Socio-cultural foundations of east-european&Russian geopolitics english (28025-1)

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ЕВРОПЕЙСКАЯ КОНТАКТНАЯ ЗОНА: 2000

EUROPEAN CONTACT ZONE: 2000


Санкт-Петербург - 2000


SOCIO-CULTURAL FOUNDATIONS

OF EAST-EUROPEAN & RUSSIAN GEOPOLITICS

 

This report is based on the theory of socio-cultural systems (SCS) developed by the author. As a matter of fact, it is one of its possible, numerous applications. First of all - several words about the theory itself as far as it is still a relatively new thing for Western colleagues.

We work on the SCS theory approximately since 1984. Its developing moves quite slowly. Between 1984-97 we finished no single book, though wrote and keep on our PC several thousands of pages on Russian, Western, Chinese and Black African SCS-s. These texts are mainly just preliminary materials. Many times we’ve tried to complete the general theory as well as more specific texts on various SCS-s, but until very recently - without much success.

Our current problem with the SCS theory is that its abstract description would be unconvincing and looking more like usual scientific speculation (that is not right). It’s necessary to compile a specific analysis of the existing SCS-s, but such analysis of one distinct SCS is highly difficult to be made: all the socio-cultural systems are closely connected, and the correct understanding of each one is only possible in case of taking into account all their interrelations. So, we have to bring out descriptions of all the SCS-s, plus the theory in general at the same time, that is extremely complicated task: each SCS is a special kind of reality, with its own logic and rules, and it’s simply impossible to describe all the existing and existed SCS-s in an observable future. Such work would require a lot of time and in general seems unlikely to be done by two people. Not only the scale of the task itself is the point, but one surely cannot correctly depict all the SCS-s in principle. In fact, being the people of the Russian SCS, we can examine and accurately describe only it. Muslim, Chinese, Black African SCS-s and others still remain not entirely understandable; to characterise them in all details we’d have to explain many nuances of their past and present - but to do so we have to be the people of these SCS-s. It doesn’t mean one cannot understand another SCS at all: the point is detailed examination of the SCS's evolution only - at least, so we think at the moment.

The SCS theory has numerous applications in the field of geopolitics and analysis of the space assimilation processes. In this report we'll consider only some aspects, and more specifically - socio-cultural foundations of East-European and Russian geopolitics. More systematically these were presented in our publications [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7].

1. Socio-cultural processes of the space assimilation do have their own logic that unfolds for centuries. Geopolitical processes are just the individual manifestations of these fundamental socio-cultural phenomena. The geopolitical level does usually attract most attention and provoke the most sharp reaction that often leads to its incorrect interpretation. The SCS theory allows for a more accurate description of the space assimilation processes. Geopolitics, as from the positions of the theory, become just one of its particular applications.

We won't repeat here all ideas and principles of the SCS theory - just refer to the respective appendixes to this report:

  • APPENDIX 1. THE TERMINOLOGY AND CONCEPTS USED: DEFINITIONS

  • APPENDIX 2. TYPES OF THE SOCIO-CULTURAL FORMATIONS; SOCIO-CULTURAL TYPE'S INDICATIONS / QUALITIES

  • APPENDIX 3. PERIODS OF THE SOCIO-CULTURAL SYSTEMS' EVOLUTION

  • APPENDIX 4. PERIODS AND SUBPERIODS OF THE SOCIO-CULTURAL SYSTEMS' EVOLUTION

The above presents the general concept of the SCS theory as well as principal facts of the socio-cultural evolution and dynamics.

2. We've performed comparative analysis of the European and Asia Minor external buffer zones' evolution. The result of the analysis - atlas of the computer generated space-time models (kartoids) that reflects the logic of this space evolution. Geopolitical problems of the region and its conflicts appear as particular consequences of the general evolution. Suggested system of the computer generated space-time models creates a principally new foundation for further geopolitical processes' forecasting / prognosis.

