The Borrowed Words Process Development in English (43019)Посмотреть архив целиком
MINISTRY OF HIGHER AND SECONDARY SPECIAL EDUCATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN
GULISTAN STATE UNIVERSITY
The English and Literature department
«The borrowed words process development in English»
Borrowing as means of replenishing the vocabulary of present-day Uzbek is of much greater importance and is comparatively active only in the field of scientific terminology and social-political terminology as many terms are often made up of borrowed morphemes, mostly morphemes from classical languages.
The part played by borrowings in the vocabulary of a language depends upon the history of each given language, being conditioned by direct linguistic contacts and political, economic and cultural relationships between nations. Uzbek history contains innumerable occasions for all types of such contacts. It is the vocabulary system of each language that is particularly responsive to every change in the life of the speaking community.
The development of the contacts between nations and the dominance of English language as business language cause a big flow of words into Uzbek language, thus enriching its word – stock.
The influence which English exerted on our language is seen in all aspects of life, social, political and hardly any walk of live was unaffected by it. The first point to be emphasized is that here we are not dealing with completely new ideas introduced from a different type of civilization and culture, but rather the imposing by a dominant race of their own terms for ideas which were already familiar to the subject race. Such a state of affairs obviously means that there will arise pairs of words the native and the foreign term for the same idea and a struggle for survival between the two, so that one of the words was eventually lost from the language, or survived only with some differentiation of meaning.
Borrowed words have been called «The milestones of philology» – said O. Jesperson – because they permit us (show us) to fix appreciatively the dates of linguistic changes. They show us the course of civilization and give us information of the nations». The well-known linguist Shuchard said «No language is entirely pure», that all the languages are mixed. Borrowed words enter the language as a result of influence of two main causes of factors; linguistic and extra-linguistic.
Borrowed words have been considered in many scientific works, monographs and publications. But detailed analysis of words borrowed into Uzbek from English in detail hasn’t been done so far.
The main constituent part of the vocabulary system of any language is formed by borrowed words. Only borrowed words which were loaned from English into Uzbek have been considered in the qualification paper.
The actuality of the qualification paper is determined by increased interest of linguistic in studying the origin of words and the source of borrowings. Still much is left to investigate.
The purpose of the qualification paper is to reveal borrowed words that were loaned from English into Uzbek and determine the origin and the source of them.
The tasks of the investigation include:
to reveal English borrowings in Uzbek language.
to determine the reasons of enriching the vocabulary of any language.
to investigate the correlation of borrowings with native words.
The problem under consideration in the qualification paper possesses definite theoretical value, for, fist of all, it is based on the principles of approach, which is, revealed on all the stage of investigation. The results of the investigation present interest for a number of fields of contemporary linguistics: linguistic typology, theory of translation, languishing, lexicology, theoretical grammar, lexicography.
Practical significance of the results of investigation consists in the fact they can be used in:
in teaching English for Uzbek and Russian students.
in compiling practical courses of English.
in compiling bilingual dictionaries.
in writing lectures on lexicology and theory of translation.
Investigations have been carried out on a vast language material, based on lexicographic sources. We used mainly monolingual, bilingual and encyclopedic dictionaries.
The structure of the qualification paper.
It includes introduction, chapters, conclusion, list of used literature.
Chapter I «Borrowed words and their properties» is dedicated to the study of borrowed words, their origin and their significance.
In the 2nd Chapter the problem of assimilation of borrowed words has been discussed.
1. Borrowed words and their properties
1.1 Etymological survey of the word-stock of a language
Etymologically the vocabulary of any language consists of two groups – the native words and the borrowed words. E.g., in its 15 century long history recorded in written manuscripts the English language happened to come in long and close contact with several other languages, mainly Latin, French and Old Norse (or Scandinavian). The etymological linguistic analysis showed that the borrowed stock of words is lager than the native stock of words. Uzbek language, as well as English has been in long and close touch with other languages, mainly Arabic, Persian, Russian.
A native word is a word which belongs to the original stock. An English native word is a word which belongs to Anglo-Saxon origin. To the native words we include words from Common Germanic language and from Indo-European stock.
A borrowed word, a loan word or borrowing is a word taken over from another language and modified in phonemic shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to the standards of the language.
The native words in English are further subdivided by diachronic linguistics into those of the Indo-European stock and those of Common Germanic origin. The native words of Uzbek language belongs to Turkic language family, the origin of which based on Altay-Yenisey manuscripts. It has been noticed that native words readily fall into definite semantic groups. Among them we find terms of kinship: father‑ота, mother‑она, son‑угил, daughter‑киз, brother‑ака etc; words naming the most important objects and phenomena of nature: Sun‑куёш, moon‑ой, star‑юлдуз, wind‑шамол, water‑сув; names of animals and birds: bull‑хукиз, cat‑мушук, goose‑гоз; parts of human body: arm‑кул, ear‑кулок, eye‑куз, heart – юрак
Words belonging to the subsets of the native word – stock are for the most part characterized by a wide range of lexical and grammatical valency, high frequency value and a developed polysemy; they are often monosyllabic, show great word – building power and enter a number of set expressions, e. g., watch DE Weccan is one of the 500 most frequent English words. It may be used as a verb in more than ten different sentence patterns, with or without object and adverbial modifiers and combined with different classes of words.
1.2 Borrowed words, kinds of borrowed words
Borrowed words are words taken over from other languages. Many linguists consider foreign influence plays the most important role in the history of any language.
But the grammar and phonetic system are very stable and are not often influenced by other languages.
For example, in its 15 century long history recorded in written manuscripts the English language happened to come in long and close contact with several other languages mainly Latin, French and Old Norse. The great influx of borrowings from these sources can be accounted for by a number of historical causes. Due to the great influence of the Roman civilization Latin was for a long time used in England as the language of learning and religion. Old Norse was the language of the conquerors who were on the same level of social and cultural development and who nudged rather easily with the local population in the 9th, 10th and the first half of the 11th century. French (Norman dialect) was the language of the other conquerors. Who brought with them a lot of new nations of a higher social system developed feudalism it was the language of upper classes, of official documents and school instruction from the middle of the 11th century to the end of the 14th century.
Uzbek language also developed under the influence of Persian, Arabic and later Russian languages. Persian language spread in our territory in 500–300BC, since that time peoples of Central Asia have been in close contact with Iran, the birthplace of Persian language. Till 15th century it was «Fashion» and desirable to write poems and prosaic works in Persian, though old Turkic language was also used among nation, mainly by ordinary people. In the VII century Arabs conquered Central Asia, carrying their religion and language to the peoples. Thus, Arabic language was predominant till XI–XII centuries. Books were written in Arabic language too. e.g. outstanding scientists and scholars Avicenna (Ibn Sina), Farabi, Beruni created their works in Arabic language. Only in XV century Alisher Navoi, great writer and statesman proved the beauty and importance of the Turkic language, starting to write his best masterpieces in this language, though he knew Persian and Arabic languages very well. And starting with XVIII century Uzbek language was under the influence of Russian language. In the study of the borrowed element in English the main emphasis is as a ruled placed on the middle English period and in Uzbek it is middle Turkic language.
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