Всё сделанное в учебнике (переведены тексты и сделаны упражнения) (4C)

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Alexander Graham Bell never planned to be an inventor, he wanted to be a musician or a teacher of deaf people. The subjects that he studied at school included music, art, literature, Latin and Greek. They did not include German which all scientists used in their books. Alexander’s mother was a painter and a musician. His father was a well-known teacher of deaf people.

When Alexander was only sixteen, he became a teacher in boy’s school in Scotland. He liked teaching there, but he still wanted to become a teacher of deaf people as his father.

He read all the books about sound that he could find and started to work on some of his own experiments.

At twenty-five Alexander became interested in finding a way to send human voice through an electric wire. The parents of his pupils contributed money for the equipment. He found an assistant, Tom Watson, who worked in an electrical shop. For two years Tom and Alexander were working together to built a machine that people could use to talk to one another over long distances. After two years, the two young men were becoming discouraged. Then, one day, when they were working on a new transmitter Alexander spilled some acid on himself. Tom Watson, who was alone in another room, heard a voice. The Alexander Bell’s! It was saying: ”Come here, Mr. Watson. I need you!”

The first telephone line was built in Germany in 1877. By 1915 a telephone line was opened in the United States – 5,440 kilometers from New York to San Francisco.

Now design bureaus all over the world are conducting experiments to develop video-phone or picture phone. A young man in Moscow wants to speak to his friend in Vladivostok. He lifts his telephone receiver, dials a number. After a very short time his friend answers. As he picks up his receiver his picture appears on the screen. They can speak to each other face to face because they are using a new kind of telephone, the equipment includes a small television screen (14 cm by 13cm) and, combined with the screen, a television camera. The camera tube will allow the user to switch from a wide view of the room to the face of the person speaking. The focus can be changed to give clear pictures of objects 0.3, 0.9 and 0.6 meters away from the camera. There is also a mirror attachment, which allows the camera to scan documents which may be lying on the table. The camera adjusts itself automatically to different lighting conditions.

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