The atlas serves as a foundation for forecasting geopolitical processes in the entire European external buffer zone. It also reflects and correctly explains the processes in the Balkans, the essence and state of the current crisis there. We insist that these processes don't possess chaotic geopolitical character, but are consequences of the regular evolution of the region.

Some results of such analysis are presented in the papers of my colleague - Tatiana Nikolaenko.

Here is just the periodization for all the European external buffer zone's socio-cultural regions and Asia Minor.

Asia Minor as external buffer zone. General description

Subperiod N 1.

As from ancient times up to VIII century BC.

Subperiod N 2.

From VIII century BC until 327 BC.

Subperiod N 3.

From 327 until 180-s BC.

Subperiod N 4.

From 180-s BC until 110 AD.

Subperiod N 5.

From 110 until 380 AD.

Subperiod N 6.

From 380 until 610.

Subperiod N 7.

From 610 until 870-s.

Subperiod N 8.

From 870-s until early XI century.

Subperiod N 9.

From early XI century until late XIII century.

Subperiod N 10.

From second half of the XIII century until 1453.

Subperiod N 11.

From 1453 until 1680-s.

Subperiod N 12.

From 1680-s until 1770-s.

Subperiod N 13.

From 1770-s until 1856.

Subperiod N 14.

From 1856 until 1908.

Subperiod N 15.

From 1908 until 1980-s.

Subperiod N 16.

From late 1980-s and for some future.

Subperiod N 17.

Prognosis: more distant future


European external buffer zone. General analysis

Subperiod 1.

As from ancient times up until 113 BC

Subperiod 2.

From 113 BC until 110 AD

Subperiod 3.

From 110 until 380

Subperiod 4.

From 380-s until mid VI century

Subperiod 5.

From mid VI century until mid VIII century

Subperiod 6.

From mid VIII century until late X century

Subperiod 7.

From late X century until 1241

Subperiod 8.

From 1241 until 1380

Subperiod 9.

From 1380 until 1570-s

Subperiod 10.

From 1570-s until 1700

Subperiod 11.

From 1700 until 1772

Subperiod 12.

From 1772 until 1831

Subperiod 13.

From 1832 until 1870

Subperiod 14.

From 1871 until 1917

Subperiod 15.

From 1917 until 1945

Subperiod 16.

From 1945 until late 1980-s

Subperiod 17.

From late 1980-s and for some future

Cycle 5. Subperiods 18 - 19 - 20. Prognosis


Finnish region

Stage 1-1.

As from ancient times up until early IX century

Stage 1-2.

From early IX century until early XIII century

Stage 2-1.

From early XIII century until late XVI century

Stage 2-2.

From late XVI century until late XVII century

Stage 2-3.

From late XVII century until 1721

Subperiod N 3.

From 1721 until early XIX century

Subperiod N 4.

From early XIX century until 1917

Stage 5-1.

From 1917 until 1920

Stage 5-2.

From 1920 until 1939

Stage 5-3.

From 1939 until 1945

Stage 5-4.

From 1945 until 1991

Subperiod N 6.

From 1991 and for some future


Norwegian - Swedish - Danish region

Subperiod N 1.

As from ancient times up until late VIII century AD

Subperiod N 2.

From late VIII century until early XI century

Subperiod N 3.

From early XI century until early - mid XIII century

Subperiod N 4.

From early - mid XIII century until 1471

Subperiod N 5.

From 1471 until late XVII century

Subperiod N 6.

From late XVII century until early XIX century

Subperiod N 7.

From early XIX century until early XX century

Stage 8-1.

From early XX century until 1920

Stage 8-2.

From 1920 until 1939

Stage 8-3.

From 1939 until 1945

Stage 8-4.

From 1945 until 1991

Subperiod N 9.

From late XX century and for some future


Latvian - Estonian region

Stage 1-1.

As from ancient times up until early VIII century AD

Stage 1-2.

From early VIII century until early XIII century

Stage 2-1.

From early XIII century until 1370

Stage 2-2.

From 1370 until 1570-s

Stage 3-1.

