Nanoscience and nano-technology - cracking prodigal farming (150031)















NNSCNC ND NN-TCHNLGY - CRCKNG PRDGL FRMNG


  1. ntrductn


Nn-scnc cupld wth nn-tchnlgy hs mrgd s pssbl cst-cuttng msur t prdgl frmng nd nvrnmntl cln-up prtns. t hs ushrd s nw ntrdscplnry fld by cnvrgng vrus scnc dscplns, nd s hghly rlvnt t grculturl nd fd systms. nvrnmntl Prtctn gncy f US dfnd nntchnlgy s th undrstndng nd cntrl f mttr t dmnsns f rughly 1-100 nm, whr unqu physcl prprts mk nvl pplctns pssbl. By ths dfntn ll sl-clys, mny chmcls drvd frm sl rgnc mttr (SM), svrl sl mcrrgnsms fll nt ths ctgry. prt frm ntv sl-mtrls, mny nw nntch prducts r ntrng nt sl systm, sm f whch r usd fr grculturl prductn nd sm thrs fr mny thr purpss.

Nn-scnc (ls nntchnlgy) hs fund pplctns n cntrllng rls f ntrgn, chrctrztn f sl mnrls, studs f wthrng f sl mnrls nd sl dvlpmnt, mcr-mrphlgy f sls, ntur f sl rhzsphr, nutrnt n trnsprt n sl-plnt systm, mssn f dusts nd rsls frm grculturl sl nd thr ntur, zpncs, nd prcsn wtr frmng. n ts strd, nntchnlgy cnvrgs sl mnrlgy wth mgng tchnqus, rtfcl ntllgnc, nd ncmpss b mlculs nd plymrs wth mcrscpc tms nd mlculs, nd mcrscpc prprts (thrmdynmcs) wth mcrscpc prprts (kntcs, wv thry, uncrtnty prncpls, tc.), t nm fw.

Sm f th xmpls nclud clnlptlt nd thr zlt bsd substrts, nd F-, Mn-, nd Cu- substtutd synthtc hydrxyptts tht hv md t pssbl t grw crps n spc sttns nd t ntrctc. Ths hs lmntd csts f rptd lunchng f spc crfts. dsturbng fct s tht th frtlzr us ffcncy s 20-50 prcnt fr ntrgn, nd 10-25 prcnt fr phsphrus (<1% fr rck phspht n lkln clcrus sls). Wth nn-frtlzrs mrgng s ltrntvs t cnvntnl frtlzrs, buld ups f nutrnts n sls nd thrby utrphctn nd drnkng wtr cntmntn my b lmntd. n fct, nn-tchnlgy hs pnd up nw pprtunts t mprv nutrnt us ffcncy nd mnmz csts f nvrnmntl prtctn. t hs hlpd t dvulg t rcnt fndngs tht plnt rts nd mcrrgnsms cn drctly lft nutrnt ns frm sld phs f mnrls (tht ncluds s-clld suscptbl (.., sly wthrbl, s wll s nn-suscptbl mnrls).

Nnscnc nd ts ppld sphr tht s knwn s nntchnlgy hv ptntl t brng th nxt rvlutnry brkthrugh n grculturl-bsd nturl rsurc mngmnt. t hs ushrd s nw ntrdscplnry vntur-fld by cnvrgng scnc nd ngnrng nt grcultur nd fd systms (bdul-Klm, 2007, Ll, 2008). lctrn mcrscps r ndspnsbl tls fr ths nscnt dscpln. lmst ll lctrn mcrscps [Scnnng lctrn Mcrscp (SM), Trnsmssn lctrn Mcrscp (TM), nd tmc Frc Mcrscp (FM)], nd thr ttchmnts [.g., nrgy Dsprsv Spctrscp (DS)] r usd fr sl study. lctrn wvs n SM nd TM nd lsr bm n FM r usd fr clscng mcrgrphs. Snc th wvlngth f lctrn undr nrml crcumstncs s 1 nm, vwng mgs f smll mtrls undr Ms r grssly trmd s nnscnc/nntchnlgy. nvrnmntl Prtctn gncy f US hs dfnd nntchnlgy s th undrstndng nd cntrl f mttr t dmnsns f rughly 1-100 nm, whr unqu physcl prprts mk nvl pplctns pssbl (P, 2007). By ths dfntn ll sl-clys, mny chmcls drvd frm sl rgnc mttr (SM), nd svrl sl mcrrgnsms fll nt ths ctgry. prt frm ntv sl-mtrls, mny nw nntch prducts r ntrng nt sl systm - sm f whch r usd fr grculturl prductn nd sm thrs fr mny thr purpss. Th dvntgs wth M r hgh rslutn mgng, hgh mgnfctn, nd grt dpth f fcus.

