Expressive means and stylistic Devices (42851)Посмотреть архив целиком
MINISTRY OF HIGHER AND SECONDARY SPECIAL EDUCATION
OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN
GULISTAN STATE UNIVERSITY
The English and Literature Department
______________’s qualification work on speciality 5220100, English philology on the theme:
“Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices”
1.1. About style
1.2. Expressive means and stylistic Devices
II. Main part
2.1. Lexical Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices
2.2. International mixing of the stylistic aspect of words
2.3. Interaction of different types of lexical meaning
2.4. Interaction of primary dictionary and contextually imposed meaning
2.5. Stylistic Devices Based on the Interaction of Logical and Emotive Meaning
2.6. Stylistic Devices Based on the Interaction of Logical and Nominal Meanings
Theme actuality. In order to improve the training and provide better knowledge of foreign languages we have to accelerate the realization of the National Programmer of Personnel Training in the country. As in many other aspects of life the situation changed in a language policy. That requires creation of new textbooks, dictionaries, manuals. In order to fulfill this goals one must know every field of linguistics. In my opinion the theme of the work is very actual because there is not any manual which compare the lexical stylistic devices of the Uzbek and the English language.
The aims and purposes of the work. Main goal of the work is to compare, analyze and find examples which belong to lexical stylistic device.
The scientific novelty of the work. The analyses of the lexical stylistic device of both languages have done in comparing the works done by Galperin I.R, Kukharenko.V.A, and Bobohonova L.T.
The practical value. The practical value of the research is that the material and the results of the given qualification work can serve the material for theoretical courses of lexicology , stylistics, typology as well as can be used for practical lessons in translations, home reading ,conversational practice and current events.
Literature overview. The methodic base on the work became the works of Galperin I.R., Kucharenko V.A., Bobohonova L.T, materials from Internet, different types of dictionaries,World Book Encyclopedia .
The structure of the work . The qualifications work consists of Introduction, Main Part an conclusion , which are followed by the list of the literature used in the course of research.
1.1 About style
The word s t y l e is derived from the Latin word `s t y l o s` which meant a short stick sharp at one end and flat at the other used by the Romans for writing on wax tablets. Now the word `style` is used in so many senses that it has become a breeding ground for ambiguity. The word is applied to the teaching of how to write a composition; it is also used to reveal the correspondence between thought and expression; it frequently denotes an individual manner of making use of language; it sometimes refers to more general, abstract notions thus inevitably becoming vague and obscure, as, for example, “Style is the man himself” (Buffon), “Style is depth” (Derbyshire); “Style is deviations” (Enkvist); “Style is choice” and the like.
All these ideas directly or indirectly bear on issues in stylistics. Some of them become very useful by revealing the springs which make our utterance emphatic, effective and goal-directed. It will therefore not come amiss to quote certain interesting observations regarding style made by different writers from different angles. Some of these observations are dressed up as epigrams or sententious maxims like the ones quoted above. Here some more of them.
Style is a quality of language which communicates precisely emotions or thoughts, or a system of emotions or thoughts, peculiar to the author”. (J Middleton Murry) “… a true idiosyncrasy of style is the result of an author’s success in compelling language to conform to his mode of experience”. (J. Middleton Murry).
“Style is a contextually restricted linguistic variation”. (Enkvist).
“Style is a selection of non-distinctive features of language”. (L. Bloomfield).
“Style is simple synonymous with form or expression and hence a superfluous term”. (Benedetto Croce)1.
“Style is essentially a citational process, a body of formulae, a memory (almost in the cybernetic sense of the word). A cultural and not an expressive inheritance”. (Roland Barthes)2.
Some linguists consider that the word `style` and the subject of linguistic stylistics is confined to the study of the effects of the message, i.e. its impact on the reader. Thus Michael Riffaterre writes that “Stylistics will be linguistics of the effects of the message, of the output of the act of communication, of its attention –compelling function”. This point of view has clearly been reached under the influence of recent developments in the general theory of information. Language being one of the means of communication or, to be exact, the most important mans of communication, is regarded in the above quotation from a pragmatic point of view. Stylistics in that case is regarded as a language science which deals with the results of the act of communication.
To a very considerable degree this is true. Stylistic must take into consideration the “output of the act of communication”. But stylistics must also investigate the ontological, i.e. natural, inherent, and functional peculiarities of the means of communication. Which may ensure the effect sought?
Archibald A. Hill states that “A current definition of style and stylistics is that structures, sequences, and patterns which extend, or may extend, beyond the boundaries of individual sentences define style, and that the study of them is stylistics”
The truth of this approach to style and stylistics lies in the fact that the author concentrates on such phenomena in language as present a system, in other words, on facts which are not confined to individual choices and patterns of choices (emphasis added) among linguistic possibilities.”3
This definition indirectly deals with the idiosyncrasies peculiar to a given writer. Somehow it fails to embrace such phenomena in text structure where the `individual` is reduced to the minimum or even done away with entirely (giving preferences to non-individualistic forms in using language means). However, this definition is acceptable when applied to the ways men-of-letters use language when they seek to make it conform to their immediate aims and support. A somewhat broader view of style is expressed by Werner winter who maintains that “A style may be said to be characterized by a pattern of recurrent selections from the inventory of optional features of a language. Various types of selection can be found; complete exclusion of an optional element, obligatory inclusion of a feature optional else where, varying degrees of inclusion of a specific variant without complete elimination of competing features.”4
The idea of taking various types of selection as criteria for distinguishing styles seems to be a sound one. It places the whole problem on a solid foundation
Of objective criteria, namely, the interdependence of optional and obligatory features..
There is no point in quoting other definitions of style. They are too many and heterogeneous to fall under one more or less satisfactory unified notion. Undoubtedly all these diversities in the understanding of the word `style` stem from its ambiguity. But still all these various definitions leave an impression that by and large they all have something in common. All of them point to some integral significance, namely that style is a set of characteristics by which we distinguish one author from another or members of one subclass from members of the same general class.4 *What are these sets of characteristics typical of a writer or of a subclass of the literary language will be seen in the analysis of the language means of a given writer and of the subclasses of the general literary standard.
1.2 Expressive means and stylistic Devices
All stylistic means of the English and Uzbek languages can be divided into expressive means (EM) and stylistic devices (SD). “The expressive means of a language are those phonetic, morphological, word building, lexical, preseological or syntactical forms which exist in language as-a-system for the purpose of logical and various dictionaries.
Among lexical EM we must mention words with emotive meanings, interjections, polysemantic words, vulgar words, slang etc. The fact that polysemantic words retain their primary and secondary meanings is of great importance for stylistics. It is quite easy to understand the meaning of the following phrases; He grasped the main idea; a burning question; pity melted her heart. The italicized words are used in their secondary transferred dictionary meanings. But the primary and secondary meanings are realized simultaneously. The expressiveness of these words becomes obvious when compared with neutral equivalents; He understood the main idea; an important question; pity softened her heart. This expressiveness exists in the vocabulary of the Uzbek and any language. For example: Suv yuz gradus issiqlikda qaynaydi; gap qaynaydi. Ustaraniqayramoq. Ikki yoshni bir-biriga qayramoq. Dalalarda ish qaynaydi kimlar teradi, kimlar beda o`radi, kimlar shudgar qiladi.
In this short survey it is impossible to give a complete analysis of all E.M. of the both language. My task was to show some lexical EM of the English and Uzbek languages.