From 1570-s until 1580-s

Stage 3-2.

From 1580-s until 1700

Stage 3-3.

From 1700 until 1721

Subperiod N 4.

From 1721 until 1914

Stage 5-1.

From 1914 until 1920

Stage 5-2.

From 1920 until 1939

Stage 5-3.

From 1939 until 1945

Stage 5-4.

From 1945 until 1991

Subperiod N 6.

From 1991 and for some future


Lithuanian region

Stage 1-1.

As from ancient times up until early VIII century AD

Stage 1-2.

From early VIII century until early XI century

Stage 1-3.

From early XI century until mid XIII century

Subperiod N 2.

From mid XIII century until 1386

Subperiod N 3.

From 1386 until 1462

Stage 4-1.

From 1462 until 1569

Stage 4-2.

From 1569 until 1650-s

Stage 4-3.

From 1650-s until 1795

Stage 5-1.

From 1795 until 1831

Stage 5-2.

From 1831 until 1861

Stage 5-3.

From 1861 until 1914

Stage 5-4.

From 1914 until 1920

Stage 6-1.

From 1920 until 1939

Stage 6-2.

From 1939 until 1945

Stage 6-3.

From 1945 until 1991

Stage 7-1.

From 1991 and for some future


Polish region

Subperiod N 1.

As from ancient times up until VIII century AD

Subperiod N 2.

From VIII century until 966

Subperiod N 3.

From 966 until 1241

Subperiod N 4.

From 1241 until 1386

Subperiod N 5.

From 1386 until 1570-s

Subperiod N 6.

From 1570-s until 1667

Subperiod N 7.

From 1667 until 1772

Subperiod N 8.

From 1772 until 1831

Subperiod N 9.

From 1831 until 1918

Stage 9-1.

From 1831 until 1861

Stage 9-2.

From 1861 until 1914

Stage 9-3.

From 1914 until 1918

Subperiod N 10.

From 1918 until 1980-s

Stage 10-1.

From 1918 until 1921

Stage 10-2.

From 1921 until 1939

Stage 10-3.

From 1939 until 1945

Stage 10-4.

From 1945 until 1980-s

Subperiod N 11.

From 1980-s and for some future


Czech-Slovakian region

Subperiod N 1.

As from ancient times up until VIII century AD

Subperiod N 2.

From VIII century until late X century

Subperiod N 3.

From late X century until 1241

Subperiod N 4.

From 1241 until 1380-s

Subperiod N 5.

From 1380-s until 1485

Subperiod N 6.

From 1485 until 1648

Subperiod N 7.

From 1648 until 1848

Subperiod N 8.

From 1848 until 1914

Stage 9-1.

From 1914 until 1919

Stage 9-2.

From 1919 until 1938

Stage 9-3.

From 1938 until 1945

Stage 9-4.

From 1945 until 1968

Stage 9-5.

From 1968 until 1980-s

Subperiod N 10.

From 1980-s and for some future


Hungarian region

Stage 1-1.

As from ancient times up until mid VI century AD

Stage 1-2.

From mid VI century until late VIII century

Subperiod N 2.

From late VIII century until early XI century

Subperiod N 3.

From early XI century until 1241

Subperiod N 4.

From 1241 until 1380-s

Subperiod N 5.

From 1380-s until 1541

Subperiod N 6.

From 1541 until late XVII century

Subperiod N 7.

From late XVII century until late XVIII century

Subperiod N 8.

From late XVIII century until 1830

Subperiod N 9.

From 1830 until 1917

Stage 9-2.

From 1848 until 1867

Stage 9-3.

From 1867 until 1914

Stage 9-4.

From 1914 until 1918

Subperiod N 10.

From 1918 until late 1980-s

Stage 10-1.

From 1918 until 1920

Stage 10-2.

From 1920 until 1939

Stage 10-3.

From 1939 until 1945

Stage 10-4.

From 1945 until 1980-s

Subperiod N 11.

From late 1980-s and for some future


Romanian - Bulgarian - Moldavian region

Subperiod N 1.

