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Module One

Text 1A

I. Remember the following words:

assembly – узел, механизм

anvil – шабот, наковальня

air clutch – пневматическая муфта

bottom dead centre – нижняя мёртвая точка

drive shaft – ведущий вал, приводной вал

exert a force – оказывать давление

gravity drop hammer/ power drop hammer– штамповочный молот

single acting hammer – штамповочный молот простого действия

fasten – прикреплять к чему-либо

incorporate – включать в себя

impart a stroke –сообщать ход

impose – налагать, спускать

derive from – происходитьот

low profile forging – простая поковка

piston rod – шток

rated size – номинальный размер

stroke – ход

trimming – обрезка

squeeze – сдавливать

weighted rams – падающие части

II. Read and translate the text.


The type of machinery to be used depends on the shape, size, material, and the number of pieces to be made. Heavy forgings are produced in different types of presses and lighter ones by hammers.

Conventional drop forging hammers incorporate a weighted ram that, when it moves vertically in a downward stroke, exerts a striking force against a stationary component of the anvil near the base of the hammer. Forging dies being fastened to the weighted ram and the anvil assembly, and a workpiece being placed between them, the striking force is imposed on the workpiece, causing it to deform plastically with each successive blow, thus providing a forged configuration.

Power drop hammers are equipped at the top with a cylinder, a piston and a piston rod that is attached to the ram and that is powered by steam or compressed air. The piston is used to raise the ram and movable die to the desired height and to add force to the force of gravity on the downstroke. These hammers range in rated size from 500 to 35,000 lb. In general, they are used to produce medium-size to large open-die and close3d-die forgings. Gravity drop hammers derive their downward force entirely from the force of gravity, mechanical means raising the ram for the succeeding stroke or blow. Gravity drop hammers typically have a falling weight, or rated size, of 400 to 10,000 lb. and are used in the production of smaller and lighter open-die or closed-die forgings.

Conventional presses incorporate a ram that moves in a vertical direction to exert a squeezing action on the work metal. Such presses develop far less noise and vibration than hammers. Depending on their actuation, forging presses are classified as mechanical or hydraulic. Maximum capacities, exceeding those of the largest steam hammers, are developed by hydraulic presses. In general, presses can produce all of the types of forgings produced by hammers.

Mechanical presses are driven by a motor and controlled by an air clutch; they have a fulleccentric type of drive shaft that imparts a constant stroke to a vertically operating ram. Because of the short stroke, mechanical presses are best suited for low-profile forgings. Presses are rated on the maximum force they will exert at 3/8 or ¼ in. from the bottom dead centre. Capacities typically range from about 300 to 8000 tons. In smaller sizes (50 to 250 tons) they are widely used for trimming forgings produced on other types of equipment. As for hydraulic presses they produce high tolerance forgings. Capacities of hydraulic presses are known to range from 300 to 50000 tons.

III. Answer the following questions:

1. What exerts a striking force against a stationary component of the anvil near the base of the hammer? 2. What is the piston used for? 3. What hammers are used in the production of smaller and lighter open-die or closed-die forgings? 4. What are the advantages of forging presses as compared with power drop hammers?

IV. Find the following phrases in the text:

С каждым последующим ударом; нужная (необходимая) высота; вообще; в зависимости от; лучше всего подходят; широко используются; что касается; мощность гидравлического пресса.

V. Fill in the gaps with the verbs from the text.

1. Conventional drop forging hammers…….a weighted ram that, when it moves vertically in a downward stroke…….a striking force against a stationary component.

2. When forging dies are……to the weighted ram and the anvil assembly, the striking force is…….on the workpiece.

3. Gravity drop hammers…….their downward force entirely from the force of gravity.

4. The ram moves in a vertical direction and…….a squeezing action on the work metal.

5. Mechanical presses are drive by a motor and have a full eccentric type of shaft that…….a constant stroke to a vertically operating ram.

VI. Translate the following sentences paying a special attention to the word “force”.

1. In pneumatic hammers the rams fall not only under their own weight but are also forced to fall by the action of compressed air above the piston.

2.The force of the blow is controlled by a handle which adjusts the opening of the valve through a system of levers.

3. During the upward stroke the piston of the working cylinder compresses the air in the upper part of the cylinder and forces it through the upper channel into the working cylinder.

