Tourism in Spain (43074)Посмотреть архив целиком
1. Tourism industry in the world
1.1 Structure of tourism industry in the world
1.2 Tourism and transportation in the world
1.3 Accommodation and catering service in the world
2. Tourism in Spain
2.1 Useful information about Spain
2.2 When to go to Spain
2.3 Eating and drinking in Spain
3. Accommodation in Spain
3.1 Classification criteria
3.2 Barcelona hotels
3.3 Madrid hotels
The name of my course paper is «Accommodation in Spain». But it also contains the information on the industry of tourism both in the world and in Spain. I think that tourism is one of the major branches of economy, and accommodation is a part of the tourist structure. I have chosen this topic because Spain is the important tourist centre in the world, and it has the advanced system of accommodation. That is why this topic is actual for today.
The purpose of my course paper is the description of structure of the tourist industry in the world and accommodations in Spain.
Object of course paper is the industry of tourism in the world, a subject - accommodation in Spain.
Problems of course paper:
to give concept that what is tourism as a whole?
to describe the structure of the tourist industry;
to state the purposes of tourism;
to describe the tourist industry in the world and in Spain;
To describe the system of accommodations in Spain.
1. Tourism industry in the world
1.1 Structure of Tourism industry
Tourism has been one of the fastest growing industries in recent years. Indeed, the growth rate of tourism has generally exceeded the growth rate for the worldwide economy.
Tourism has become the world's most important economic activity:
According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO), annual expenditure worldwide on tourism is more than 3.5 trillion US dollars. In 1994, tourism accounts for 12 per cent of the world's Gross National Product (GNP).
The travel and tourism industry has become the principal source of job creation in many countries and employs more than 183 million people worldwide.
The economic impact of the industry has been considerable. It is responsible for approximately 7 per cent of global capital expenditure.
Sometimes it seems as though a new resort area springs up every day wherever there are sun and sea. The shores of the Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas and the Pacific coastlines of Mexico, Florida, and Hawaii are only a few of the areas that have been intensively developed in the past few years.
In spite of this rapid growth it is not easy to define tourism and accurate statistics are not easy to obtain. Tourism necessarily involves travel; a tourist is usually defined as a person who is visiting some place other than his usual residence for more than 24 hours. A tourist is distinguished by the length of his trip from an excursionist, who is away from his usual residence for less than 24 hours, or most a weekend.
The question of purpose, however, also must enter into the definition of tourism. Many people travel entirely for the purpose of recreation or pleasure; they are people on holiday. Other people travel for reasons of health. Originally, both the Riviera and Switzerland were tourist destinations as health resorts. Other people travel to visit friends or relatives, a reason that has become more important because of increased mobility throughout the world. Still others travel in order to educate themselves in accord with the old precept that travel is broadening.
All of these people are generally considered tourists since the primary reason for their trips is recreation. Most tourist statistics also include people who are traveling on business. Among them are businessmen and government officials on specific missions, as well as people attending meetings or conventions. Another kind of business travel is the incentive trip. It is a trip offered by an organization, usually a business firm, to reward successful effort or to induce on employee to make a greater effort. A bonus or reward is given, for example, to a salesman who has exceeded his quota. Many people among those traveling on business often combine pleasure with their work. They also use the same transportation, accommodations, and catering facilities as the holiday tourists. Accommodations refer to hotels or other places where a traveler can find rest and shelter; catering facilities refers to places where a traveler or another member of the public can find food and drink.
Not included in the area of tourism are people who travel someplace in order to take up a job there. This excludes from tourism the migrants who have been an important part of the modern industrial scene in the more industrialized countries of North Europe or in the continental United States. Students who travel to another region or country where they are enrolled in a regular school are also not usually included in tourist statistics.
The marketing approach for the two major divisions among tourists -recreational and business travelers - is somewhat different. The recreational travelers respond to a greater degree to lower fares and other inducements in pricing and selecting the destination for their trips. In a technical phrase, they make up a price elastic market. The business groups, on the other hand, make up a price inelastic market. Their trips are not scheduled according to lower fares, the destination is determined in advance, and the expense is usually paid for by (heir employers. They are looking for dependable rather than inexpensive service. Business travelers also make more trips to large cities or industrial centers than to resort areas, although many conventions are now held at resort hotels. It should be noted, however, that some large cities, such as London, Paris, New York, Rome, and Tokyo, are themselves the most important tourist destinations in the world. Because of this, it is difficult to separate pure recreation travel from business travel.
Tourism is a relatively new phenomenon in the world. Since being away from home is a necessary component of tourism, its development as a mass industry depended on modern means of rapid and inexpensive transportation. Tourism as we know it today began with the building of the railroads in the 19th Century. In fact, the words tourism and tourist themselves were not used for the first time until about 1800. The first tour in the modern sense was put together by Thomas Cook in England in 184l, and the line of Thomas (Cook and Sons has remained one of the prominent names in (lie tourist industry. Steamships also increased tourism, especially across the North Atlantic, the major route of modern tourism. The automobile and the airplane in still more recent times have also become major modes of transportation for recreational purposes. The greatest growth in international tourism has taken place only since the end of World War II in 1945, and it has paralleled the growth of air transportation.
Industrialization has produced the other conditions that are necessary for tourism. Among them is the creation of a large number of people with an amount of disposable income—income above and beyond what is needed for basic expenses such as food, shelter, clothing, and taxes.
The working population of industrialized countries is enjoying increased leisure time and more holidays. Although this is common to all industrialized countries, there are significant differences between nations. For example, the length of the annual paid holiday in the United States and Japan is generally less than a month and sometimes just a fortnight. Western European workers are entitled to longer paid holidays. France, in particular, allows its workforce five weeks of statutory annual paid leave. If national holidays are included, the French enjoy up to eight weeks of paid vacation a year.
Another important condition is urbanization, the growth of large cities. Residents of the big population centers take more holiday trips than residents of rural areas. Anyone who has been to Paris in August, for example, cannot help but observe that a great many of the inhabitants—with the exception of those who serve foreign tourists—are away on vacation.
Before industrialization, there was a sharp distinction between the leisure class and the working class. Nowadays, however, the concept of leisure in the form of long weekends and paid vacations has spread to the working class. This may be the most important factor in modern tourism. Millions of factory workers in northern European countries take their paid vacations in sunny southern European countries. In many cases the cost of the holiday is subsidized partly or wholly by government, unions, or employers. This subsidized recreational travel is called social tourism. In the western countries, an example is the incentive trip that was mentioned previously for residents of Russia and the other Communist countries, social tourism is practically the only kind of recreational travel that exists.
The importance of industrialization can be seen from the fact that approximately 80 percent of international tourists come from the industrialized countries—Canada and the United States, the nations of Western Europe, and Japan. Two of these countries, the United States and West Germany, account for about half of this tourist traffic. In addition, all of these countries generate a large amount of internal tourism. As we have already noted, the major cities in these countries are also major tourist attractions in themselves. They offer a great variety of cultural, educational, and historical attractions.