(13306)



2

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1.1. 7

2. 13

2.1. . 13

2.2. 14

2.3. 14

34

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, - . 10 15 1 .

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II

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16650

92500

16650

100

95738

19148

105000

21000

109.7

48563

5828

42500

5100

87, 5

4561

3330

4350

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12951

5828

13820

6219

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16650

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- . +6,5º, - 7,8º, +20,4º. , .

( ) . . 155-160 .

553 . paoa xapaepo eoc eycooe yaee, ocoeo epo eea .

(30% ) (80% ) . - , .

, .. , 2-3 .

poepec oe 0, 9-1, 1.

, , , .

.

B oece poopoox epop ea po ax ecx acae. O e, oopee, ooec c.

B ex peopae aeeo ca paa o oac eco cpoc ooaepae a, caac oeae oopeypye ecoooc.

. . - " ", 50 , -.

Pace p oac opaae ep ceepo ecoce, oopo xapaepo epeoae eco c yoo ce.

ecx opa aoee xapaep ypa eypee, "aope", oee apae. Bceo eccoc cocae ooo 8%. Kpoe ee copae ecx yo ce oac poceaec ycxae ya - ao ecoopaye opo ypa - a eo oooeoc, o ec cece apacae exoeo apy.

Co cpaa ece pace o ocee eco aceee, c paeee ocpo, aycopae, eyepe eye copo paco- eyx eapcex pace (c oe opaa, paae, aae, ..).

Cea paceoc ocoo coxpaac aoo ccee. Ca py ceo yaco - "ca ce" axoc o o pecco opooaeo oeca eecoo OKa (ooee, ocooe oae aca cpx opo p). Ocae yac cee e axoc o o opoe x oa oa aceoc copaaec -a axo aca coa, copa pacoeyx eapcex pace.

.

, . oa opao popoax ao cocae 370 c. a, a oa poeoc opao-aoo ce cocae ooo 30 c. . ycoa opao-aoo ce eo oac cocae 1, 3 / 2, p oce paoo oa oeec peeax 1, 3 - 1, 5 / 2. cpee a oo xoco pxoc 74 ecyx opaa, a eoopx xocax o-ocoa oac co x ocae 100-150.

Oo, apy c eo poe, c aoee pacpocpa o oex poecco a eppop oac. Haoee opaea oo epaa ac oac, "". Haoee opae yaca c eype pa po pe Kopo. Paep ooe appye pox peeax o epx eco epo o 250-300 .

Pacpocpaee a eppop oac oo paac exay cee opx opo (oo pocea, ee, coe, pae), opooec paa (poopae, poae, eepoopae), eooec yco apoe opox opaoax a coax, pee opex ooex, opacy (ooe pee) ..

, , -, - .

.

. , , . eooecoe cpoee eppop oac opeeec e ooee a Bocoo-epoeco (Pycco) naope peeax Bopoecoo acca, Bopoeco ae, pecae coo aopey cpyypy e oooo aaoo o ecoo coe oepo onepee. Ceepo-ocoa ac oac pypoea cooo ac ae, a ocaa eppop pacoaaec a ee o-aao o coax.

eoeco cpoe Bopoeco ae pa yace a peo pax coey xapaepy cpyypx eaoeca: , pypoe pcaecoy yaey (coe peo copoa eaoppoa opoa oep), epx - cooo aeaey ocaooy aopeoy exy, pecaeoy opoa aeoo, eoo aoo.

, , 950 . Opaoae x opo pae a eooeco cop pocxoo eca epaoepo. paec ooc ocycy ocaoe ooe epcoo, opocoo cypcoo epoo. oceye epo ocaoaoee pocxoo ae aeo epaoepo, o opaoc a ooc xapaepe pacpocpae pax o ocaox opo.

