Economic bases of innovative activity in public health services (42827)

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Table of contents


Introduction

1. Theoretical bases of the economic and legal substantiation of realization of innovative activity

1.1 Economic bases of innovative activity

1.2 Legal bases of innovative activity

1.3 Working out and the analysis of the innovative project

2. The technique of the estimation of efficiency of the innovative project

2.1 Existing technique of an estimation of the investment project

2.2 Offered model of an estimation of efficiency of the innovative project

2.3 Comparison of standard and offered models of an estimation of efficiency of the innovative project

3. The estimation of efficiency of the innovative project in public health services

3.1 Estimation of efficiency of the innovative project by a standard technique

3.2 Estimation of efficiency of the innovative project by an offered technique

3.3 Comparison of estimations of efficiency of the innovative project on standard and offered models

4. Management of the personnel of the scientific organizations

4.1 Personnel of the scientific organisations

4.2 Motivation of the personnel in the scientific organisations

4.3 Problem of a choice of the optimum schedule (mode) of work in the scientific organisations

5. Bases of safety of ability to live

5.1 Legal bases of a labour safety

5.2 Planning of actions for a labour safety

The conclusion

The literature list



Introduction


In modern conditions successful activity of medical institutions is in many respects defined by activity of economic service since the changes which have occurred in all spheres of our society, could not lay aside public health services. In the conditions of transition to the market without strengthening of an economic orientation of activity of the head it is difficult to count on stable work of establishment. So, is precipitate to sign contracts, to enter new medical services and to make other important decisions without corresponding economic examination. In this connection for medical institutions there is actual a question of the analysis and economic activities planning. Many of methods of economic (especially financial) analysis are not new in itself, but those are only in relation to public health services. Application (adaptation) of these methods to features of concrete area? A problem difficult enough, demanding the big work and qualification [12].

In the present degree work the innovative project of manufacture of iatrotechnics on the basis of treatment-and-prophylactic establishment will be considered. Offered in the given degree work to consideration the innovative project is developed for a substantiation of manufacture and realisation of the new medical device? The biotest?, intended for diagnostics and treatment of many of disease on a method to the developed R.Follem. This direction in medical branch has started to develop only in the last some years, and its further expansion is planned. Development of this direction has the big prospects in view of that R.Follja's method allows to treat many diseases, including congenital, and medical institutions engaged in diagnostics and treatment on R.Follja's method which will be the basic buyers of the device? The biotest?, can organise the activity in such a manner that technology use would make notable profit.

Medical institutions, private clinics and simply separate doctors constantly expand a field of the activity, all new and new services render, and aspire to receive from them benefit. Device "Biotest" allows to organise the whole medical office on research and treatment, helps with many branches of medicine. For example R.Follja's method is applied in stomatology to diagnostics of compatibility of the material, seals offered the patient and crowns, with its organism. The purpose of degree work is the substantiation of expediency of introduction of the innovative project on manufacture of the new device? The biotest?.

For achievement of this purpose in work following problems are solved:

1) to Describe the theoretical? Economic and legal? Bases of innovative activity.

2) to develop own model of an estimation of efficiency of the innovative project.

3) to spend the comparative description of standard and offered model of an estimation of efficiency of the innovative project.

4) For the considered innovative project? Device manufactures? The biotest?? To spend an efficiency estimation by both techniques, standard and developed in the present degree work.

5) to consider the important questions concerning innovative activity, such as questions of management of the personnel in the scientific organisations and ability to live safety issues at realisation of innovative activity. In the appendix to the present degree work the Passport of the innovative project is resulted.