VII. Read and translate the text without a dictionary.

Counterblow hammers develop striking by the movement of two rams that approach simultaneously from opposite directions and meet at a midway point. The rams are capable of striking from 100 to 200 blows per minute; they develop combined velocities equivalent to about 1.5 times the normal hammer velocities. Capacities of six large power drop and counterblow hammers, ranging in rated size from 25,000 lb. to 125,000 mkg, are related to the production of blocker-type forgings in titanium alloys and low-alloy steel.

Text 1B

I. Remember the following words:

drop hammer – штамповочный молот

power hammer – механический молот

link-rod – шатун

chamber – камера, отсек, полость, резервуар

vessel – камера высокого (низкого) давления

tup – баба молота, кувалда молота

flexible pipes – гибкие трубы

charge(v) – (зд.) заполнять

rigidly – жёстко, строго, неподвижно

crank – кривошип

II. Read and translate the text.


Forging hammers apply force by the impact of a large ram. This may be a drop hammer, or weight falling under them force of gravity, or it may be a power hammer, driven by steam or compressed air. Two types of power hammers are: the smith forging hammer and the drop hammer. The largest hammers can provide a total force as high as 40,000 tons.

For increasing general efficiency and reducing the cost of forgings worked on a double action air hammer, an electro-hydraulic hammer has been developed for many years. There are several series of electro-hydraulic hammers which can be found at the forging equipment market.

However as compared with an air hammer a hydraulic drive system is easier out of order and it is usually quite difficult to find out the problems quickly and correctly due to its complicated structure. It means that the reliability of an electro-hydraulic hammer is not as well as an air hammer and people who have even more knowledge and experiences should be employed to keep the hammer working normally.

A crank hammer is a kind of a new type forging machine, its principle and construction being totally different from other hammers, and its efficiency and reliability can be expected to be higher than those of electro-hydraulic hammers.

From the electric motor to the link-rod the structure of crank hammers is quite similar to a mechanical press. When the link-rod is connected with the piston, the chamber inside the tup is separated by the piston into upper and lower spaces; compressed air is filled into the lower space and the upper space contains liquid. By flexible pipes the lower space is directly linked to the compression air container while the upper space is joined to the low pressure vessel through the valve.

When the crank rotates the tup and the piston rise together rigidly because the valve is closed and the oil confined inside the upper space cannot be squeezed. After the crank passes through its top dead-centre and then arrives at a definite position, one should hold down the handle. The valve opens and the tup is simultaneously accelerated downward by its weight and the expanding energy of the air inside the lower space until strike occurs. The oil of the upper space is charged into the low pressure vessel.

As soon as strike happens the handle is required to be held up again. Although the tup now stays at the anvil the piston will keep moving towards its bottom dead-centre. The air inside the lower space is compressed to the initial pressure and the oil flows back to the upper space from the vessel automatically.

III. Answer the questions:

1. What determines the choice of forging equipment? 2. What types of hammers do you know? 3. What caused the development of electro-hydraulic hammers? 4. What are their disadvantages as compared with air hammers? 5. Can you give technical characteristics of a crank hammer? 6. What’s the principle of its work?

IV. Retell the text, using the given questions as a plan.

Text 1C

I. Remember the following words:

leakage– утечка


maintenance work – эксплуатация, техническоеобслуживание

drawing– вытяжка

assemble–собирать, монтировать

tooling–оборудование, оснащение, механическая обработка

feeding– подача

handling – разгрузка, управление, обработка

fuel pump–топливный насос

housing– корпус

accomplish – выполнять, завершать

in-roads– вторжение

have in common – иметь общее

rubber molding – штамповка резиной, пресс-форма

single acting mechanical press – механический пресс простого действия


sheet metal working – обработка тонколистового металла

frame– рама

bed– станина

guide– направляющая

slide –ползун, скользить

lubrication– смазка

powerpack – узел привода

II. Read and translate the text.


In the not so distant past hydraulic presses were looked upon with some degree of suspicion due to fears of their leakage, lack of speed, being incapable of blanking operations, maintenance problems as wellas the noise made by hydraulic power packs. Therefore a tendency was to use them for deep drawing and assembly operations. And the training that tool and die makers and manufacturing engineers received, the terms used, the approach to tooling, feeding and part handling were almost always oriented towards mechanical presses. This trend, however, is now changing. And as a result of design improvements major developments are taking place which have already led to a new type of fast-acting presses which are arousing considerable interest in what usually was a predominantly mechanical press field.

