English Predicate and its Translation Properties into Uzbek (42841)Посмотреть архив целиком
MINISTRY OF HIGHER AND SECONDARY SPECIAL EDUCATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN
GULISTAN STATE UNIVERSITY
The English and Literature department
Turdiboeva Mahfuza’s qualification work on speciality 5220100, English philology on the theme:
“English predicate and its translation properties into Uzbek”
Supervisor: Ibragimov O.
T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S
Chapter I English predicate and its translation properties
1.1 Constituent analyses of the sentence
2.1 The predicate as a main part of the sentence
3.1 Complication of predicate and types of complications
Chapter II The ways and problems of translating predicate from English into Uzbek
1.2 The link-verbs in English and their translation into Uzbek and Russian
2.2 Transitivity of verbs and the problems of translating them into Uzbek and Russian languages
3.2 Predicate as the center of the sentence
The list of used literature
I N T R O D U C T I O N
Performing their semantic functions, words in an utterance form various syntagmatic connections with one another.
One should distinguish between syntagmatic groupings of notional words alone, syntagmatic groupings of notional words with functional words, and syntagmatic groupings of functional words alone.
Different combinations of notional words (notional phrases) have a clearly pronounced self-dependent nominative destination, they denote complex phenomena and their properties in their inter-connections, including dynamic inte-connections. Combinations of a notional word with a functional word are equivalent to separate words by their nominative function.
The actuality of our qualification paper is determined by the rise of interest of linguistics in the problems of the theory of translation and its interconnection with the theoretical grammar.
The purpose of the qualification paper is to reveal and establish the means of transforming predicate from English and Uzbek, with the comparison of Russian.
The tasks of the work includes:
To reveal the properites of English predicate and the means of their expression
To research into the interconnection of the predicate with the other parts of the sentence
To determine and reveal the ways and problems of translating predicative constructions from English into Uzbek
Theoretical and practical significance of the work is that the material can be used in compiling theoretical lectures on the theory of translation and theoretical grammar, and the practical part can be used as a source in seminars on the above mentioned subjects.
The structure of the sentence. It consists of introduction, two chapters, conclusion and the list of used literature.
In the first chapter we deal with the theoretical base of predicate, its types and the means of forming them.
The second chapter is devoted to the ways and problems of translating the predicate constructions from English into Uzbek language.
C H A P T E R I
English predicate and its translation properties into Uzbek
1.1 Constituent analyses of the sentence
The parts of the sentences are the basic syntactical units. First and important in the investigation of the structure of the sentence is segmentation that is articulation of the composition of the sentence into constituents.
A sentence as a unit of the language, with the help of which speech communication is carried out, must reflect, on the one hand, all diversity of possible, constantly changing beyond the language situations and, on the other hand, regulate the imagination of them through generalizing character structural schemes and semantic configurations.1 Only satisfying these requirements the language can effectively function as a means of communication and a means of thinking activity of man. It is natural that a member of the sentence as a constituent part of the sentence cannot be indifferent to these requirements, but on the contrary, must provide their implementation.
The part of the sentence when it functional syntactical nature doesn’t change in all unlimited number of the real sentences (the subject as a source or the object of the action, the predicate as an action that the subject carries out) being differently expressed lexically under conditions of identity of lexemes is sorted as a component of each new sentence with all the new subjects, with their properties, their terms of existence, thus providing the reflection of final setting of language means of unlimited diversity of the objective world and worlds that are created by intellectual activity of human being.
Part of the sentence is a two-sided language mark, which possesses the meaning and the form.
Its meaning is syntactic function, that is, that substantial relation, in which given syntactic element is in another structure of some syntactic consecution of elements. The form of the part – is not only syntactically meaningful morphological form of the word, but also characteristics, connected with the belonging of the word to the definite part of speech or to the category of words inside of the part of speech, presence or absence of secondary auxiliary words, the location in the relation to another element, intonation indications of syntactic relation- shortly everything that allows to identify the word or group of words as a bearer of definite syntactic- functional significance. Thus, syntactic form, unlike morphological one, is multi- componential.
The diversity of syntactical and semantic configurations is unlimited.
The system of the parts of sentence in some extent is appropriate to the system of parts of speech. What elements form the system of parts of the sentence? Their nomenclature is standard and therefore it unlikely needs the substantiation. These are the subject, the predicate, the object, the modifier and the attribute. Full parallelism between that and the other systems is not only undesirable from the point of view of substantial problems and the possibilities of the language, but also on principle it is impossible, even for the fact that in the structural-semantic nature of some parts of speech are input their syntactical half-functionality. Thus, the noun as a expresser of the meaning of the object can be the subject, the object, the modifier, nominative attribute, nominative part of the predicate.
Traditionally the parts of the sentence are divided into main and secondary parts. Taking the given designations as conditionals (such-called secondary parts, like the main parts can belong to the structural minimum of the sentence; the object is correlative with the subject) one should acknowledge that established division traditionally reflects the necessary differential property of the parts of the sentence, and especially their participation / absence in the formation of predicative core of the sentence, in expressing the category of predicativity. Practical convenience to the advantage of such division is in its unambiguity: the subject and the predicate are the main parts of the sentences; the others are always secondary parts of the sentences.
If to proceed from the role that the parts of the sentence play in formation of structural-semantic minimum of the sentence, then it turns out that most of the objects and some modifiers (depending on syntagmatic class of the verb-predicate ) are the as important as the subject and the predicate. The removal of the objects and the modifiers in the examples below makes them grammatically and semantically unmarked:
She closed her eyes. (D. Lessing) She was there. (I. Murdoch)
The distribution of the parts of the sentence will be different if they are considered coming from the role in the actual articulation of the sentence.2 Here it appears that it is secondary parts that are communicatively essential (rhematic), as the subject and to the less extent predicate form initial part of the utterance (thematic). In the following example But she cries always in the succession of the sentence She doesn't move for hours at a time. But she cries always.' (S. Maugham) the modifier always forms more important part of the information, given by this sentence, than the subject.
Thus the elements of one and the same system are organized differently, if they are considered in the aspects of different properties peculiar to them.
It will be right in establishing the systems of the parts of sentence to come from the roles of parts of sentences in the formation of the sentence and from the character of their mutual relations. Here we can distinguish three main groups of the parts of the speech:
The first group includes the subject and the predicate. The status of the subject and the predicate is special in comparison with the other parts of the sentence. Only the subject and the predicate are mutually connected with each other and independent in the relation to any other member of the sentence as all the other parts can be raised on the base of the ties of dependence on the subject and the predicate as topping elements. This hierarchy of dependence is clearly seen when establishing the schemes of dependence. The top layer is occupied by the subject and the predicate. Look at the scheme of dependence for the sentence Small white crests were appearing on the blue sea (in it interdependent elements are connected with reciprocally directed pointer, topping and dependent elements- one- side- directed pointer from the dependent to the topping element3.: