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Higher Education in Russia.
Higher education plays a very important role in our life. It is also important for the development of our country. At universities and institutes students train to become teachers, engineers, doctors, architects and other highly-qualified specialists.
Average age for getting higher education in Russia is 17. Students may go to university after they graduate from a high school or a college.
There are many good universities in our country. First of them was founded in 1724 in Petersburg but after some time it was closed.
Second university in Russia was founded in 1755 and was called of the Moscow State University named Lomonosov .
According to UNESCO the University of al-Karaouine is the oldest continually operating educational institution in the world.
It was founded in 859 in Morocco with an associated school, which later became one of the leading spiritual and educational centers of the historic Muslim world. But some scholars think that it cannot be relate to institutions non-European model.
The Bologna University is considered to be the oldest existing in Europe. The University in midlevel times was under strong influence of the Pope.
First graduates took a vow to stay loyal to the King and to lecture at the Studium for a minimum of sixteen months. They could not travel and study elsewhere too.
One of the most famous students of this university was philosopher Thomas Aquinas.
A Crank Mechanism (abbreviated – CSV) receives gas pressure. Pressure rises during the combustion of fuel-air mixture and converts into mechanical work. It happens as a result of the crankshaft rotation.
Crank mechanism consists of the following main elements: pistons, cranks, crankshafts and flywheels.
There are different applications both preliminary and associated of CSV. Crank Mechanism uses in the compressors, piston pumps, sewing machines, crank presses besides internal combustion engines.
Baumann State Technical University is one of the oldest and most reputable engineering higher schools in Russia. Its foundation was laid as early as 1839. From the very first days of the schools history theoretical classes were closely linked with practical training. That was the so-called Russian method of teaching trade which formed the basis of the present-day system of educating specialists in all branches of engineering.
In1876 “Russian method” was awarded a “Big Gold Medal” in Vienna and Philadelphia.
Nowadays Moscow State Technical University offers full-time courses at its 14 departments. All the academic courses in MSTU last for about 6 years. The training is performed by means of lectures, seminars, laboratory work and practical classes. During the first two years the focus is upon studying basis sciences and general engineering subjects like physics, mathematics, chemistry, technical drawing, strength of materials, theoretical mechanics etc. Senior students concentrate mostly on their future speciality. In their 6th year they submit diploma projects. On defending his diploma project a graduate is got a state diploma in engineering. Moscow State Technical University has high academic standards always. A lot of famous scientists studied in it. The names of Zhukovsky, Tupolev, Korolev, Shukhov and many other great figures of sciences are connected with the history of MSTU. Today the specialists who have been educated here work in practically every branch of national economy and proudly wear the title of Bauman University’s graduate.
Oxford is one of the most famous Universities in Britain. It is the oldest English University and it has a long and eventful history.
O.U. was founded at the beginning of the 12th century. Nowadays O.U. consists of 34 colleges, each self-governing and independent.
The organization system of the O.U. differs from that of all other Universities and colleges in Britain. The structure of them is unique. It is somewhat a federation of autonomous republics with a common policy, a common budget and so on.
Both the U. and its colleges are very democratic institutions. Every member of the U. is also a member of a college. The senior members of the U. vote for Vice Chancellor, for 2 governing councils and for the administrations.
O. is a state U., not a private one. Students are selected on the basis of their results in the national examinations. The special college of the U. will be their home for 3 years.
Teaching is informal and personal. A graduates spend a lots of time with their “tutor”. They discuss their essay written beforehand. The students who study natural sciences spend all day in the laboratories. At the end of 3-d year of educational all students have final examinations.
Recently some new modifications of Crank Mechanism have been developed in Russia and our university participated in this.
Modifications of size and shape, new materials, new production technologies are used to improve the CSV performance, to find some new applications.
Steel can be use for fabricating of cranks. But more often compounds materials are used to produce durable cranks.
Cranks of the CSV is fixed by joints.
Zinc-coating is used the main operating that makes material good for future using, because zink prevents from corrosion but this is very important for CSV.
Environmentally speaking mixture of metals with zinc-coating is friendly from an ecological perspective. Steel scrap can be both sorted easily and recycled fully.