Historically a hydraulic press is one of the oldest of the basic machine tools. As a machine it is probably as old as a bicycle. In recent years hydraulic presses have been attracting greater attention. Automotive manufacturers stamp fuel pump diaphragms, assemble shock absorbers and form disc brakes. Aircraft companies form tough titanium housings and forge turbine blades. Not only engineers are interested in hydraulic press market place – our knowledge extends to the physicist with his varieties of valves, the biologist, the dentist and even the makers of food products. These and hundreds of other jobs are being done today in industry by hydraulic presses.

What is a hydraulic press? First and foremost it is a press. Although the term hydraulic press covers a very wide range of types of presses they all have in common the application of force to accomplish work through the controlled containment of fluids. One hundred years or so ago the fluid used to be water – hydraulic presses were all water presses. With the development of the petroleum industry oil was found to be a superior fluid since it lubricated the moving parts of the machine while at the same time providing an excellent medium for transferring pressure. Now one hundred years later because of the oil crisis the industry is on a trend to the use of water, 95% water and 5% soluble oil.

Generally a hydraulic press includes a frame, a bed, one or more hydraulic cylinders, a guide or a slide mechanism to control the ram, a control system and a power source. The construction of a hydraulic press and its characteristics will vary depending upon the intended use. Hydraulic presses are built for rubber molding, forging, various types of metalworking operations, maintenance work, auto repairs and glassware manufactures.

With the providing of the latest kind of fast-acting presses and a successful outcome of further developments hydraulic presses have made significant in-roads into the traditional market for single-acting mechanical presses. The widespread introduction of hydraulic presses is seen in the double and triple-action press field for sheet-metal pressing, where the great advantage over mechanical presses is the controllability offered by hydraulic power.

III. Answer the questions

1. Why were hydraulic presses looked upon with suspicion in the not so distant past? 2. What caused the widespread introduction of hydraulic presses into the market? 3. Where are hydraulic presses used? 4. What do all hydraulic presses have in common? 5. Can you describe a typical hydraulic press? 6. What does its construction depend on? 7.What are hydraulic presses built for?

Text 1D

I. Remember the following words:

allowance – поправка, ограничение

adjust – регулировать

accommodate – приспосабливать

exert – оказывать давление, действовать

eliminate – устранять

breakage – поломка, выход из строя

crankshaft – коленчатый вал

coil – спираль

fit, suit – подходить, соответствовать

shift – изменять

auxiliary accessories – вспомогательное оборудование

tool life – срок службы инструмента

bending– гибка

piercing – прошивка

straightening – выпрямление

punching – пробивка

meet the current standards – отвечать современным стандартам

damage – повреждение

versatility – разносторонность, многофункциональность

flexibility – гибкость

smashing a die – разрушение штампа

pre-set pressure – заранее установленное давление

pressure dwell – выдержка под давлением

abrasive wheel forming – формовка абразивных кругов

at 10 times the capacity – при мощности большей в 10 раз

interlocking – блокировка

II. Read and translate the text.


Full power stroke – the full power of a hydraulic press can be delivered at any point in the stroke, not only at the very bottom as the case with mechanical presses. One of the advantages is that no allowance should be made for reduced tonnage at the top of the stroke. In drawing operations, for example, full power of the press is available at the top of the stroke and it is unnecessary to buy a 200 ton press to get 100 tons throughout the stroke. Other advantages are faster setups and no time consuming job of adjusting the screw on the slide to accommodate different dies.

Built-in overload protection – a 100 ton hydraulic press will exert only 100 ton pressure (less, if set for less) no matter what mistakes are made in set-up. It is unnecessary to worry about overloading or breaking the press or smashing a die. When a hydraulic press reaches its pre-set pressure, no further pressure is added since the relief valve opens at that limit and the danger of overload is eliminated.

Much lower original cost and operating costs – hydraulic presses are relatively simple and there is a significant cost advantage over mechanical presses in comparable sizes. The number of moving parts is few and these are fully lubricated in a flow of pressurized oil. Breakage when it occurs is usually minor, not, for example, like a broken crankshaft. Solenoid coils and occasionally a valve are inexpensive and they are easily replaced without taken the machine apart. This means more operating time and lower maintenance costs.

