Modern Means of Business Communication (43455)Посмотреть архив целиком
1) What is business
2) International business
3) What is a bank
5) Product, Market and Market Relation
7) Accounting & Auditing
8) Modern Means of Business Communication
1) What is business
Business is a word which is commonly used in many different languages. But exactly what does it mean? The concepts and activities of business have increased in modern times. Traditionally, business simply meant exchange or trade for things people wanted or needed. Today it has a more technical definition. One definition of business is the production, distribution and sale of goods and services for a profit. To examine this definition, we will look at its various parts.
First, production is the creation of services or the changing of materials into products. One example is the conversion of iron ore into metal car parts. Next these products need to be moved from the factory to the marketplace. This is known as distribution, A car might be moved from a factory in Detroit to a car dealership in Miami.
Third is the sale of goods and services. Sale is the exchange of a product or service for money. A car is sold to someone in exchange for money. Goods are products which people either need or want, for example, cars can be classified as goods. Services, on the other hand, are activities which a person or group performs for another person or organization. For instance, an auto mechanic performs a service when he repairs a car. A doctor also performs a service by taking care of people when they are sick.
Business, then is a combination of all these activities: production, distribution and sale. However, there is one other part important factor. This factor is the creation of profit or economic surplus. A major goal in the functioning of an American business company is making a profit. Profit is the money that remains after all the expenses are paid. Creating an economic surplus or profit is, therefore, a primary goal of business activity.
2) International business
International business includes all business transactions that involve two or more countries. Such business relationships may be private or governmental.
There are three primary motivations for firms to pursue international business: to expand sales, to acquire resources, and to diversity sources of sales and supplies.
The concept of international business includes the balance of trade (the relationship between exports and imports) and balance of payments (the difference between inward and outward cash flows).
A company can engage in international business through various means, including exporting and/or importing of merchandise and services, direct and portfolio investments, and strategic alliances with other companies.
Merchandise exports are tangible goods sent out of a country; merchandise imports are tangible goods brought in. Since these goods visibly leave and enter they are sometimes referred to as visible exports and imports.
Service exports and imports are international earnings other than those derived from goods sent to another country. Receipt of these earnings is considered a service export, whereas payment is considered a service import. Services are also referred to as invisibles. International business comprises many different types of services: travel, tourism, and transportation; performance of activities abroad; use of assets from abroad.
Foreign investment is the ownership of property abroad. Direct investment is a subset of foreign investment that takes place when control follows the investment. When two or more organizations share in the ownership of a direct investment, the operation is known as a joint venture.
Portfolio investment can be either debt or equity but the factor that distinguishes portfolio from direct investment is that control does not follow this kind of investment.
3) What is a bank
A bank is a safe place to keep money. It's also much more than that. People save money in banks, banks have money to lend. Loans to people help them buy things. Loans to business help them buy, build and expand, and keep people working. These loans help the country's economy in making, distribution and use of our wealth.
Early banks were little more than moneychangers, exchanging coins and bullions from one form to another for a fee.
The way in which a bank is organized and operates is determined by its objectives. A bank may not necessarily be in business to make a profit.
There are different types of banks but their names may vary from one country to another.
Central banks such as the National Bank (Ukraine), the Bank of England (UK) or the Federal Reserve System (US) look after the governments finance and monetary policy and are responsible for issuing banknotes.
Commercial banks deal directly with the public. The aim of commercial banks is to earn profit.
A commercial bank provides a wide variety of services. There are three main functions of banking:
These three functions are the bases of the services by banks. They make it possible for banks to generate profits and to achieve their operating aims:
opening savings and current accounts
offering credit services to customers: personal loans and different credit cards
providing their customers travelling abroad with foreign currencies, travelling checks
investment advice: banks open ways to find and invest large amount of money
providing brokerage services
offering a wide range of trust services for individuals and businesses.
Merchant banks don’t deal with the public. They provide services for companies.
Investment banks are firms that control the issue of new secrities (shares and bonds).
Savings banks are financial institutions in providing services such as savings accounts as opposed to general banking services.
Company is a corporate enterprise that operates as one single unit, in the success of which all the members participate. Company is made of a number of people united in an industrial or commercial enterprise. Each company works out its own policy. It is a selected, planes’ line of conduct in the light of which decisions are made and co-ordination of work achieved. There is a difference between a corporation, a sole trader and a partnership. The principle difference is that a sale trader end a partnership are not corporations but limited companies are. A corporation is a company that is publicly registered and legally separated from its owners. It means that the corporation stays in existence even after the death of any of its owners. An incorporated company is a legal person in its own right, able to own property. Limited Liability Company is a joint-stock company, the financial liability of whose members is limited by law. An unlimited company is one in which the liability of the members is not limited in any way. A registered company is the most common type of company. A company may be registered either as a public limited company or a private company. Private Limited Company is a limited company, which must not invite the public to subscribe for its shares or debentures, and does not allow its members to transfer their shares without the agreement of the other shareholders. It must have at least two but usually not more than fifty members. Public Limited Company is a limited company, which can offer its shares and debentures to the public; there is normally no limit to the right of its members to transfer their shares to other persons. There is no limit to the total number of members except that there must be at least seven. A public limited company must have a name ending with the initials "Pic" and have an authorized share capital. The regulation of such companies is stricter than of private companies. Most public companies are converted from private companies, under the registration procedure laid down in the Companies Act. Subsidiary Company is a company of which more than half the share-capital is owned by another company, called either a holding company or a parent company. The subsidiaries of the same parent or holding company are said to be affiliates. Many well-known companies are multinationals, these are companies which operate in a number of countries. A joint-stock company is a company in which the members pool their stock, trading on the basis of their joint stock. People in a company, its employees hold different positions. The relationship between those employees with different positions makes organization structure. At present most firms are divided into three major parts: capital (shareholders), management and labor. Let us take a typical company. There is a director who is a senior manager. He sits on the Board under the authority of the President. The Board decides what company policy and expenditure must be. The chief executive officer (CED) is the link between the Board and senior management. As for the middle managers, they run departments of a firm. They account to senior management for their area of work done. There is a difference between executive directors and non-executive ones. The directors, who run their firm on day-to-day basis are called executive directors. Those who sit on the Board and do not run the firm directly are called non-executive directors. In modern American English they use also the term inside directors for executive and outside directors for non-executive ones.
5) Product, Market and Market Relation
Product is everything that one receives in exchange. Some products are tangible and satisfy individual desires, while others are intangible but also important in satisfying individual interests. Products are divided into two classes: goods and services. For example, a hamburger is a good, while a doctor's examination is a service. When you buy an automobile, you are purchasing a good. When you have someone adjust a carburetor, however, you are purchasing a service. So good is a real, physical, tangible thing that produced and consumed. A service is an intangible attribute that involves selling help and advice, or delivering goods for customers.