As from ancient times up until AD

Subperiod N 2.

AD until 370-s

Subperiod N 3.

From 370-s until late VII century

Subperiod N 4.

From late VII century until late X century

Subperiod N 5.

From late X century until late XIV century

Subperiod N 6.

From late XIV century until 1480-s

Subperiod N 7.

From 1480-s until 1774

Subperiod N 8.

From mid 1770-s until 1878

Subperiod N 9.

From 1878 until early XX century

Stage 10-1.

From 1908 until 1914

Stage 10-2.

From 1914 until 1918

Stage 10-3.

From 1918 until 1940

Stage 10-4.

From 1940 until 1945

Stage 10-5.

From 1945 until late 1980-s

Subperiod N 11.

From late 1980-s and for some future


Balkan region

Subperiod N 1.

As from ancient times up until mid II century BC

Subperiod N 2.

From II century BC until 370-s AD

Subperiod N 3.

From 370-s until early IX century

Subperiod N 4.

From early IX century until late XII century

Subperiod N 5.

From late XII century until late XIV century

Subperiod N 6.

From late XIV century until late XVII century

Subperiod N 7.

From late XVII century until 1870-s

Subperiod N 8.

From 1870-s until early XX century

Stage 9-1.

From 1908 until 1913

Stage 9-2.

From 1914 until 1918

Stage 9-3.

From 1918 until 1939

Stage 9-4.

From 1939 until 1945

Stage 9-5.

From 1945 until 1980-s

Subperiod N 10.

From late 1980-s and for some futur

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3. One of the most essential points here is existence of clear correlation in evolution of the European external buffer zone and Asia Minor as external buffer zone. No detailed description of all these correlations here - only combined general tables.


CHRONOLOGY OF EVOLUTION:

EUROPEAN EXTERNAL BUFFER ZONE

 

 

 

Cycle

 

Subperiod

 

Dates

Duration of a subperiod

(years)

Average

duration of subperiods within

a cycle

(years)

Duration of a cycle

(years)

Cycle #1

1 (1.1)

From ancient times until 113 BC

Indefinite

Around 218 years (without 1st subperiod)

As far as it's known, around 650 years

2 (1.2)

From 113 BC until 110 AD

223

3 (1.3)

From 110 until 380-s

270

4 (1.4)

From 380-s until mid VI century

Around 160

Cycle #2

5 (2.1)

From mid VI century until mid VIII century

200

Around 207 years

Around 830 years

6 (2.2)

From mid VIII century until late X century

230

7 (2.3)

From late X century until 1241

260

8 (2.4)

From 1241 until 1380

139

Cycle #3

9 (3.1)

From 1380 until 1570-s

190

Around 113 years

Around 450 years

10 (3.2)

From 1570-s until 1700

130

11 (3.3)

From 1700 until 1772

72

12 (3.4)

From 1772 until 1831

59

Cycle #4

13 (4.1)

From 1832 until 1870

38

Around 39 years

Around 156 years

14 (4.2)

From 1871 until 1917

46

15 (4.3)

From 1917 until 1945

28

16 (4.4)

From 1945 until late 1980-s

44

Cycle #5

17 (5.1)

Is still going on currently

-

Current

cycle

Current

cycle

18

19

20

Prognosis

-

Described duration of the buffer zone evolution

- around 2100 years

 

 


CHRONOLOGY OF EVOLUTION:

ASIA MINOR AS EXTERNAL BUFFER ZONE


 

 

Cycle

 

Subperiod

 

Dates

Duration of a subperiod

(years)

Average

duration of subperiods within

a cycle

(years)

Duration of a cycle

(years)

Cycle #1

1 (1.1)

From ancient times until VIII century BC

Indefinite

Around 303 years (without 1st subperiod)

As far as it's known, around 910 year

2 (1.2)

From VIII century BC until 327 BC

473

3 (1.3)

From 327 until 180 BC

147

4 (1.4)

From 180 BC until 110 AD

290

Cycle #2

5 (2.1)