n xmpl s nw mrgng dscplns - nnpdlgy. Ths s nw ff-sht f pdlgy; dscpln tht nvlvs study f sl s nturl bdy. Nnpdlgy cnvrgs sl mnrlgy wth mgng tchnqus nd rtfcl ntllgnc. xmpls f mpndng pprtunts r n th rs f stblshng rltnshps btwn hrt vguly-mtchd prprts btwn b mlculs nd plymr, nd mcrscpc tms nd mlculs, nd stblshng rltnshps btwn mcrscpc prprts (thrmdynmcs) nd mcrscpc prprts, whr mng thrs kntcs, wv thry, nd uncrtnty prncpls fnd plc.

Nnscnc hs bn drnng glmur. But t s mprtnt t ccpt tht scnc hs lwys bn d drvn, nd t wuld rmn s n th futur. Thrfr, n shuld hv clr d f wht t study nd why t study. t cn b llustrtd frm th fct tht n bjct f 1 cm x 1 cm my hv mgnfd mg f 3x103 m by 3x103 m n SM tht hs mgnfctn cpcty f 3x105. n ths mg, thr r 9x1018 pxls f 1 mm2 sz, nd n hs lttl pprtunty t wndr btwn pxls!



2. pplctns n sls studs


Sm f th rs, whr nnscnc nd nntchnlgy hv fund pplctns fr th prductn f fd nd prtctn f nvrnmntl qulty by mngng nturl rsurcs (spclly, sls) n th rth nd xtrtrrstrl nvrnmnts r:

  1. mprvng ffcncy f ntv nd ppld nutrnts n sls,

  2. Rgultn f ssntl nd txc lmnts n pdsphr-hydrsphr cntnuum,

  3. n trnsprt n sl-plnt systm, spclly n th rhzsphr,

  4. Zpncs: Cntrlld clgcl lf supprt systm usng zlts, ptts, nd smlr mtrls,

  5. Chrctrztn f sl mnrls,

  6. Wthrng f sl mnrls,

  7. Sl frmtn hstry nd mcr-mrphlgy,

  8. Dusts nd rsls nd thr ntur, nd

  9. Prcsn wtr frmng.

Du t spc cnstrns, th ppr fcuss n fw rs.


3. mprvng ffcncy f ntv nd ppld nutrnts n sls


Fr th ntv nutrnts, th bsc prcsss whrby plnts nd sl-mcrrgnsms drctly nflunc th sl chmcl nvrnmnt s thrugh th gnrtn f wthrng gnts, bcyclng f ns, nd th prductn f bgnc mnrls. Fr th ppld nutrnts, th bsc prcsss rmn th sm, but ppld nutrnts frc chng n sl mcrbl dvrsty, lngsd hst f thr prcsss by chngng sl pH nd cmpstn f sl slutn. W lst sm f ur nttns lng wth fw thr wrks n th fllwng prgrphs:

Cmpstn nd lctrn mcrgrph f K-mnrls n th sls f Punjb: Th ptssum dynmcs s cntrlld xclusvly by th sld phs n sls, nd K vlblty s gvrnd by bth crs nd fn grns f sls. Th phnmnn s mst prmnnt n th sls tht r rch n K-cntnng mnrls (Brr t l., 2008; Mukhpdhyy nd Brr, 2006, Mukhpdhyy nd Dutt, 2001) Th dt n th lmntl cmpstn f lkl-fldspr nd muscvt (Tbl 1) shw rmrkbl smlrts n th mnrl grns n spt f th fct tht th sls wr drwn frm dffrnt sl srs f Punjb. Thr s lttl dffrnc n th mnrlgcl mk-up f th sls n ths srs. Thrfr, t culd b nfrrd tht th dffrncs n th rspns t ppld ptssum n ths sls rs bcus f dffrncs n th wthrng stt f th K-cntnng mnrls, spclly f mcs, rthr thn frm thr lmntl cmpstn r, mnrlgcl mk-up f sls. Scndly, th cntnt f K n muscvt rngd frm 7.99 t 8.88 prcnt (Brr t l., 2008), whch s lwr thn th K cntnt n th stndrd muscvt (10%). Ths mpls substntl lss f K frm th ntrlyrs f muscvt. t culd hppn nly f lyrs pn up, vdncs f whch cn nly b drwn by usng nnscnc tls.


Tbl 1. lmntl cmpstn f lkl-fldspr nd muscvt n sm sl srs f Punjb

Sl srs

Chmcl cmpstn

lkl-fldspr

Muscvt

Smn

Bhundr

Ghbdn

Bns-wns

K0.93N0.06C0.01l1.01S2.998

K0.94N0.05C0.02l1.03S2.978

K0.94N0.05C0.02l1.01S2.998

K0.94N0.05C0.02l1.01S2.998

K8.88N0.17C0.20l18.99F3+0.28Mg0.49S22.0320(H)4

K8.78N0.06C0.20l12.93F3+0.42F2+0.28Mg0.31S22.1720(H)4

K8.82N0.50C0.10l17.50F3+0.43F2+0.28Mg0.74S22.1320(H)4

K7.99N0.35C0.20l17.40F3+1.45F2+0.08Mg0.55S22.8920(H)4

Smpl f surfc sls; Fgurs rprsnt prcnt cmpstn.

dptd frm: Sdhu (1982) wth sm mdfctn


Fr sm sls f Punjb, lctrn mcrgrphs f crs snd sz mc grns (btt nd muscvt) llustrt rrgulr bundry lng wth brkn plns nd tch pts tht r prducd thrugh dsslutn (Fg. 1). Th mcrcrystls wr plty, ftn prturbd wth frgn mcrcrystls. Th grns wr strnd, nd thr dgs wr mrkd wth clvg pnng (Mukhpdhyy t l., 2008; unpublshd dt). rlr Sdhu nd Glks (1977) pnd tht th mc grns f th surfc sls f Punjb wr rgulr n structur, nd f frsh rgn. Th ncnsstncs n ths bsrvtns wr prhps bcus f ur ccss t grtr rslutn nd hghr mgnfctn thn th frmr wrkrs (Brr t l., 2008).

Sm thr wrks: lctrn mcrscpy s hndy tl t undrstnd flw pth f nutrnts n cd sls, whr l txcty s thrt t plnt grwth. dm t l. (1998) nlyzd rt zn f wntr lsd rp (Brssc npus; cv. Rfl) usng SM n cmbntn wth DS n bck-scttrd md, nd fund tht l cncntrtd n th cll wlls f mmtur rts nd t th sl-rt ntrfc n th strngly cdc sls, whl K, C, nd P wr ssctd wth th xtrnl tssus f th cntrl cylndr.

tmc Frc Mcrscpy hs mrgd s n f th mjr tchnqus fr nvstgtng mnrl-surfc htrgnty nd htrgnus systms n stu. Th dvntg wth FM vr SM nd TM s tht t cn mg nrly ny surfc n vcuum, n th r, r n slutn. Lu t l. (2003) bsrvd tht sl-clys f n Ultsls dsplyd dstnct FM surfc fturs ftr dffrnt slctv dsslutn trtmnts (cd mmnum xlt n th drk, nd dthnt-ctrt-bcrbnt). Th mgs prvd nsght nt th dsrptn f plnt nutrnts n th surfcs f mnrls.

