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operations are being done simultaneously. To develop such a computer qualitatively new integrated circuits were required. They are now the basic components of the Russian Elbrus Supercomputer with a speed up to 125 million operations a second.
In the next few years engineers will complete the work on computers of above one billion operations a second. It will take a few more years to produce a 10-biilion operations computer. The fifth-generation computers performing 100 billion operations a second will become available in the nearest future. Is there an end to this race?
According to some researchers, we are close to what can be regarded as a true physical limit. But other specialists think that photons will make the operation a thousand times faster. This means that in the future it will be possible to expect the appearance of photon computers and that computations will be done by means of light. Light has several advantages over electronics: light beams are faster, travel in parallel lines and can pass through one another without interference . Already, the optical equivalent of a transistor has been produced, and intensive research on optical-electronic computers is being carried out in a number of countries around the world. By the end of the 20-th century a new age of light may replace the still youthful electronic age. The race is going on.
Notes to the Text
silicon plate — кремниевая пластина
integrated circuit - интегральная схема
chip - кристалл
sophisticated - сложный
high technology - передовая технология
it takes ... (one year) -требуется
interference - взаимное влияние, помехи
Упражнение 14. Укажите, какие из следующих утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста 5А:
1. Nowadays an integrated circuit is the main component of every day device. 2. Supercomputers are in general usage now. 3. The operation of integrated circuits depends on their microscopic component quality. 4. Some researchers think that we are close to a physical limit in increasing computer operation speed. 5. Supercomputers are similar to ordinary computers. 6. By the end of the 20-th century the electronic age may replace the light age. 7. It is possible to expect the appearance of optical-electronic computers in the future.
Упражнение 15. Найдите в тексте 5А цепочки существительных-определений, состоящих не менее чем из трех компонентов, выделите основное слово и переведите
Упражнение 16. Найдите во втором абзаце текста 5А бессоюзное определительное придаточное предложение и переведите его.
Упражнение 17. Укажите, чем выражено определение:
1. Yesterday we watched a very late TV programme of a football match. 2. Y.Gagarin made the world's first space flight on April 12, 1961. 3. It was announced that 1000 well-equipped sport clubs could be opened in this country,. 4. Our electronics and radio electronics industry have developed from the country's only radio laboratory in Nizny Novgorod. 5. This country has powerful energy systems with the world's largest hydro and thermal power stations and nuclear plants. 6. How can architects solve the problem of living in a region where night lasts for several months and where the temperature may be between 40°C and 50° C?
1. The experiments carried out by Bell and Watson didn't give any positive results for a long time. 2. D.K.Chernov laid the foundation of the science dealing with metals. 3. In many countries scientists interested in electricity wanted to find out whether it could be used for a long distance communication. 4. Articles published by Franklin in 1752 dealt with electricity. 5. Communication satellites used by all countries make intercontinental television transmission possible.
Упражнение 13. Просмотрите текст 5А и ответьте на вопросы:
1. What is this text about? 2. What new things appeared in people's every day life after World War H? 3. What is at the center of all these things? 4. What applications of computers do you know? 5.Where else (еще) may computers be used? 6. How does an ordinary computer (a supercomputer) operate? 7. What is the speed of a new supercomputer? 8. What is the task of engineers in the field of computer development? 9, What types of computers do you know? 10. What are the prospects in the development of computers?
1. Nowadays computers capable of performing billions of operations a second are required. 2. People present at the demonstration of Popov's invention were sure of its great future. 3. Wind and solar energies available throughout the Earth must be used for useful purposes. 4. Russian engineers have developed a new cargo airplane "Ruslan" capable of carrying load up to 150 tons. 5. Computers available everywhere nowadays life easier.
1. Polzunov was the first to construct a steam engine. 2. Mendeleev was the first to make a classification of chemical elements. 3. The thermometer