(50233)

. -









: ""

" "




:

-2

:

..





-

2008


Coepae


eee

1. e poccco aop epea

2. ope e eeoo epe-peao

3. ec epe

4. ee peaoo eca epe

5. aooo-paooe pepoae epoo ooeco eeoc

aee




eee


o xopoo peca copeeoe cocoe opaa ce, o eoo paccope cop ooe epe. Ce ao oce coa epcoax oepo caa e x oee c e oea opae e . oeo, epeoca ao oo cooa ee oce opa, ae a ae e, epoap, ce, o ex cax, oa peec oepaoc aeoc epea, cpeca e oxo. apep, ce, opc, epc, e eoo oe. o aae 60-x oo aepace ee, paoae oac oepx exoo, oo poee: a oe ece ecoo oepo x ooaee. a aaa poea oa cecopo oep o paeca CA, oopoe oe 60-x oo peo oaa aco oo cepeao oepo ce. a ce a peea Aeco epcex cceoa CA (Advanced Research Project Agency) oa aae ARPANET. e poe o ce 2 ap 1969 oa.

oa, ca a oo pa ce ARPANET cao coae ceex poooo, a eo ceeca poooo TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). pooo - o coeo poa oe aex oepo. a opao, ARPANET caa peca coo coocopoc acpa (backbone), oecea ec c e a (xoca). aae co xoco o eeo, ceo 213. cepee 80-x oo aoa a o (NSF) coa ecoo cepoepx epo, pacooex pax acx CA. op ao o oeee x o acpa ce NSFNET oee e peoax epo. Ce NSFNET aa eco ARPANET, oop oe poa. apaeo coaac aoae ce px cpaax. 90- oa o oec: a opao o ceo epe. ae cpae epe oc cpaeo eao. pa ce pec a 1995-1996 . o oo o cao c xoo ce oepaoo cce Windows 95, aeo poae oee acpo. a ceo e epe oce ao. oe ocaoo e ae pe a:

  • pa cao cpoco, epe oopoe oaec ce (oe, ceea apa);

  • pa poaepa, . e. p, oopo a a pao ce;

  • poec eoxoe acpo cao cooecee popaoe oeceee.

a opao, epe pecae coo coooc ox c oepx cee, oeex o oa ce.



1. e poccco aop epea


epe e, a paccapa epe c ooeco o pe, eoxoo pec cacece ae oeca ooaee epe a ocee o.

pee ceo, eoxoo opee, o oaec o "aope epea". cex ooaee ce oo pae a p ocoe aeop acoc o oo, acoo aco o co epe:

  • ae ooae - ocea epe a o a e;

  • epee ooae - ocea epe o x o pex pa ee;

  • eae ooae - ocea epe o pa ee pee.

poe oo, cceoax aop epea pec o:

  • eeea (eecoa) aop - oeco ooaee, cox epe cpee e pee ooo paa c;

  • eeeea aop - oeco ooaee, cox epe e pee ooo paa ee;

  • eeeca aop - oeco ooaee, cox epe e pee ooo paa ec.

aa 2007 oa o oe poccco aop epea oc cex e:



eee co epe coec epaoepo. ap a cepep pocccx epe-poeo pxoc a paoee pe, ocoeo a epo c 12 o 15 aco o ococo pee. epe-poaep pe cea ap o (e e a oo oc epe) ce cox oea ap a oopoae. e e eee, aaa epaoepoc coxpaec. Pacpeeee aop epea o pee co ( poeax o coo aop):


pe

0-3 aca

4-6 aco

7-9 aco

10-12 aco

13-15 aco

16-18 aco

19-21 ac

22-24 aca

o aop %

3%

6%

25%

32%

27%

21%

22%

10%


Oa ca peae 100%, oco eoope ooae co epe eee ecox epoo, paccopex ae.

a pae, ocooe oeco ooaee epea cocpeooeo px cpex opoax. eca cece o (ooo 20% o oeo oeca pocccx ooaee) coca e oc.

ae eaoae opac ooaee epe. eopa ce a 2007 o:



2. ope e eeoo epe-peao


o ceac aec, o epe-peaa cepe oppe c eeoo. a cao ee ope opoc e. a epe CA ceac pxoc ooo 1% eo pea C, o oe, e a ap pea, o ao a, o a pea CA oa e co a pea cpeco. oe, pep, oce SuperBowl. o a eoaa o aepaco o, peaa o pe pac oopoo - caa opoa eeoa peaa pe: o o a coa ooo 5,4 . oapo. e e eee, p a eo peao epe-oa, cee o ca, aepoe, coxpac.

Ceac opoc paoop o epao eee (oe oa ea aae 90-x oo oaa peae epeocoo a ocex e). eo o, o pacpocpaee epea CA paec ocaooc (oc oe oeex ooaee ooo 37% o oeo ca). eac oe cooa epea: eoe c ooo "pa p", oco e - oce ocaoo opooo epoa aoo oa cepo a - ca cooa epe copee a pao cpe oca opa. aece cpeca paee epe e co ( ee e, aepoe, e e coe) ae eeee accoo aop - oo epe pee co ao oeeoc, oe o eeopa, oop ooe eae cee accoc cocpeooeoc. Oe oe eepopa e apaee oaoe epc, ooe, pep, aa oe eo apaeo o eee pooo o - c epceo oe po. a "epaae" popa ceac paoa o ce pe aee ce (ee - oe o poo eee - ec oooc oa opa ca o pe).


3. ec epe


O ax pepe coco pa acc ca pee ec, opaae cpe po cooc ocox pep oo oo ceopa oo. ceoc oa, paoax cepe paooo eca (ooee poaa ex, oa oex coaex, x epepaoa ..) oeaec eco S&P 500 Index ($SPX). Cocoe oa, eeoc oopx caa c co exoo, opaae NASDAQ Composite Index ($COMPX). ceo paac oa, ec oopx ca c epeo epe-exoo, oeae ec AMEX Inter@ctive Week Internet Index ($IIX). aex eca $IIX opaac cex pa pce oe eeoc 50 ex epe-oa pa, cpe oopx Amazon.com, America Online, BroadVision, DoubleClick, eBay, Excite, Macromedia, Yahoo.

Poc ca ooaee ce epe, oee ce ox pao, a eeepea, ocex epe, cex oa AOL, Amazon eBay e o, o ecop p epe a oe epce opac. epe o oe ec.

A epe-oa oe pooo ea oc epx c eepoo oo copoc. pep, poc pca a oa Yahoo (YHOO) c 1997 o 1999 o coca +7500%, o ce ec 1997 o ee a a $1000, o oe 1999 oa o co $76000.






- .
, VIP-.
. .