Ещё материалы по английскому (lexicology2)Посмотреть архив целиком
24. T growth of t E vocabulary. Semantic change: causes, nature of change, results.
Lexicology studies & describes vocab, its origin, development & current use. It’s concerned with words, word groups, phraseol. units & morphemes. Word –basic unit of lang. sys., t largest on t morphologic & t smallest on t syntactic plane of ling. analysis. Word = sound-form + meaning. Word-meaning changes with historical development of lang. This is called t semantic change. Growth of vocab. is determined by it.
1. Causes of sem. change: а)extralinguistic (in life of speech community, in economic & social structure etc) (Sound-form remains t same but meaning changes: e.g. pen meant “feather” (перо), but t writing technology has changed & t word is used now to denote any instrument for writing with ink)
b)linguistic 1) T commonest form–ellipsis. In a phrase of 2 words one of them is omitted & its meaning is transferred to t 2nd one. E.g. starve in OldE meant “to die” & was used with hunger. In t 16th century it got t meaning “die of hunger”. 2) Discrimination of synonyms. E.g. beast came from French into MidE. Before it appeared t general word for animal was deer which became narrowed to its present meaning (олень) after beast was borrowed. Then t Latin animal was borrowed & t meaning of beast served to separate t 4-footed kind =>beast displaced deer & was then displaced by animal.
2. Nature of sem. change: A necessary condition of s\c is some association between old & new meaning. Basic kinds of association: metaphor (transfer of meaning based on similarity- the leg of the table) and metonymy (contiguity (смежность) of meanings) (tongue-organ of speech-mother tongue) (T White House for pres).
Ling. metaph. & meton. differ from metaph. & meton, as literary devices
Other types of sem. change: hyperbole (contiguity (смежность) of meanings) (emotional attitude of speaker to what he is speaking about: I haven’t seen you for ages!), litotes (understatement) (t affirmative by t negative of its contrary) (not bad, rather decent), irony (one’s meaning by words of opposite sense), euphemism (refers to smth unpleasant by using milder words & phrases so that an inoffensive word gets a disagreeable meaning: e.g. to pass away = die).
3. Results of sem. changes: 1) changes in the denotational meaning: restriction (specialization) & extension (generalization)of meaning 2) changes in the connotational component: amelioration (улучшение) & deterioration of meaning (pejorative development –boor was peasant, became ill-mannered person)
25. English wordstock. Polysemy, homonymy etc.
Most E words are polysemantic. T actual number of meanings of t commonly used words ranges from 5 to about a 100. T commoner t word is t more meanings it has.
1. Polysemy: 2 approaches to this problem: diachronic & synchronic.
Diachronically - change in t semantic structure of t word. A word retains its previous meaning + acquires 1 or several new ones. Questions regarded in this connection: did some meanings appear earlier than t others? Are t new meanings dependent on t existing meanings? e.g. table: in ModE t primary meaning–“flat slab of stone or wood”. This meaning is proper to t word in OE. All other meanings are secondary. Synchronically -Polysemy is t coexistence of diff meanings of t same word at a certain historical period of t development of E. Table: “an article of furniture”–the basic (central) meaning. Other meanings are minor (marginal). Minor meanings are observed only in certain contexts.
2. Homonyms – words identical in sound-form but diffr in meaning. E–rich in homonymous words & word-forms cos of monosyllabic structure of t commonly used E words. Homonyms are DISTINCT words: not diffr meanings within one word!
3 groups: 1. homonyms proper - identical in pronunciation & spelling: back (noun & adv) 2. homophones – buy – by, knight – night 3. homographs-lead, tear
Causes of homonymy: a) homonymy through convergent sound development: 2 or more words of diffr origin coincide in sound: e.g. OE ic & ea - ModE I & eye. b) homonymy developed from Polysemy through divergent sense development: e.g. flower & flour (originally – one word flour with 2 meanings)
3. Synonyms –words different in sound-form but similar in their denotational meaning/meanings.
4. Lexical variants and paronyms. Lexical variants – free variation in lang. that is optional with t individual speaker. T variation can concern morphological or phonological features or it may be limited to spelling.
These are words belonging to the same part of speech, containing identical stems & synonymical affixes, and yet not permitting free variation, not optional. E.g. economic & economical – interchangeable under certain conditions, more often economic is associated with economics, economical – with economy.
Paronyms – words related in origin, similar in sound-form that are liable to be mixed but in fact different in meaning & usage & => only mistakenly interchanged. E.g. ingenious (=clever) – ingenuous (frank, artless)
26. Vocabulary replenishment in ModE. Analytical trends: Different languages possess diff. means of expressing t same content. Like other Indo-Eur lang. E used to be an inflected-synthetic lang.– with a well-developed sys of morphological cgs & inflected parts of speech (declinations & conjugations). The loss of the inflexion transformed E from synthetic to analytic (the inflexion was compensated by a rigid word order, a greater use of prep, auxiliary verbs etc.). ModE is highly analytical.
Word-formation in OE displayed clearly synthetic features: 1)suffixation was usually accompanied by sound interchange in roots: e.g. sinzan –sonz (sing–song). Modern suffixation is fusion-free: root morpheme & suffix don’t fuse together (не слив-ся). Derived words are characterized by morphological clarity: worker, hopeful. Sound interchange became less productive. 2) Prefixation used to be (and still is!) a productive way of building new words in OE But in ME prefixes used with verbs to modify their meaning were replaced by adverbs in post-position to form “composite verbs”: e.g. go away (OE azan), go round (OE bezan). This is t main evidence of E becoming analytical. 3) Suppletive forms were common in OE: e.g. good–well, go–went. As a word-building it disappeared by the end of OE 4) Word-composition used to (and still is!) be productive: compounds were often formed with a linking element which is not t case now. It remained in words: salesman, spokesman.