Durng th thrd qurtrs f 20th Cntury, ccssblty t lctrn mcrscp nd sphstctd nlytcl nstrumnts fclttd t s hw wthrng frnt dvncs, nd hw mnrl spcs gv rs t nthr spcs. Mc rcvd lm-lght durng th prd. Th rvws by Rchnbch (1972), Rch (1972), nd Schrdr (1978) llustrt th lctrn mcrgrphs, nd th ntur nd fctrs f pdchmcl wthrng f mccus mnrls. t ws prvd tht ptssum slwly dffuss ut f th ntrlyr spcs frmd by clvg plns btwn mc lyrs nt th sl slutn, whch rsults n clvg t th wthrng dgs f mc (Hnsl nd Wht, 1960 nd Mrl 1954; s ctd by Jcksn, 1964). Dnsn t l. (1929 - s ctd by Jcksn, 1964) shwd tht n wthrng f btt, thr s gn n l, S, nd H2 cntnt, xdtn f F, nd lss n Mg nd K.


Fg. 1. Scndry lctrn mg f mc grns sprtd frm vry crs snd n th gr clgcl Sub-Rgn f Punjb. () Muscvt. Nt thn plty psdhxgnl ntur f th grn. Th grn bundry s mr rgulr thn btt. (b) btt grn. (c) Btt mg t 15 kV cclrtd currnt. Nt: Brkn bundry, nd xfltd ntur. Grwth f rd shpd psdcrystl s vdnt. (d) clsr lk t hgh cclrtd currnt. Nt: pnng f clvg pln. Dsslutns pts r vdnt.


4. Rgultn f ssntl nd txc lmnts n pdsphr-hydrsphr cntnuum


lmntl blnc: lmntl blnc btwn pdsphr nd hydrsphr s cntrl thm f sf drnkng wtr nd prtctn f lf n wtr bds, nd t mntr cntnntl wthrng. Twnty prcnt f wrlds lnd flls nt ltrts tht r ssntlly fund n hgh prcpttn zn. Ltrztn cuss dcrsng prductvty f lnd, nd ths rgns ftn turn nt brdng grund f hstl pltcl ctvty. Bln t l. (2007) usd surfc prprts t stblsh rltnshp btwn thrtcl mdlng t mcrscpc (tmc structur) nd t mcrscpc (prtcl shp) lngth-scl.


5. n trnsprt n sl-plnt systm, spclly n th rhzsphr


Rhzsphr cncpt f nutrnt vlblty: Rcnt rsrch suggsts tht plnt rts nd mcrrgnsms cn drctly lft nutrnt ns frm sld phs f mnrls, whch nclud s-clld suscptbl (sly wthrbl) s wll s nn-suscptbl mnrls. Thr xsts cls rcprcl rltnshp btwn plnt rt nd sl mcrrgnsms, nd thrfr ll sl-plnt nutrnt trnsprt systms r t b sn frm ths ngl. Jngmns t l. (1997) hv shwn tht fldsprs nd hrnblnds n luvl () hrzns f pdzls cntn bundnt nrrw tubulr prs rngng n dmtr frm 3 t 10 m. n fld sls, ths prs r smtms ccupd by fungl hyph, nd vn Brmn t l. (2000) hv suggstd tht ths hyph thmslvs r drctly rspnsbl fr th sptlly lclzd mnng f th mnrl grns. n cntrlld nvrnmnt xprmnt, vn Hs t l. (2004) usd sm frst sls f U.K. (ftr scrnd thrugh 6-mm sv), nd grw Pxllus nvlutus.

Scnnng lctrn mcrgrphs f th xprmnt dmnstrts tht plnt rts dply pntrtd nt th grns f fldsprs (Fg. 2). Thy hd ls shwn tht th mblztn f F nd S n th sl clumn ws pstvly crrltd wth hyphl lngth, sl rsprtn nd cncntrtns f xlt n th sl slutn; nd mblztn f l ws strngly crrltd wth plnt wght.