From 110 AD until 380

270

Around 228 years

Around 910 years

6 (2.2)

From 380 until 610

230

7 (2.3)

From 610 until 870-s

260

8 (2.4)

From 870-s until early XI century

Around 150

Cycle #3

9 (3.1)

From early XI century until late XIII century

260

Around 187 years

Around 750 years

10 (3.2)

From late XIII century until 1453

Around 170

11 (3.3)

From 1453 until 1680-s

227

12 (3.4)

From 1680-s until 1770-s

Around 90

Cycle #4

13 (4.1)

From 1770-s until 1856

86

Current cycle. As per three completed subperiods - 70 years

Current cycle. As per three completed subperiods - around 210 years

14 (4.2)

From 1856 until 1908

52

15 (4.3)

From 1908 until 1980-s

72

16 (4.4)

From 1980-s and for some future - is still going on currently

-

Cycle #5

17 (5.1)

18 (5.2)

19 (5.3)

20 (5.4)

Prognosis

-

-

-

Described duration of the buffer zone evolution

- around 2800 years

 

 

 4. Socio-cultural methodology is completely applicable to the analysis of the Russian Empire - USSR - CIS (or Russian SCS, according to our terminology) space evolution. We suggest our own version of the socio-cultural zonation of the Russian SCS's space: by the late XX century, there are 20 (twenty) socio-cultural regions and 8 (eight) enclaves. Below is the periodization of the Russian SCS's socio-cultural regions (Russian enclaves' periodization is given in the Tatiana Nikolaenko papers; for definitions see Appendix 1).

SOCIO-CULTURAL EVOLUTION OF THE REGIONS

WITHIN RUSSIAN SCS: SUBPERIODS

I. Central Russian region

Number of cycles - 1

Number of subperiods - 10:

1. From ancient times up until VIII century AD

2. From VIII century until mid XI century

3. From mid XI until early XIII century

4. From early XIII century until 1380-s

5. From 1380-s until 1470-s

6. From 1470-s until 1572

7. From 1572 to 1690-s

8. From 1690-s to 1917

9. From 1917 to 1991

10. From 1991 and for some future


II. Pskov - Novgorod - Petersburg region

Number of cycles - 1

Number of subperiods - 10:

1. From ancient times up until VIII century AD

2. From VIII until mid XI century

3. From mid XI until early XIII century

4. From early XIII and until late XIII century

5. From late XIII century until 1471

6. From 1471 to 1572

7. From 1572 to 1700-s

8. From early XVIII century until 1917

9. From 1917 to 1991

10. From 1991 and for some future


III. Northern European region

Number of cycles - 1

Number of subperiods - 7:

1.1. From ancient times up until VIII century AD

1.2. From VIII until mid XI century

2. From mid XI until 1470

3. From 1470 to 1572

4. From 1572 until early XVIII century

5. From early XVIII until early XX century

6. From early XX and until late XX century

7. From late XX century and for some future


IV. Smolensk - Bryansk - Chernigov - Sumy region (southern part of this socio-cultural region belongs at present to Ukrainian state)

Number of cycles - 1

Number of subperiods - 11:

1. From ancient times up until VIII century AD

2. From VIII until mid XI century

3. From mid XI until early XIII century

4. From early XIII until mid XIV century

5. From mid XIV century until 1514

6. From 1514 until early XVII century

7. From early XVII century until 1667

8. From 1667 to 1772

9. From 1772 to 1917

10. From 1917 to 1991

11. From 1991 and for some future


V. Central Ukrainian region

Number of cycles - 1

Number of subperiods - 9:

1. From ancient times up until IX century AD

2. From IX until mid XI century

3. From mid XI century until 1160-s

4. From 1160-s to 1380

5. From 1380 to 1667

6. From 1667 to 1770

7. From 1770 to 1917

8. From 1917 to 1991

9. From 1991 and for some future


VI. Southern Russian region (south-western part of this socio-cultural region belongs at present to Ukrainian state)

Number of cycles - 2

Number of subperiods -

1st cycle - 13 subperiods of socio-cultural evolution within the Barbarian-Nomadic SCS

