Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.) (117569)Посмотреть архив целиком
Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)
As a result, the onset of Polish troops in April 1919, Vilna was in the hands of the Polish civil administration headed by the Chief Commissariat of the Civil Government of the Eastern lands. Established conditions for the development of political life in the region. Naturally, it was not a spontaneous process. He managed and oversaw the Polish civil civilization.
Leading role in organizing social and political life of the region played Society Gard Kresevo (USC). Formally, the Society was organized in 1918 to protect the eastern lands of the Polish-born state. Since the foundation of an independent Poland Guard Kresevo extended its activities in the Bialystok district, Volyn, as well as in the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Most active society manifested itself in the years 1918 - 1922. After the conclusion of the Riga peace, driving in Central Lithuania to Poland, elections to Parliament in 1922 aims for which the COMPANY, have been implemented. After 1922 the Society's work actually stops .
Society in Vilnius funded and supported by the Polish authorities. Society was intended to accelerate the process of social and political construction in the region, because it was thought that in this region did not have the conditions for independent social and political development. That is why, in effect, the lack of civil liberties, a large number of illiterate population, the lack of large public organizations in the entire region, the solution of this set of problems was transferred to USC.
USC arranged publication of the Polish press, initiated the creation of socio-economic organizations (agricultural, business, unions, rural youth, educational organizations), worked on the creation of public infrastructure Vilnius. Establish committees of People's Councils and cell movements of the national wing, allowing to work with many people in the region.
In the course of the campaign work on the territory of the region fell program of Polish political parties and movements. Dwell here and press the leading political parties in Poland. Members of the Constituent Sejm of Poland also came and spoke to residents of towns and villages in the region. Conveying to the audience with a program of movements and parties, they also urged local people to organize committees of political parties and movements.
Gradually drawn up governing structures of USC in the region. Thus, by May 1919 were formed 4 territorial district USC: Volyn Podlaska, Bialystok-Brest-Litovsk, Vilna and Kovensky. Vilensky district USC was founded more March 1, 1919, headed by Yu Narkovichem. Company has been a great outreach, based local committees USC. Much work was carried out in districts of Wieruszów, including Leeds. Oshmyaskom, Sventyanskom, Novogrudok. In this area, with the June 1, 1919 began to appear weekly Vilna land.
Until July 1920 the activities of the USC extended to 9 povets region. In Leeds county all activities conducted Grinevich in Vileika - M. Shostokuvna in Oshmyany - Martinkovsky, Sventyanskom - Kovalenko .
During the Soviet-Polish war of 1920 representatives of the Company have carried out relief troops, the creation of military units.
In March 1921 the activities covered by 7 USC povets Central Lithuania. Structural unit of the Society existed in Lida (last Brauman, 15 tsp.) Ashmyany (last V. Narkovsky, 57 tsp.) Sventyanah (last I. Drevinski, 11 tsp.) .
The most important political act of USC was the establishment of local administrations. Is most clearly discernible in the formation of People's Councils (Rad). In Vilnius, the action began in June 1919, when Sejmik in Vilna, was elected to Parliament Home Vilna and Navahrudak land. 26 June 1919 was elected to Parliament Grodno land. At the July joint meeting of representatives of these is pleased to announce that they will be joint action to accede to the regions they represent Poland .
In September 1919 in Vilnius held general elections in the People's Council (Rada). People's Councils were formed in all districts of Wieruszów .
Activities happy during the Polish-Soviet war was interrupted. However, in the autumn of 1920 their activities were restored.
Thus, the activities of the USC in Vilnius wore broad. Under the auspices of the Society formed the economic, social, cultural, political organization. Society is publishing the press, the general campaign. Great assistance it has provided local authorities to organize communes councils DISTRICT Sejmik.
On the territory of the eastern provinces have started to appear and representatives of political parties.
And in February 1920 in Vilna, was the Congress of the Polish People's Union (PNC) "Revival". At the Congress were elected governing bodies of the Union. Delegate of the Congress Party also took part in the congresses held in Warsaw, the Polish People's Party (PPP) "Emancipation" and "Piast".