Scnnng lctrn mcrscpy rvld tht mst fungl hyph wr ssctd wth mnrl surfcs wth lttl ccuptn f crcks nd mcrprs wthn mnrl grns. Km t l. (2004) dmnstrtd tht mcrrgnsms cn prmt th smctt-t-llt rctn by dsslvng smctt thrugh rductn f structurl F3+ t rm tmprtur nd 1 MP prssur wthn 14 dys. Trvlnt rn bund n cly mnrls cn b n mprtnt lctrn ccptr supprtng th grwth f bctr n nturl nvrnmnts. t s ssntlly K-cpturng rctn. Glw t l. (2003) dmnstrtd tht Pldrm ( brd hst rng ctmycrrhzl fungl gnus) cn xtrct K+ nd Mg2+ frm btt, mcrcln, nd chlrt.

Ths studs prvd nw nsght nt nutrnt mngmnt n sls.


Fg. 2. Scnnng lctrn mcrgrph f sl wth plnt nd Pxllus nvlutus (M-): () N (C) fldspr grn wth hyph n th surfc; (b) C (N) fldspr (wth nclusns f N nd K fldsprs) grn wth hyph ntrng crck; (c) mgnfctn f rctngl n (b), rrw pnts t pssbl ntrr hyph; (d) pssbl trc f hyph n mnrl surfc f C (N) fldspr (dptd frm vn Hs t l., 2004).


Sl mcrrgnsms clnz rund th xpsd mnrl surfcs f th clldl sl mnrls (clys), ct thm wth xtrcllulr plymrs, nd physclly dsrupt th grns n thr ttmpt t gn ccss t nutrnts nd nrgy. Thy crt cmplx mcrnvrnmnt t th mnrl-wtr ntrfc, whr mtblclly ctlyzd rdx rctns nd th gnrtn f cds nd cmplxng gnts ld t pH nd cncntrtn grdnts mrkdly dffrnt frm th bulk slutn. Ths ftn prmts stt f thrmdynmc dsqulbrum tht fstrs fstr rts f wthrng (Knhusr, 2007).

Bth btc nd btc ntrctn wth sl mnrls, t grt xtnt, s unxplrd. Trvlnt rn bund n cly mnrls cn b n mprtnt lctrn ccptr supprtng th grwth f bctr n nturl nvrnmnts. Sm cly mnrls sgnfcntly ffct mcrbl lf by mdfyng th physcchmcl chrctrstcs f mcrbl hbtt, nd thrugh drct surfc ntrctn. Th blty f mcrrgnsms t wthr sl mnrls, dgrd rgnc mttr, nd trnsfrm nutrnts nd pllutnts my b substntlly nfluncd by ntrctns wth mnrl cllds. Thrfr, ttntn shuld b pd t th rl f cly mnrls n mdtng txcty f wd spctrum f rgnc nd nrgnc gnts, bth f btc nd btc rgn (Hung nd Bllg, 1998).

Th cntrl prblm psd by th lnk btwn mcrbl dvrsty nd sl functn s t undrstnd th rltns btwn gntc dvrsty nd cmmunty structur nd btwn cmmunty structur nd functn. bttr undrstndng f th rltns btwn mcrbl dvrsty nd sl functns rqurs nt nly th us f mr ccurt ssys fr txnmclly nd functnlly chrctrzng DN nd RN xtrctd frm sl, but ls hgh-rslutn mgng t dtct nctv nd ctv mcrbl clls n th sl mtrx. Th hlstc pprch, bsd n th dvsn f th systms n pls nd th msurmnt f fluxs lnkng cmpstn f mcrbl cmmunts wth quntfctn f nutrnt trnsfrmtns ths pls, s th mst ffcnt (Nnnpr t l., 2003).