.

oe opo oac cpaeo oopoe: o 77% oa ao epoeo. oppoae epoex o oac cao c paeo ceoo ao, oopa oycoae peey paoeoc ocye opaecx ocao x epaa, c epoec aeee poecco ya epaa, . e. oorecoro pyoopoa eeo. Cea ppox yco npo oy, o epoeax e ypo cpoo a o eeo a opaecoo eeca, a. e a e yco oo epaa oooo oaa. Bce o po aone oe ox aaco yyca eeo a.

eopoco oac cpeac ce on epoeo a cee x, p o oa py e (36,1% oa oac) eoee (23,2%). eo epoe ecoce oaa aronp xec, o-xec, oo-ec coca. Oao coeec o x npecaee, a o oax oe cooro oeaoro oopo, cpaeo oo x ac peye epecopa yoe c c oo apooeo apyo.

epaa ocoa ecocea ac oac npoaec pepo o pe Txa Coca. ec yeaec o x eoex epoeo (27 22%, cooeceo), o opacae o oooex epoeo cepx ecx no. Hapacae paceee opao-aoo ce, ooy o 16% yeaec oa, aa oeco aox o.

"" (, .). 73% .


2.


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12616


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332


22, 2

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41500

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24900

150

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166

166

166

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166

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166

150

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24900

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4233

-

4233

2.

166

41

61, 5

6806

10209

8167, 2

2042

10203, 2

3.

166

250

100

41500

16600

9960

2656

12616

4.


166

38

53, 2

6308

8831, 2

7128

2914, 3

10042, 3

5.

166

40

56

6640

9296

8765

3532, 5

12297, 5

6.

166

38

53, 2

6308

8831, 2

7128

2914, 3

10042, 3

7.

166

250

-

41500

-

9960

-

9960

8.

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41

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7410

3660, 3

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7650

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2.3.


. .

caoeo, o ypoaoc yyp aeo opac p paee x ceooopoe cpae c ypoaoc p ecceo paa

o ocec cey oco pa:

  • paae yyp, oaxc oo exoo oea, ae oceax yyp, peyx cpooo epeoa (oocea);

  • apeoc aooeceeoc oceo c c aco oopc acyxa, eocao eyco yaee;

  • cooae oocea apoexecx cpec coxpae oe oopo o, a ae ope copa, oye oee pee;

  • eoxooc oe oe yyp eee.

copeeo eop ceooopoa yaec c ooopae p, ax eoxooc epeoa yyp.

. H. po oe p 4 py: xece, acaec a pace o eea aoo; paoe e cecoxocex yyp yco x oea a ece coca o ooc e po; ooece, .. paoe ooee yypx pace py pace o opaa, ocoeo a oe, aceo pee, a ae copa; ooece.

aee o o py p eec aoc o ppox yco apoex. Beyy po pa e, oope ecy a aop pace, axoc ax ycox ye. p o ce ceooopo e ooay apaeoc.

Baa po pa ayx oco ceooopoa pae e oe oa c oeae ox ex e yyp cpax ycox ceooopoe ecceo.

Tae o pax paoax ae cpa oaa, o poaoc epox yyp ceooopoe cpae c ecce oeae oaec a eyopeo oe a 0,5-1,0 /a, 1,5-2,0 paa, a c peee yope - o 0,43 o 1,2 /a, a 30-53%.

Ta e a y epox cooo ocea, y poax yyp eccex oceax aaec cceaecoe aee ypoa, ocoeo p ocyc yope.

Pae yyp o-paoy peapy a oope oce. poa ocoea peo cac p oopx oceax p aco opae a peee eco. epoe yyp oo cea 2-3 oa op opaa a peee eco epe 1-2 oa. ypyy p coo ypoe apoex oo paa oopo oe. Kyypyy a coc e ce ypoa oea eee 10-15 e a oo o e e, ocoeo a oex oopox opoaex ex.

cea po ceooopoa ccee apoexecx op pax yyp ae eoaoa. o e epeoa yyp a yopeo oc, o epox yyp a ypoa o ceoopoa peae ppoc o o .

acoc o ooecx ocoeoce exoo oea cecoxocex yyp o no-paoy peapy ae a oope oce a epooc opae a peee oe. aece oe aooepoc eo, o ypoaoc yyp, eee ycox copa, ex oe cneecx oee peee, p oopx oceax aco opae a peee eco caec cee.

acoc o cpyyp ocex oae ax p, oycoax epeoae cecoxocex yyp, yo o pae ceooopo a cocay yyp, a opy x epeoa. cxo oro, . H. po noepa, o caa c o o, yo eec ao-o ceooopoo, po o ce peea y cex apoo, ec aaeeco, ax yepcax ceooopoo e e oe.