Analytical features in ModE word-building: 1) fusion-free affixation. Suffixation & prefixation – still productive but characterized by morphological clarity & transparency. Exceptions – borrowed words: admire – admiration. 2) no suppletion 3) word-composition without a linking element 4) conversion as a new method of word derivation arose in Late ME and became a most productive way of creating new words. It’s effected through a change in t gram paradigm & t syntactic use of t word in t sentence. Transformation into another part of speech: water – to water 5) Analytical derivation–productive means of vocab. replenishment to compensate for relatively less active morphol. derivations. 6) Composite verbs–with locative particles: run in/off/away/up/around. They correspond to prefixal verbs in synthetic lang. (Russian: убежал, выбежал).7) “phrasal verbs”: e.g. give up/in/away etc. These are analyt nominations that denote by combining 2 or 3 (to be in for) separate elements: base verb (bring, take) & particle (up, down). T meaning is transferred: it can’t be understood from t meanings of elements. Phrasal verbs belong in informal style, in everyday E. They originate from informal E. Their one-word synonyms are preferred in formal areas: put off – postpone, make up for smth – compensate. 8) Link verbs or rather semi-link verbs (have, take, give, make) & predicative verbal noun (a cry, look, laugh): e.g. have a cry, take a look. These nominations & their 1-word counterparts aren’t always interchangeable for they belong to different contexts: have a smoke (≠smoke)–doesn’t define t process but creates atmosphere of relaxation. To have a shave (≠ shave) etc. isn’t normally used in t Contin Tense as it can’t present actions in progress.
27. Typological differentiation of t E vocabulary
1.sources of t E vocabulary etymological composition of t E vocabulary is diverse. OE voc was almost entirely Germanic, t l of later periods borrowed foreign words. As a result two thirds of t voc come from foreign sources, mainly Romance. T loan words are fully integrated into t E lang. At first sight we can’t find any differences in them on a phonetic, grammatical, word bilding or syntactical level. But a closer study reveals two typologically distinct layers: 1) the analitical layer of native voc - Germanic words, though thin but dominant (in frequent use) 2) the synthetic layer of borrowed voc - of norman loan-words of romanic origin, numerous, but as a rule less frequent, often stylistically marked
2. differences on t prosodical level: in ME period E words dropped their endings & became much shorter (one\two syllable words). Loan-words were much longer, word stress moved from t end to t beginning of t word. Long words developped a second stress: comfortable
On t grammatic level: Words of German origin are grammatically flexible, they lost endings, & a vast number of E verbs & nouns became identical in form–love – to love. Loan words are not flexible, have a transparent morphological structure with a clear part-of-speech meaning. Exeptions –use, face (short and flexible)
On t word-building level: Native words have fusion-free w building, analitical generation. They tend to take on native affixes (of Germanic origin)
Suffixes - -er, -y dirty, -ly, -less, -ness, -ful, -ish darkish
Prefixes – mis- misbehave, under- undertake, over- overload, up- uphill
Loan words – fusion
The Romance prefix in-. It has variants – im-, ir-, il- dependently on t 1st sound of t root
Or changes in t root under influence of t affix: admire – admirable, surpreme – supremacy.
Analitical nominations They are not formed by long multisyllable loan-words. Short flexible native words are more dynamic in this sense. Compare: t native word show & its borrowed synonym demonstrate
10 compound words & analitical nominations formed by show: show-room, show-girl, flower-show, etc, to show up (to put smb to shame), to show down (устроить разборку) and only one affixal derivative – showy.
on the stylistic level native words of Germanic origin are neutral, colloquial. Borrowed words are for t most part their literary formal synonyms: go on – continue, make – produce, putt off – postpone
28. E Phraseology
1. According to Pr Kunin (author of highly acclaimed phras-cal dictionaries) a phras-cal unit (P/U) - a structurally separable (раздельнооформленный) stable language unit with a completely or partially transferred meaning:
- structually separable means a P/U is a word combination (not one word);
-stable - this combination of words is not free but fixed;
-the meaning is always transferred (not literal) based on an image evoked by an association (blue stocking – a learned lady (used ironically))
1)it is a word combination
2)not free, but set (we can’t say a brown/ green/ white stocking), it is not based on a lexical pattern “an adj denoting colour and a noun”, there can be no pattern for there’s an underlying image keeping 2 words together 3)the meaning is completely transferred because the 2 words are used in transferred meanings (as a result of a certain association). To reveal the association one should explore the etymology of the phrase:
2. Phr variants
- lexical variants
e.g. to smile (to grin) like a Cheshire cat) (широко и бессмысленно)
-morphological variants - go round in a circle, go round in circles
- syntactical variants - on and off, off and on (from time to time)
3. the phr meaning - is transferred and remains unchanged whatever the structural, lexical, morphological alteration occur. The change in the meaning causes a split and death of the P/U or the emergence of a new one.
- completely transferred
red tape – beaurocratic procedures проволочки. the image suggested by red tape (красная лента) used to tie files of documents
to hit the roof – to become furious, to lose temper
the meaning of the P/U cannot be inferred from the components. None of them carry their literal meanings – all are phr-cally bound
-partially transferred (to smile like a Cheshire cat; busy as a bee). Some components carry their literal meanings
4. structural types of P/U
1) non-predicative (phrases, not sentences)