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2. KOMHAOHHE CXEM

oaox cxeax oeca y ac oo o oa ae xox epeex. p oca ox pox ycpoc eooo ooc e yopoex ox aopo xox xox cao. aop yoo peca ex x cceax cce (CC).

2.1 HEKOTOPE CCTEM CCEH

oox CC "ec" aoo papa ac o eo o ce. K cy eoox oocc "pca" CC, apep co -XVII. oe eoe eopaeoe n-papoe eoe co ooo ccee cce oe pecaeo e:

D = n-1*bn-1 + n-2*bn-2 + ... + 1*b1 + 0*b0

e D - ec ae ca, Ci - aee i-o papa, b -ocoae cce cce, b cee i - ec (ecoo oe) i-o papa n co papo ca. B poo ceo exe (IN), (D), ecaapa (HEX) eooa oo-eca (BCD) cce cce. B BCD ccee ec aoo i-o ecoo papa pae 10 cee i, a eco ccee, a aa pa i-o papa opyec 4- o pa. Bocpa CC(OCT) peec pee. B 16-o ccee cce p o 0 o 9 coaa c ec, a P oe 10 coyc y acoo aaa : A(a) = pa 10, B(b) = 11, C(c) =12, D(d) = 13, E(e) =14, F(f)=15. ooe co peopayec ecoe eaooe co o opye (15), apep 10010011 = 1*27 + 1*24 + 1*21 + 1*2 = 147 (DEC). epeoa ca oo cce 16 - y, eo eoxoo pa aa cpaa a py o 4 ox p ao eepe pocypoa eca (8,4,2,1) cooecye e ae Ci opaoo epeoa aa HEX pa aeec eepo ox, eaae y cea, ec o ec, opacac.

oo-ecoe co co ae, a ecaapoe acaec eepa ox, o ec ao eep e 16i, a 10i oo-ecoe co (BCD) oo aca ec pa, apep 1998, o - 0001 1001 1001 1000 = 1*103 + 9*102 + 9*101 + 8*10. Kaoe ecoe co oo peca e BCD, apep 19(DEC) = 19(BCD), o x oe pecae e pa: 10011(19DEC) e pao 1 1001(19BCD). He aa ac ye e ec oo-ec co. Hapep, 11001001 (BIN) = [C9(HEX), 201(DEC)] = ?9(BCD), .. eco p 1100=12 e .

2.2 EPATOP

epaop () peopaye o o a xoax a ca a o xoe, oep oopoo pae ecoy aey ooo oa a xoax. B oo epaope oeco xoo N = 2n, e n - co xoo. B eoo N < 2n. o pyoy opeee, o e n xoo oe peaoa 2n epo yi

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opeeex a cex aopax n - xox epeex. oco epaopo caeo o eco ooe xoa papee xoo (p OE epc ~OE). Ec a ao xoe a ypoe, o paoae cooec co co , , ae ( px xoo - y, a epcx - ).

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Paccop c n=2 N=4, aae ae epaopo "2 4" "2 -> 4". A ypoe caa a px xoax/xoax ye 1, a epcx - 0. o oy opeee ao ay coc (. 3), e ea x oe pa e ae. .16 aa Kapo (.16) xoa y0 3-x xox epeex.






. 16. y0

poyo, cocae 1-x eo coep oo oy ay ey, ooy oeca y xoa y0 ye e : y0 = OE*~a1*~a0.

.17. "2->4

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Aaoo oye ocae p ypae. peopaye oyee yi ypae c oo aco ooo opa acy -HE: y0 = ~(~(OE*~a1*~a0)). Pee cooecye cxea, 17. Beco epopa OE, oe pec oee coa cxea, oaaa a pc 18. ec OE=1 cyae, oa ~OE1 = ~OE2 = 0OE3 = 1.

.18. "3->8"

Taa cxea peec epaope "3 8" a 15337 , ycooe ooaee oopoo peeo a pc.

epaop poo pec ceo exe, a ac ox epax cxe, opa ooo ecox ex ycpoc (B) p oee a ey popoeccopo (CPU) . . 19. B o cyae a xo Ai () () B, ooy ae xo aac apec. A ca ~Yi=0 c ooo xoo ocyae a epc xo ~CSi "op - Chip Select , (). Bce a M poo oe a c pa B o e ax. Bce ocae B acc, .. a x xoax ~CSj=1 x opaoe o, oee , axoc pee coco e pecy oey a ey apecoa B M. a - pya pooo, ex oaooe yoaoe aaee.