6. Zpncs


Zpncs; systm fundd n th cncpt f ntrcnnctd ntur f ll lf-frms nd lf-supprt-frms; rls n rcyclng nd prtn f systm-cmpnnts. t pnd nw vsts n th trdtnl flds f grcultur nd frstry by dmnstrtng tht systm cn b md slf-supprtng, nd cn supply nutrnts t plnts fr lng tm, f blnc s struck btwn lss nd gn f nutrnts. Th systm prvds frmwrk whr mptus nd rspns r lmst qul. Ths mpls tht th frst lw f thrmdynmcs cn b trnsltd t nr mplmnttn lvl n n pn systm. Ths s th nly mns f survvl n th xtrtrrstrl plnts, spc sttns, nd n th ntrctc. t suppls nutrnts ndd fr plnts, srbs gss nd cnvrts b-wst nt usful mtrls. t rcycls prductn-cnsumptn-wst systm wthut cntmntng mmdt nvrnmnt. t cn b usd s nutrnt-cntrllr (fr P nd mcrnutrnts) r rls rt lmtr (fr N).

Sl mnrls, lk hydrxyptt [C10(P4)6(H)2] r succssfully usd fr ths systm. Smlrly, xchng f NH4+ nd K+ r rgultd ffctvly thrugh substtutd clnptllt (lln t l., 1995; Mng t l., 1995; Suttr t l., 2002; Suttr t l., 2003). thrs lk zrcnum cmplxs cntnng cyclpntdnyl lgnds llw drct bsrvtn f N-H bnd frmtn frm N2 nd H2. Subsqunt wrmng f th cmplx clvs th N-N bnd t 450 C, nd cntnud hydrgntn t 850 C rsults n cmplt fxtn t mmn (Pl t l., 2004). Ths bsrvtn my d th dsgn f nw stchmtrc nd ctlytc ntrgn fxtn prcsss. Suttr t l. (2003) usd TM mgs t dcphr F-, Mn-, nd Cu- substtutd synthtc hydrxy ptt. Thr TM-DS mgs shw hw cr ptt chngs whn ns f F, Mn, r Cu substtut H+.

T cmprhnd nutrnt dynmcs, sl-plnt systm must b trtd hlstclly, nd sub-dvdd nt cmpnnts, ch wth rlstc ndpndnt systm-vrbls cupld wth th prcsss, whch t ths systm vrbls. Structur nd functn f vry cmpnnt nd thr tm hrrchy nd ntrctns wth th nvrnmnt must ls b tkn nt ccunt (Krpnts nd Grnwd, 2003; Mukhpdhyy nd Brr, 2006; Mukhpdhyy nd Dtt, 2003). n such vnturs hgh rslutn mgng nt nly prvds vdnc f th chngs tht ccur n vrus phss, but ls n ndspnsbl tl t undrstnd hw dynmc systms prt.



7. plgu: Lts sht up grnmc prductn - knck dwn nput us jut ut prdgl frmng


Futur grculturl rsrch must b knd t ntur, nd n hrmny t th mutully bnfcl mn-ntur rltnshp. n such ndvrs, th nutrnts (ls wtr) must b msurd n trms f plnts rqurmnts. Ths lmnts nutrnt buld up n sls nd wtr bds, nd vntully ncrss prfts f th frmrs. Nnscnc xctly ms fr t.

nvrnmntl cncrn: ur xpndng blty t synthsz nnprtcls fr us n lctrncs, bmdcl, crmcs, phrmcutcl, csmtc, nrgy, nvrnmntl, ctlytc, mtrl tc. hs lrmd cncrn fr ths prtcls rl n nvrnmntl sfty. Yu cn guss th stutn frm th fct tht n 2004, 2000 tns f ngnrd mtrls wr usd, whch s xpctd t ncrs t 58 000 tns n 2011-2020 (Nwck nd Buchl, 2007). ll ths mtrls vntully lnd n sl. T b usful t th scty, nnscnc ffrts must dhr t nvrnmntl ths.



Rfrncs


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Hung, P.M., Bllg, J.M., 1998. Mnrls-rgncs-mcrrgnsms ntrctns n sl nvrnmnt. n Hung, P.M., Sns, N., Buffl, J. (ds.) Structur nd Surfc Rctns f Sl Prtcls. Jhn Wly, Nw Yrk. pp. 3-39.

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