f Mrxism nd Fminism, Blck Rs Bks, Mntrl, 1981, p. 15.

9 It is msur f th gncidl intnt f th ustrlin stt tht th childrn f Indignus ppl wr stln frm thir fmilis nd kpt in institutins. In this cs it ws in th intrsts f th rcist clnil stt t wip ut whl ppl, s th rprductin f thir childrn s wrkrs ws f scndry imprtnc. Instd thy usd institutins t trin th childrn int suitbl hbits in rdr t xplit thm.

10 Pvrty f Ptrirchy.

11 Summrs, p. 291.

12 Ptrici Grimshw, Mrilyn Lk, nn McGrth, Mrin Qurtly, Crting Ntin, McPh Gribbl, Ringwd, Vic, 1994, p.182. Th uthrs r fminists wh tnd t blm ll mn fr wmns pprssin in spit f thir wn vidnc f th histricl rl plyd nt just by right wing wmn, but by fminists in stblishing th gndr strtyps nd th fmily.

13 Mrilyn Lk, Th Plitics f Rspctbility: Idntifying th Msculinist Cntxt, Histricl Studis, 22 (86), pril 1986. Cntrrily, Lk ss th stblishmnt f th fmily s th fministin f ustrlin scity, nd victry fr wmn vr mn!

14 nn Curthys, Fr nd ginst Fminism, lln nd Unwin, Sydny, 1988. p. 80.

15 Ptr Klly, th Grmn nvirnmntlist, rturnd t Grmny frm Sydny nd prpsd th nw nvirnmntl prty shuld b clld th Grn Prty.

16 Sndr Bldwrth Swtshp Rbls, Scilist ltrntiv pmphlt, r chptr f tht nm in Sndr Bldwrth nd Tm ΒLincln (ds) Rbl Wmn in ustrlin Wrking Clss Histry, Intrvntins, Mlburn, 1998.

17 Jny Stn, Prspctivs fr Wmns Librtin. Rdicl Fminism, Rfrm r Rvlutin? Rdbck Prss, 1978, p. 10. (in th uthrs pssssin).