.19.

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2.3 EMTEKCOP

cpoco epeaee ca c opaooo xoa "x" a o xoo, pe oep oo xoa pae ecoy aey ooo oa a apecx xoax, aaec eyecopo (M). B aece M coyec epaop, y oopoo a xo OE oaec opao ca x. Hapep, ec a apece xo oa o a1a0=10(BIN)=2(DEC), o ca x oc a xoe y2, a a ocax xoax yi=0. B cao ee, ec x=0 (OE=0), o a cex xoax M ae y, o ce y2=0. A ec x=1 (OE=1), o cece oo, o a1a0=2 ye apoa xo y2=1. Ceoaeo p a1a0=10(BIN)=2(DEC) ca a xoe y2=x, o cooecye opeee eyecopa. pc 20 a ycooe ooaee M "1 4" eo exaec aao.






.20. "1->4

2.3.1 BEEHE PAPHOCT EPATOPOB EMTEKCOPOB

pc.20-1 oaao coeee yx "3 8" oye ooo "4 16", yx eyecopo "1 8" oye ooo"1 16".

.20-1.

p acco ae ~OE=1 ca OE=0 a cex xoax yi ye "1", eaco o ae cao ai. Ec ~OE=0 (a ypoe), o ao epaopo paoae ac oo o caa a3. =0, () , () pa y epeee ce xo cocoe 1 (c. a. 3-1), .e.

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paoococo ye (A). Koa a3=1, aoopo paoococo caoc epaop (B), ooy o epcoo xoa ~OE epaopa (A) o ca apeae eo xo. Koa cao a2..a0, o o epx ooo a, opay oceoaeoc ooo oa 0000 ... 0111 (0 ... 7) epaopa (A) oceoaeoc 1000 ... 1111 (8 ... 15) (B). ooy yepa xoo yi, oyeoc "4 16" coa o 0 o 15. Ha pc.20-1, cpaa peeo ycooe ooaee, oyeoc epaopa - eyecopa ( cpaoax o a aco aac oeac o pae).

2.4 MTEKCOP

( -) ooo opaox xoo xi a ece xo y, pe oep oo xoa pae ecoy aey ooo oa a apecx xoax. Ec eec xo papee xoa OE(~OE), o "0(1)" a o xoe oe epeec xo accoe cocoe, ec xo yecopa pca, o a o xoe ycaoc z -cocoe. Paccop yecop "4 1", e 4 opaox xoa log4 = 2 apecx xoo. ee oa ye e :

= OE(x0*~a1*~a0 + x1*~a1*a0
+
x2*a1*~a0 + x3*a1*a0).

pe aco ooo opa oceoc pao ac ypae oy: y=~(~(OE*x0*~a1*~a0)*...*~(OE*x0*a1*a0)). pae cooecye cxea, peea a pc 21,

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.21. "4->1"

Ec a apece xo oa oa a1a0 = () = 3(DEC), o xoy y ye oe xo D3, p yco, o OE=1. Myecop oe e epc xo, a ae pee cocoe oo xoa, oopoe oeaec a cxee poo c oepeo epo.

pcye 21-1 oaa coco coee 5- yecopo "4->1" o yecop "16->1".

.21-1.

: 210 1011(IN) = () = 11 (D). DD2D1D0 4 "cyac" ca c pex xoo (a1a0=11=3) ocax yecopo - x3, x7, xB xF. Ho a o xo "y" poe oo

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ca c xoa yecopa 2, .. a3a2=2. B peyae y=xB, o cooecye opeee yecopa.

Myecop axo pooe peee exe c, a ae ceo exe, apep oe o y popoeccopo "yecpoa", .e. ooy xoy oaec ecoo ypex coo pax cao. o oy ypee ca ax (D7..D0) apeca (A7..A0), epeaaee ooepeo a oe o AD7..AD0 coeeo apec/ae (A), o ooe copa oee co oo popoeccopa (a pcye 22 2 paa). coyc 8 yecopo "2->1"






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