1. Theoretical bases of the economic and legal substantiation of realization of innovative activity


1.1 Economic bases of innovative activity


Before to speak about the economic bases of innovative activity, we will short describe the basic terms and the concepts connected with innovative activity (in the field of public health services) [26]. According to a management of Fraskati (the document is accepted in 1993 in the Italian city of Fraskati) the innovation is defined as the end result of the innovative activity which has received an embodiment in the form of a new or advanced product (service), introduced on the market, new or advanced technological process, or in the new approach to social services. In other words the innovation (innovation) means result of the creative activity directed on working out, creation and distribution of new kinds of products, technologies, introductions of new organizational forms etc. [31]. In this connection it is necessary to consider the term an innovation as registration of result fundamental, applied or experimental researches in any field of activity, promoting development and increase of efficiency of this activity [47]. Besides opinions of authors of various editions, in terminology questions it is necessary to consider standard documents. So in the project of the Federal law? About innovative activity and the state innovative policy? Following definitions of concepts considered in the present degree work [62] are given:? An innovation - the end result of the creative activity which has received realisation in the form of new either advanced production, or the new or advanced technological process used in an economic turn;? Innovative activity? Creation of the new or advanced production, the new or advanced technological process, realised in an economic turn with use of scientific researches, workings out, developmental works, or other scientific and technical achievements;? The state innovative policy? The component of a social and economic policy directed on development and stimulation of innovative activity;? Venture innovative funds? The noncommercial organisations established legal and (or) physical persons on the basis of voluntary property payments and (or) voluntary investment in exchange for a share in the share capital, the creations focused on financing, development in manufacture of new kinds of production and (or) the technologies connected with a high risk;? An infrastructure of innovative activity? The organisations rendering subjects of innovative activity of service, necessary for realisation of innovative activity. In connection with the above-stated the central concept for the present degree research? The innovative project? It is necessary to define as follows. As the innovative project we will understand the introduction business plan (manufactures and sales) innovative working out (the new goods, service or technology). The business plan, in turn, is both a substantiation of economic feasibility of introduction of an innovation, and planning of actions for realisation of the project [46]. Following kinds of activity concern innovative activity [63]: performance of the research, developmental and technological works directed on creation of new or advanced production, the new or advanced technological process, realised in an economic turn; Carrying out of marketing researches and the organisation of commodity markets of innovative products; creation and development of an innovative infrastructure; preparation and retraining of personnel for innovative activity; protection, transfer and acquisition of the rights to objects of intellectual property both the confidential scientific and technological information; realisation of technological re-equipment and manufacture preparation; realisation of tests, certifications and standardization of new processes, products and products; the initial period of manufacture of new or advanced production, application of new or advanced technology before achievement of a standard time of recovery of outlay of the innovative project; financing of innovative activity, including realisation of investments into innovative programs and projects; other kinds of works which necessary for realisation of innovative activity and are not contradicting the legislation of the Russian Federation. Further from the conceptual device we will pass to the description of the economic bases of innovative activity. Above it was already told about necessity of steadfast consideration of the questions connected with an economic aspect of activity of treatment-and-prophylactic establishments. The first, what it is necessary to note in this connection? This increase of the importance of economic service in activity of the medical institutions, connected with increase of the importance of financial indicators. Other moment? This essential change last years character of economic work, increase of its complexity and labour input? Complexity and labour input of economic work in public health services is connected, first of all, with expansion of sources of financing, various principles of planning [40]. The Major factors influencing occurrence of new directions in economic work of medical institutions, Changes in public health services economic mechanism are following [53: 1]). 2) the Computerization of establishments of public health services. 3) changes of the status and the organizational-legal form of medical institutions, their transformation into full managing subjects with the wide rights in questions of the organisation of the work. One of the major kinds of economic work traditionally is planning. In modern conditions its relative density. However in modern conditions instead of charges of medical institutions priority value starts to get costs planning on the medical aid rendering, called to provide coordination of resources with volumes of the rendered services, instead of quantity of capacities (the areas, cots, states etc.) [20]. By consideration of new tendencies in approaches to the analysis of economic activities of medical institutions what varies not only toolkit of the economic analysis, but also a methodological basis is essentially important? The economic analysis of work of medical institution acts as the analysis of activity of the independent and full managing subject, instead of simply consumer of resources as it was earlier [39]. Rather new sphere of activity of economic service is pricing. This problem has got the practical importance in connection with introduction of a new economic mechanism and obligatory medical insurance [35]. In the conditions of market relations at an establishment of the sizes of a payment it is necessary to consider a supply and demand both on a labour market, and in the market of medical services [48].


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