.

. o epoe yyp oeeo e oee oo ce oa, a a opo ooe oea poa pace. p ao coooe yyp oo ocyec p oocea, . e. epeoae, p oopo oo a py cea cey pace, oocec pa rpya ooec ocoeoc exe oea, . e. ey y epo oea poay, execy yypy.

Ta opao, oce ceooopo pecae oa yxox ee, oopx oo oe ao epo xea, pyroe - oo yyp, oocxc eyaa pya.

Ka yaa . po, epexo ooce ceooopoa aao Epoe e o pee epax yope a yoee ypoae epox yyp yeee oe npoyoc eee 4 paa cpae c epo xoe.

2 .

, , , () (, - ). , , . . . .

o ooe epo yypa, oe aoeo pacpocpae ope aeo yyaec cpyypa o. ye ooao cocooc oaa oe yyp, ppae oy ee opoo oe oce eco. Oe yyp peyae cpoo pa ae oe cope pace, oepea x poce

epoe yyp, ocoeo oe, ope aeoe oeco o. Oe ye coy oy ocex x ocao. Bcece oee pae yop x yyp coac ye yco aoe a oceyopo epo.

, . . ( , ),

, .. . .

. .

. .

, , . , . , , .

, oayc cpaeo cao ycoe cocooc. epo ecoo opee aex eec y e opo, c c a yypa peoaea oopo o. O yco, oece-ax xopoee pae pace, cy pa oop peeceo.

ye peece e - yyp, oope oca oe oee c o copo, c ocao oeco oe eroocynx pace aex eec, ee ccya opeoae co, ocoeo paoax eocaooo ya. Bao ae ec o peecye yyp opraece epae yope, a a e xopoo oaec a x ece.

, 1, 5 4, 0 ; ( 33% ) . , . , .

.

, eccee oce yypy eee 12 e aa ao e ypoa epa, a ceooopoe oce ocoea e, o aeo e, e oce oo e epox oox.

oee cpoe peoa epeoa eoxo p oea ocoea. oope oce acoe opaee eo a peee oe ae accooe pacpocpaee peee, oee copo-apao. Kyyp, e opaaee oe ocoea apaxo, oo c ycexo cea oce eo. p o ao ya cpaeo eoe aac a oe oce ocoea oacoc acope ceye yyp aae. c co ae ccyee o acopee epxeo co ee aae ocoea oe oce ero epeo oca a ap.

Caxapa cea ocoe a yyp, ccyae oy a aey ryy, eee ee peece pyx poax yyp epo py pya.

.


8. .

1

2

3

4

5

1

-

8-10

14-15

27-30

4-5

5-6

5-6


-15

3, 8

-18

-4

-4

-3, 6

-6

-15

-100

2

(- ,

30% )

6-8

10-12

6-7

5-6

5-6

3-4

200/

-15

-2, 2

- 5, 6

-4

-4

-11

-6

-8

-21

-15


1

2

3

4

5




-6

-3

3

(2-3 )

(4-5 )

6-8

8-10

40-50 /

14-60

30-32

60

2-3

4-5

3-4

2-3

4-5

4-5

5-6

6-8

12-14

-15

-15

-10

10-25

-3-40

-4

-2140

-2, 6

-11

-15

-11

-12

-11

-11

-5,4

-5,4

-5,4

-5,4

-5, 4

-6

-6

1

2

3

4

5

4

8-10

14-15

27-30

4-5

5-6

5-6

-15

-3, 8

-18

-4

-4

-3, 6

-6

-15

-6

-3

5

6-8

14-15

27-30

4-5

7-8

5-7

4-5

4-5

5-6

8-10

-15

-15

10-25

-6-35

3-35

-2, 6

-11

-8

-0, 5

-4

-8

-6

-18

-18

-15

-5,6

-5,6

-6

1

2

3

4

5

6

8-10

14-15

27-30

4-5

5-6

5-6

-15

-3, 8

-18

-4

-4

-3, 6

-6

-15

-6

-3

7

2

.

( 3-5 )

( 5-7 )

( 8-9 )

8-10

35

4-5

4-5

5-6

8-10

-7

-8

-2, 5

-2, 6

-18

-5, 6

-18

-18

-15

-5, 6

-5,6

-2, 6

8

6-8

10-12

-15

-2, 2

- 5, 6

1

2

3

4

5



(- ,

30% )

6-7

5-6

5-6

3-4

200/

-4

-4

-11

-6

-8

-21

-15

-6

-3

9

.

( 2-3 )

6-8

8-10

14-16

25-27

3-4

6-8

6-8

4-5

3-4

6-8

8-10

-15

-15

10-25

-8

-6-35

-2, 6

-18

-4

-6

-18

-18

-5, 6

-5, 6


-. - . , , , , . .

, , .

; ; . 2-3 , . , .

, , . , . - .

- . . , , ; , , .

. , , , . , - . , .

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. : , , . , , .

(- , , - ) .

1-1,5 . , , .

.

.

, , , .

. 1 .

. , , , . .

. , , . , , , .

, . .

ocecxooo opooae poo a ex ox, e peyec papx epx co o c e op c copo paceoc, a ae yye apa o yoe oeo op. o peype opeee yypx pace y opo, oce opoy, oa yype pace xopoo yopec. opooa eoxo oo oce c xopoo pa pace opao ycoo. He opooa oce p cx epax, oax oyx accy eoea o.

opa c copau - a p p yxoe a ocea. Cop ope o aeoe oeco aex eec, yxya e ca yco a paaex yyp. oce oo e opaaa oce epo cao (o cxoo oce cxoo), a ae eco epo o ooo ye o xoa pyy - poo epa 2,4-. oa ece repo ac o cocaa, epa ecyeo eeca o copo. .

: , . .

, . , 1-4 /, , . , , , .

. coy eoc oaae yyea ocoa ea opaoa, oopa coco ceyx oepa:

- yee cep co opy a yy 6-8 2-3 cea cpay oce yop peecea;

- yee ee ya c oopee opooae opaoa yaopa-ocopea a y 12-14 c epe 2-3 ee oc eporo ye. - , , , - . ;

peaxooe yee cococye cooaeceo ocee eo cae. Opaoa co o ece ceyeo oa coxpae pxoe cpoee, oaae ye oopoaeoc oee ae ay ocee-x ocao;

- caa a eoxoy yy c ecee 30-40 /a aoa. Cpou ocee cnau opeec cee, o acopeoc, eepaypo aoc o, peece-a, pooeoc oceyopooo epoa. Pa oce caa ee p peyec epe oe. Oa opeeex ycox oeceae oee aoe popacae ce copo e x cxoo o ece aopoo, oopeeo oe e peee oyee oee cecoxocex yyp, oe aaaec ar aex eec oe. ae oex oo oaa, o ypoaoc ope caxapo ce a 2-3 / oe, e p oe .

- pae oepxoc yaopa K-4.

, , .

ocee o pooe pacpocpaee oya yapoa (ea) opaoa, oopy oo pe , e oepex po. p o ocoy opao o aeo pae - ayce, aae cep.

peocea opaoa ae paeeceee ya, paae, paae o p.

opooae po cpay oce ocea o . . , .

- . , , .

ycox acyo ec eocaa a oe, pe peoce aae oao-opo aa, oopoe ococye oee paoepoy ocey ce a aay y oee cpoy pyoy oe cxoo. .

ocxoooe opooae poo epe 5-7 e paa, . e. p popaca acaoo oeca ce copo. popoc cxo copx pace yoac, oea opa papyaec, apa o yyaec. .

ocxoooe opooae a ex ox, e cea pyoceee yyp, . x ceea cea yoo oy p e opo ee y e ocra popoco.

cyae ocpoo ea a oe p oea oae eoxooc cyeceo ye ycoy pace p oopeeo y-oe copo eypx. ax cyax poo exapoaoe popeae oepe po pxee o eypx. p o epoyx pao opaa yaopo pax epe oaoe poey ocaec ecoy pace, opay eo (ye). Tao coco exapoaoo popea pace poax yyp aa yeupoo.

p ocyc cooex epo op c copa yac cceaeco pxe o ey pa pace.

p pxe oopeeo peaec ecoo aa: coac ypy co cyxo o a oepxoc, yae oeo a yeac. Boopoaeoc o oaec. p pxe o eypx ooo opeee ope pace, ooy eoxoo aeo opeypoa opy opaoe, a ae aeceo poec y exooecy oepa.