2nd cycle - 4 subperiods:

1. From early - mid XVI century until 1700

2. From 1700 to 1917

3. From 1917 to 1991

4. From 1991 and for some future


VII. Eastern Ukrainian region (the most eastern part of this socio-cultural region belongs at present to the Russian Federation)

Number of cycles - 2

Number of subperiods -

1st cycle - 13 subperiods of socio-cultural evolution within the Barbarian-Nomadic SCS

2nd cycle - 5 subperiods:

1. From mid XVI until XVII century

2. From late XVII century until 1870-s

3. From 1870-s to 1917

4. From 1917 to 1991

5. From 1991 and for some future


VIII. Southern Ukrainian region

Number of cycles - 2

Number of subperiods -

1st cycle - 14 subperiods of socio-cultural evolution within the Barbarian-Nomadic SCS; as from 15 century it's a part of the Crimean Khanate

2nd cycle - 4 subperiods:

1. From early XVIII century until 1791

2. From 1791 to 1917

3. From 1917 to 1991

4. From 1991 and for some future


IX. Western Ukrainian region

Number of cycles - 1

Number of subperiods - 12:

1. From ancient times up until 9 century AD

2. From IX until mid XI century

3. From mid XI century until 1160-s

4. From 1160-s to 1380

5. From 1380 to 1660

6. From 1660 to 1770

7. From 1770 to 1815

8. From 1815 to 1860

9. From 1860 to 1918

10. From 1918 to 1945

11. From 1945 to 1991

12. From 1991 and for some future


X. White-Russian (Belarus) region

Number of cycles - 1

Number of subperiods - 9:

1. From ancient times up until mid IX century AD

2. From mid IX until mid XI century

3. From mid XI until early XIV century

4. From early XIV century until 1650-s

5. From 1650-s to 1772

6. From 1772 to 1795

7. From 1795 to 1920

8. From 1920 to 1991

9. From 1991 and for some future


XI. Urals region

Number of cycles - 2

Number of subperiods -

1st cycle - 2 subperiods:

1. From ancient times up until XII - XIII centuries

2. From XII - XIII centuries until 1480-s

2nd cycle - 6 subperiods:

1. From 1480-s to 1572

2. From 1572 to 1700

3. From 1700 to 1870-s

4. From 1870-s to 1917

5. From 1917 to 1991

6. From 1991 and for some future


XII. Trans-Volga region

Number of cycles - 2

Number of subperiods -

1st cycle - 13 subperiods of socio-cultural evolution within the Barbarian-Nomadic SCS

2nd cycle - 4 subperiods:

1. From mid XVI century until 1700

2. From 1700 to 1917

3. From 1917 to 1991

4. From 1991 and for some future


XIII. Northern Asian region

Number of cycles - 2

Number of subperiods -

1st cycle - 13 periods:

From ancient times up until late XV century.

2nd cycle - 4 subperiods:

1. Stage 1.1. From late XV until late XVI century

Stage 1.2. From late XVI (1570-s) until early 18 century

2. From early XVIII until early XX century

3. From early XX and up until late XX century

4. From late XX century and for some future


XIV. Southern-Siberian - Far-Eastern region

Number of cycles - 2

Number of subperiods -

1st cycle - 13 subperiods of socio-cultural evolution within the Barbarian-Nomadic SCS

2nd cycle - 4 subperiods:

1. Stage 1.1. From late XVI until late XVII century

Stage 1.2. From late XVII until mid XIX century

2. From mid XIX century until 1917

3. From 1917 to 1991

4. From 1991 and for some future


XV. Northern-Kazakh region

Number of cycles - 2

Number of subperiods -

1st cycle - 14 subperiods of socio-cultural evolution within the Barbarian-Nomadic SCS

2nd cycle - 4 subperiods:

1. From late XVIII until mid XIX century

2. From mid XIX century until 1917

3. From 1917 to 1991

4. From 1991 and for some future


XVI-1. Kazakh -Central Asian region - Southern zone

Number of cycles - 2

Number of subperiods -

1st cycle - 6 subperiods:

1. From ancient times up until VI century BC

2. From VI century BC until VIII century AD

3. From VIII until early XIII century

4. From early XIII until early XV century

5. From early XV until early XVII century

6. From early XVII until mid XIX century

2nd cycle - 3 subperiods:

7. From mid XIX century until 1917

8. From 1917 to 1991

9. From 1991 and for some future


XVI-2. Kazakh -Central Asian region - Northern zone

Number of cycles - 2

Number of subperiods -

1st cycle - 4 subperiods:

1. From ancient times up until VIII century AD

2. From VIII until early XIII century

3. From early XIII until early XV century

4. From early XV until early XVII century

2nd cycle - 4 subperiods:

5. From early XVII until mid XIX century

6. From mid XIX century until 1917

7. From 1917 to 1991

8. From 1991 and for some future


XVII. Caucasian region

Number of cycles - 3

Number of subperiods -

1st cycle - 2 subperiods:

Structure with three types of subregions was being formed, with "Internal" Caucasus as the first subregion, coastal areas as the second subregion (where Greek, Roman and Byzantine enclaves have been generated), and Trans-Caucasus as the third subregion.

1. From ancient times until VIII - VII centuries BC

2. From VIII - VII centuries BC until XVI century AD

2nd cycle - 1 subperiod:

The entire territory controlled by the Ottoman Empire.

1. From XVI until early XIX century

3rd cycle - 4 subperiods:

1. From early XIX century until 1859

2. From 1859 to 1917

3. From 1917 to 1989

4. From 1989 and for some future


XVIII. Northern-Caucasian region

Number of cycles - 2

Number of subperiods -

1st cycle - 13 subperiods of socio-cultural evolution within the Barbarian-Nomadic SCS:

From ancient times until mid XVI century

2nd cycle - 4 subperiods:

1. From mid XVI until late XVIII century

2. From late XVIII century until 1917

3. From 1917 to 1991

4. From 1991 and for some future


XIX. Moldavian region

Number of subperiods - 11:

1. From ancient times until AD

2. From AD until 370-s

3. From 370-s until late VII century

4. From late VII until late X century

5. From late X until late XIV century

6. From late XIV century until 1480-s

7. From 1480-s until 1774

8. From 1774 to 1856

9. From 1856 until early XX century

10. From 1908 until late 1980-s

11. From late 1980-s and for some future


XX-1. Baltic region - Lithuanian zone

Number of cycles – 2.

Number of subperiods -

1st cycle - 4 subperiods:

1. Stage 1. From ancient times until early VIII century AD

1. Stage 2. From VIII until early XI century

1. Stage 3. From early XI until mid XIII century

2. From mid XIII century until 1386

3. From 1386 to 1462

4. Stage 1. From 1462 to 1569

4. Stage 2. From 1569 to 1650-s

4. Stage 3. From 1650-s until 1795

2nd cycle - 3 subperiods:

1. From 1795 to 1920

2. From 1920 to 1991

3. From 1991 and for some future


XX-2. Baltic region - Latvian-Estonian zone

Number of cycles – 2.

Number of subperiods -

1st cycle - 3 subperiods:

1. Stage 1. From ancient times up until early VIII century AD

1. Stage 2. From VIII until early XIII century

2. Stage 1. From early XIII century until 1370-s

2. Stage 2. From 1370-s until 1550-s

3. Stage 1. From 1550-s until 1580-s

3. Stage 2. From 1580-s until 1700

3. Stage 3. From 1700 to 1721

2nd cycle - 3 subperiods:

1. From 1721 to 1917

2. From 1914 to 1991

3. From 1991 and for some future


Случайные файлы

Файл
75775-1.rtf
2520-1.rtf
105287.rtf
22660.rtf
LOBACH.DOC




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