Larger capacity at lower cost – it is easier and less expensive to buy certain kinds of capacity in hydraulic presses. Stroke length of 12, 18 and 24 in. are common, extra stroke is easy to provide. In addition, larger table areas and small presses with big bed areas can be provided. Large 200 ton presses with relatively small beds are available; tonnage of the press does not dictate what the bed size will be.

More control flexibility – hydraulic press power is always under control. The ram force, the direction, the speed, the release of force, the duration of press dwell, all can be adjusted to fit a particular job. Jobs with light dies can be done with the pressure turned down. The ram can be made to approach the work rapidly, then shifted to a slower speed before contacting the work. Tool life is just prolonged. Timers, feeders, heaters, coolers and a variety of auxiliary accessories can be switched on in the circuit to fit the job. Hydraulic presses can do far more than just go up and down, up and down.

Greater versatility – a single hydraulic press can do a wide variety of jobs within its tonnage range, e.g. forming, blanking, bending, piercing, punching, straightening, powered metal forming, abrasive wheel forming, plastic and rubber molding.

Quiet – fewer moving parts and the elimination of a flywheel reduce the overall noise level of hydraulic presses compared to mechanical presses. Properly sized and properly mounted pumping units meet the current standards for noise, even with the pump under full pressure. Noise levels can be controlled due to the control of each phase of the ram movement.

More compact – a typical 20 ton hydraulic press is 8ft high, 6ft deep and 2ft wide. A 200 ton press is only 10ft high, 9ft deep and a little over 3ft wide. At 10 times the capacity a 200 ton press only takes up 50% more floor space.

Lower tool costs – the built-in overload protection applies to the tools also. The pressure of the press can be regulated to suit the job and the lack of impact, shock and vibration promotes longer tool life.

Safety – no manufacturer will (or should) claim that hydraulic presses are safer than mechanical presses. Both types of machines are designed and built to be safe if the controls and safety features built in are used properly. Improperly used all machines are potentially dangerous, but the factor of control of the ram movement makes hydraulic presses easy to make safe. The interlocking of guards as well as other safety devices is relatively easy because of the nature of hydraulic press control system.

III. Enumerate all the advantages of hydraulic presses listed in the text and prove them.

Text 1E

I. Remember the following words:

manual labour – ручной труд

in accordance with – в соответствии с

cam – кулачок, эксцентрик

open-front press – открытый, одностоечный пресс

reciprocate – совершать возвратно-поступательное движение

feed bar – подающая тяга

feed of half total pitch to position above the component – подача на высоте ½ общей высоты над деталью

clamper arm – захватывающее устройство

synchronized magazine type blank feeder – подающее устройство с магазином, синхронизированное с работой пресса

invert – опрокидывать, перевёртывать

intermediate station – промежуточная позиция

be at rest – быть неподвижным

release – разжимать. размыкать

II. Read and translate the text.


Automation or mechanization is one of the methods to increase labour productivity. Its basis is replacement of manual labour by mechanisms and machines. There is partial and complex mechanization. Partial mechanization does not involve complete elimination of manual labour. When mechanization is complex, manual job is limited only to the operation of machine tools. Automatic control is the control of machines or systems by means of special devices which comprise a control system. The control system operates in accordance with a predetermined program.

An automated line is the line of three or four individual open-front presses linked together by a single independently driven unit that would transfer the work from one press to another with intermediate stations and, where required, turnover stations of reversing the presentation of the pressing.

Such an arrangement would have the following advantages: 1) low capital investment if existing presses are suitable; 2) existing tooling can be used or modified for use; 3) savings in labour; 4) toll setting is simple with easy access to the front of presses; 5) transfer system does not require setting on tool change, only clamper arms being re-set or replaced; 6) inter-stage storage and movement are eliminated.

The transfer system is an independent unit driven by an electric motor which, by system of cams, reciprocates a horizontal bar running inside the press gap to the rear of the press tools. In addition to horizontal traverse, a vertical movement to place components in location on tool and lift back after the operation is provided. During the pressing operation the feed bar is at rest, the sequence of operations being: horizontal feed of half total pitch to position above the component to be fed; vertical down movement to pick and return through starting position and further half-feed to the next tool with a vertical movement to place in die and release, before return to starting position when presses are given a signal to perform the pressing operation.