In the first half of 1920 activities of the "Renaissance" has been concentrated mainly on the publication of the same name of the newspaper and some agitation. However, the union is practically not created in this period, its network of committees in the region .
Military action at some time slow the process of alliance formation in the region. However, after the signing of the Treaty of Riga in 1921 the situation changed radically. Now all political forces in Vilnius had been part of public education called Central Lithuania. And they had to struggle for influence in the region.
Public education "Central Lithuania" appeared on Oct. 9, 1920 g, after the occupation g.Vilno Polish troops. November 30 was a date for elections to the Seimas Vilensky, a body that was supposed to do, attach Lithuania to Poland or not. Elections were scheduled for January 8, 1922
"Central Lithuania" is a state area of 10 thousand square kilometers. km., a population of 530 thousand people. According to a 1920 national population of the region was as follows: the Poles - 70.6%, Lithuanians - 12.8%, Belarusians - 6%, Jews - 4%. By religion 86% of the population belongs to a Catholic, 8% - to the Orthodox, 4% professed Judaism.
The structure of public education included the territory Sventyanskogo and Ashmyany povets (total 29 communes), in which Belarusians predominated .
Education Central Lithuania opened the way for increased political activity. At the time of the proclamation of Central Lithuania, one of the most influential political blocs was Polish People's Union "Revival". PNC "Revival" quickly launched a network of cells throughout the Middle Lithuania. In late December 1920 in Sventyanskom their county employed 30, Vilensky and Oshmyany to 9. December 20, 1920 in Sventyanah was created povets Committee PNC "Revival".
13 - 15 February 1921 in Vilna, was the second Congress of the PNC "Revival". It drew about about 1.2 thousand participants. The congress was attended by the representatives of "Renaissance", as well as the political forces that advocated the legend status of territorial autonomy for Vilnius to Poland. It was the PPP Lithuania and Belarus (A. Zavshtot, Buiko) and the Polish democratic movement V. Abramovich. The Congress adopted rzolyutsiya, which confirmed earlier decisions PNC "Revival", in terms of autonomy of Vilnius, as well as land reform .
Parallel to the Vilnius laid the foundation of the new political forces close to the ideas of the TNG "Piast". September 8, 1921 was a congress of representatives of Central Lithuania, the supporters of software installations TNG "Piast". The Congress decided on the formation of a new political movement - the Polish People's Movement (PPM) of Vilna Earth, elected governing bodies. Until the end of 1921 Congress passed another 2 new movement (2 October and 13 November). They endorsed the program motion. The leader of the movement, was elected Ya Matsutkevich.
PAN Vilna on the position of the Earth was the inclusion of Vilnius as a province of Poland, without granting autonomy, but on the question of land reform - for the allotment of land to be compensated.
PAN Vilna Earth directly reflect the opinions of the TNG "Piast", as well as the PNC "Revival" - TNG "Liberation". However, the two organizations formally distinct from its founders, because were formally outside of Poland.
In connection with the upcoming elections to the Sejm Vilensky came intensification of political life in Central Lithuania. Decision of the authorities of Poland, the territory of which have been held elections was extended to two of the district: Lida and Braslavsky. Therefore, the main political blocs in Central Lithuania started its operations here and have begun to organize their own committees.
December 11-12 in Vilna was the third Congress of the PNC "Revival". It was attended by 1,500 representatives from all povets Central Lithuania. At the Congress of Deputies arrived TNG "Liberation", the PPP, the representatives of the Belarusian People's Committee, trade unions, youth organizations.
The Congress decided that the PNC "Revival" and the TNG "liberation" after the merger of Central Lithuania and Poland will become a unified national movement.
At the same time the association has made a split in the ranks of the PNC "Revival". Some figures "Revival" led by S. Mickiewicz argued for the unification of all the historical lands of Lithuania into one state. They advocated for the revival of the Lithuanian state and its federation with Poland. Similar ideas are also supported krayovtsy and representatives of the PPP Lithuania and Belarus. However, the embodiment of such ideas was impossible.
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