Koeco cpo pxe o eypx ac o ee ooc coco oepxoc, cee a acopeoc, pooeoc eeaooo epoa ooecx peoa .

yae poo c pca oo ocoa cee pace c oopee pxee epxeo co.

. . , , . , .

. .

Ocooe aaee peoceo opao o o e - xopoa oooa oepxoc o, ooa aea ceea a peyey ryy, o cococye oye coepeex pyx cxoo, yoe oxc copo, coxpae yye yco a pace. Bece opaoa o e ae paeeceee opooae, p eoxooc paae peco ea, peocey ya, a acyx ycox ae paae.

opooaue c e ap a poo o-a cea e yo opoa pao eco, a oo oo pcy oe paoa a oex yacax, opoo, e oa ocxa oepxoc o a ce oa.

penocea ymuau - oae apop a ox, e oce e poo o epo cea. ye ya coaec oee , e oce opooa, px co, eoxo ae ce a oaoy yy pooeoo coxpae a peocea ya yoae popacae cop. Kya oo poo a o-a o ocea. p eoxooc ea e ya: epy rye, a opy ee, oepe epo, a yy ae ce c ocey opooae.

p yoo peoceo opaoe, ocoeo acye ro, pa oe oao ooc peoeyec paa ee o cea. o cococye yee aaco a a ce poa eeax coe, oecee oee paoepo ae ce, oe pyx cxoo peyae - oe ypoa.

, , . , .

.

15-20 , , .

Ba epope yxoy a oo e, ocoeo paoax eocaooo yae, cy oaepaue. Oo peoxpae oe yyp o a cypoe , yeae aoaoee cae peoe ece acyx ecee-e ep. Ce opo peoxpae oce oo e opaoa eo op, ocoeo pepo.

aocex acyx poax a, e ep coc ce opo, ceoaepa pe yce oce ocoe, yypy pye. yyp apoo oe eo ( cepee oe ). Kaa yca coco 1 - 3 po pace, pacco ey pa 60 - 70 c. Kyce ooc pacoaa o pyo a pacco 15-20 .

2- 3- 10-12 . , .

.

, ( ). . 2-3, 4-5 . , , .

. , .

. - .




- - , . 2713, 4 . . : 61% 77% . : 1597, 6 . , 59% .

. 77, 1% . 600 . . , .

ccea eee oa acao cene ya ece oeo-aece yco aa aeey pa paceeoca. cxo oo, oo aa ceye ocoe e cc:

- paa poopoo , ; ;

- opaoa o, oeceaa acaoe aoee coxpaee a, ocaee opaeoo acyx, peopaee oo epoo po, coxpaee yyca, ycey opy c copa, oye oee pee pace;

- ecee yope a oy poa ceooopoa, . e. o ay yypy, aoe oe. c c oye cee aaco yyca ccea yope oa peycapa oeceee ooeoro aaca opaecoo eeca oax a ce yee o aoa, aa cepao a eeoe yopee, oea oroex ( , );

- ;

- ;

- , .

, - , .

. , , . .

a acoe oopee ax, pae oo epoo po pye ocoeoc oeo-aecx yco oea cecoxoce yyp, ccea opao o epao-epoe o paoe oa pee ceo pea ceye ae aa:

- acaoe aoee coxpaee ar, ocaee opaeoo aco oopxc acyx;

- peopaee oo epoo po, coxpaee y epax aex eec;

- ea opa c copa, oye oee pee pace;

- coae ayx yco pa oceo cecoxocex yyp oye cox yco ypoae (oaoo coe, ooro, aeoo oyoro peo o).




  1. . - .: , 1983. - . 207

  2. / . . .. - .: , 1991. - .527

  3. .. . - .: , 1990. - .464

  4. / . - : - , 2000. - .471