Methods of pick-up by clamper arm are either vacuum or magnetic and can be quickly set to suit individual tool height. Idle stations compensate for feed-height variations and also provide turn-over positions to invert components where it is necessary. At the first station blanks are provided from a synchronized magazine type blank feeder. All machines are electrically interlocked with feeder and necessary safety devices to ensure full protection of presses, tooling and components.

III. Answer the questions:

1. What is automation? 2. What can you say about the two main types of mechanization? 3. What are the benefits of automation? 4. What basic functions of a transfer system can you name? 5. How many pick-up methods do you know? What are they? 6. What do idle stations provide? 7. What ensures full protection of presses, tooling and components?

Module Two

Text 2A

I. Translate the text in a written form. Try to do it without a dictionary.


In this paper a design thinking and plan selection basis for a special purpose steel pipe extrusion press to meet forward and backward extrusion technology are introduced. The equipment parameters suited for industrial and structural data, concerned in the technical design, are given simultaneously. It has a practical significance for industrial production of small-sized thick-walled seamless steel pipes and special-shaped steel pipes.

In order to turn hot extrusion of small-sized thick-walled seamless steel pipes and special-shaped steel pipes from experimental stage to industrial technique, it is necessary to supply appropriate extrusion equipment. Taking forward and backward extrusion technology as the starting point of the equipment design, on the basis of stiffness, strength and entire working performance being satisfied, it’s important to make body structure compact, rational and light. This is the basic design thinking for the structural design of the steel pipe extrusion press.

The extrusion method of metal pipes and section products is divided into forward and backward extrusions. For backward extrusion, the extrusion force can be reduced and for forward extrusion the specifications of extruded products can be expanded. As a result the extrusion equipment to be designed has to meet forward and backward extrusion processes simultaneously.

According to the results of the market investigation, the typical products to be selected are stainless steel pipes in petrochemical industry, pipes used in bearings, hexagonal pipes used in strength nuts, cycloid pipes used in gear pumps, and fin tubes in boilers of power stations.

Text 2B

I. Remember the following words:

feasible ['fi:zibl] – осуществимый, вероятный, подходящий

cross-girder['gq:dq]– крестообразная балка

header blank – заготовка для высадочной машины

heading – высадка головок

crosshead – крестовина, ползун

sleeve – (переходная коническая) втулка

gripping frame – зажимающая станина

header['hedq]– высадочный пуансон, пресс для высадки головки

behave – (зд.) проявлять

maintenance['meint(q)nqns]– техобслуживание

tension bolt – стяжной болт

daylight – просвет, интервал

pre-stressed framework –заранее напряжённая станина

die cavity – полость штампа

II. Read and translate the text.


The oil hydraulic drive horizontal upset forging press developed for making forgings of T815 truck chassis behaves widely technical adaptability to small scale production because of its structural design features which differ from those of mechanical presses. If these forgings are produced on a mechanical press, a standard press of 12.5 MN must be required. The determination of the press depends upon the strokes and daylight needed, only the force of 4 MN required to form the forgings.

As viewed from metalworking capacity and tool cost, it can be seen that presses of hydraulic type are more feasible and economic for manufacturing special forgings of automotive and tractor industries than presses of mechanical type, especially the heavy truck chassis forgings.

A hydraulic upset forging press is composed of two units with different functions. Each of them is basically a typical hydraulic press, but not a standard one, from the structural style point of view. They are combined into the organic whole by using the front cross-girder which behaves completely different actions in each unit. One of the units, vertical type, is designed to grip the header blank placed between the fixed and movable dies when they are closed. The other one, horizontal type, is used for heading operations after the blank is gripped firmly.

The vertical unit principally includes a gripping cylinder, a slide block, used as a movable die holder here, a fixed die holder and a pre-stressed frame. The frame consists of upper and lower crossheads, a front cross-girder and four tension bolts. In whole unit by joining crossheads with a cross-girder by tension bolts, the cross-girder is used as two special square sleeves instead of inside nuts. There are similarities between horizontal and vertical units in their construction. The horizontal unit is mainly composed of a cylinder, a slide and a pre-stressed framework. In this unit a slide, as a punch holder, is equipped with a header ram and driven by upsetting cylinder assembly to squeeze the plastic metal with ram to final shape. Only in this unit, is the front cross-girder used as a usual crosshead, no longer special sleeves, as a conventional crosshead in horizontal frame.

The structure of the cross-girder must be so designed that the die cavity is located at the appropriate distance behind the front surface of the cross-girder and there is the smallest eccentric load on the gripping frame. For this reason the problems of structure design and strength-stiffness analyses of a cross-girder become complicated. Obviously, the front cross-girder is a very important part in design and application. The design of the cross-girder supporting the upsetting force acting on the surfaces of the front guide body with a uniformly distributed load was well made. The actual front cross-girder used in the press is strong and rigid enough, and has good whole service behaviour under loads.

Hydraulic cylinders are the same important parts as the cross-girder in the press. As a general rule, the structural style and the overall dimensions of the cylinder must be so determined that the press body be compact and, and maintenance convenient. According to this principle, a removable bottom structure is brought into practice.

Although this type of press is developed for a special purpose, it has widely techno-economic adaptability to many kinds of similar forgings owing to its design features summarized as follows: 1) the stroke and the daylight may be larger than those of mechanical presses as well as the length of the stroke may be adjusted to whatever is needed; 2) the pre-stressed frameworks without inside nuts are employed so that the press have high strength and rigidity against eccentric loads.

III. Find the Russian equivalents for the following: maintenance convenient, small scale production, owing to, structural design feature, which behaves completely different actions, movable die holder, instead of inside nuts, mainly consists of, upsetting cylinder assembly, from structural style point, uniformly distributed load, good whole service behaviour under loads, for this reason, as a general rule.

Подвижный держатель штампа, с точки зрения структуры, вместо внутренних гаек, производство в малых количествах, удобный в эксплуатации, особенность структурной конструкции, который выполняет совершенно другие действия, состоит главным образом из…, бесперебойно работает при нагрузках, по этой причине, равномерно распределённая нагрузка, как правило, отсек цилиндров высадочного пресса.

IV. Answer the questions:

1. What makes an oil hydraulic drive horizontal upset forging press available for making forgings of TB 15 truck chassis? 2. Could you call different functions of two units a hydraulic upset forging press composed of? 3. Will you list the main parts of the press and give their technical characteristics? 4. Why do the problems of structure design and strength-stiffness analyses of the cross-girder become complicated? 5. What causes techno-economic adaptability of this type of press? Could you summarize its design features?

V. Make up the press scheme.

Text 2C

  1. Remember the following words:

custom-built – построенный по заказу

one-stop shop – многоцелевое предприятие

simulation package – моделирование с отображением модели в динамике

hub projection – фланец втулки

webbing – ребра жесткости

bolster – матрица, втулка

die train – обойма

train – зубчатая передача, серия, цепь, ряд взаимодействующих деталей

package – узел, агрегат

shop-floor trial – производственное испытание

torch cut/contoured – контурные детали для горелок

ring mill – кольцевой прокатный стан

  1. Read and translate the text.


The two-column unit, rated at 5,500 tons, combined with the use of simulation software, enables Scot Forge to produce larger open-die forgings in close-to-net shapes, from of a wider variety of ferrous and nonferrous alloys.

For years, Scot Forge has been a “one-stop shop” for small through large open-die forgings. Now, with the addition of a two-column, custom-built open-die hydraulic press the company can produce carbon and alloy forgings in more diverse part configurations, in sizes up to 80,000 lb. New types of products that can be produced include parts with hub projections, flanges, and webbing.

Using this new press, Scot Forge can also produce heavier and more intricate forgings than it could previously, from materials with higher deformation properties, such as stainless steel, titanium, aluminum, and nickel. In addition, reverse extrusion processes available with the new unit make it possible to produce hollow parts with thinner walls and closed-end cylinders.

Equipped with an 11,000-hp hydraulic system, the new press is rated at 5,500 tons. Its forging ram weighs 200, 000 lb, and it can cycle at more than 200 strokes per minute. A 10-bolster die train is provided for efficient tool changes. Aided by new computer modeling software and the press’s large “forging window”, Scot Forge has also increased its ability to forge close-to-net-shape parts, saving customers material and machining costs. The new software provides accurate forging simulations, resulting in optimal forging process plans and precise tool design, while the large “forging window”, which measures 14.315 ft, allows large tooling to be used.

The press was designed and built by the company. It joins six other open-die presses, six hammers, and four ring mills, making it possible for Scot to offer customers a wide range of part shapes, including bars, blanks, rings, hubs, cylinders, hollows, torch cut/contoured parts, and spindles.

Scot Forge has recently acquired the Transvalor Forge simulation package. It has proved that it can accurately simulate the forging process so that optimal near-net-shape forging can be planned and tooling designed. The simulation approach replaces the need to conduct shop-floor trials with new tooling.

  1. Answer the questions:

1. In what way does a new two-column-open-die hydraulic press expand capability of Scot Forge? 2. What are the improved technical characteristics of this new press? 3. Would you enumerate materials with higher deformation properties the press uses in its work? 4. What forgings can be produced by using this new press? 5. Can you give short technical characteristics of a new two-column-open-die hydraulic press of Scot Forge? 6. What does close-to-net-shape forging result in? 7. What are the advantages of simulation package, recently acquired by Scot Forge?

  1. Translate the following word combinations: a custom-built open-die hydraulic press; high deformation properties; close-to-net-shape parts; a two-column unit; a 10-bolster die train; computer modeling software; efficient tool changes; an optimal forging process plan; a precise tool design; carbon and alloy forgings; diverse part configurations; heavy and intricate forgings; reverse extrusion processes.

  2. What do these figures stand for? Give a full sentence answer.

Text 2D

  1. Read the text and try to understand it without a dictionary.


The high-energy screw press is a new type of screw presses appeared by the end of the 80’s. It is the third generation of production type in the developing history of screw presses. Due to many advanced features of this press, its application has become more widely used in forging industry. The software system can be provided for the structural static automatic analysis of the forging press.

The basic structure of a high-energy screw press is represented in this article. The slide moves down by the combination of the clutch and is backed up by the two hydraulic cylinder devices and the separation of the clutch. Thrust can be controlled by the combined time of the clutch. The main feature in transmission is the work style of the flywheel being completely different from that of a conventional screw press. Unlike the conventional screw press, the flywheel of the high-energy screw press faces one direction all the time, so the moment of inertia of the flywheel is larger than that of an ordinary screw press and it has many features which are superior to those of a conventional press, such as the lower power of driver motor, the higher forming energy etc. On the aspect of structure, the double guide devices have been adopted in order to increase the guided length and the capacity of eccentric resistance, so the forging quality has been improved more distinctly. In addition, because the stroke of this press is not fixed, there is no hitch of the block die. Many advanced features of this type of screw press present a wide application prospect and research is necessary to be carried out into further development.


thrust [TrAst] – толчок, удар, осевое усилие

back up – поддерживать

hitch [hitS] – внезапная остановка

    1. Retell the text according to the plan:

1. The time of high-energy screw press appearance.

2. The basic structure of this press: a) the slide moving; b) the thrust controlling; c) the work style of the flywheel and its difference from that of a conventional screw press; d) features superior to those of a conventional press.

3. The main improvement on the aspect of the structure.

Text 2E

I. Remember the following words:

billet - заготовка

supply hopper – загрузочный ковш

batch – партия товара

meet manufacturing schedule – удовлетворять производственному графику

inventory – материально-производственные запасы

micro-inching mode – минимальный ход перемещения

grip fingers – захваты

mode – режим работы

station– узел, положение

II. Read and translate the text.


Fully automatic forging involves a completely automatic cycle from loading the billets into a supply hopper to the automatic extraction of components from the dies. In addition to savings in operator labour there are considerable gains to be made by reducing the non-productive time of equipment by automating the actual tool changing function. The current trend is towards smaller batch quantities required at specific times to meet manufacturing schedules and hold inventory of parts to the minimum. This entails more frequent tool change and greater flexibility of manufacture.

Largely automatic and micro-processor synchronized die replacement is commonly completed in three to six minutes, and with the addition of further automation all dies and tooling could be changed completely in as little as 100sec.

The new press is programmed to automatic slide adjustment to achieve correct shut height. Die clamping and unclamping are also automatic. An automatically operated system for the slide adjustment mechanism returns the dies to a “home” position for clamping and unclamping during die changeover. Conventional presses usually have a micro-inching mode, but a drive mechanism is simply a separate motor and the mode must be controlled manually.

Another feature is the configuration of the feed bar – an aluminum bar associated with the tooling that has grip fingers to move the blanks from station to station in the transfer sequence.

Some savings in material may be possible but the main cost reductions must be in labour by reduction of setting times and production of more parts in a given time.

III. Speak about the peculiarities of unmanned pressing facility and its main gains.