(66410)



2

1. 4

1.1. 4

1.2. 6

2. 9

2.1. 9

22

24




Mce ocep - o oo yopee poy, epo ayopee ecy cey apy c ocey opaoo coo eepaypo (cepae). aooe oceppoae ocoo pe o xpae ca copoyo. cpae c py cocoa oceppoa aoe ocep oy eo xpac ox cacx ycox. x eo pacoppoa oo yope ooeo opao.

Mce ocep paaa a pepx cooec c oa ypao opao-exco oyae. pao-xca oya ae exece poa, copa p caapo a cp apa, pypy, ace xapap , o a, pa p, xpa .

Texooece cpy a ce ceye pae: accope e, paaae ao cpy; cpe aepa c yaae OCTa, OCTa T, oop o o oea; peeypy poyo aoro accopea; exooecy cxey pooca c yaae yco ooo cp, peo eo opao ..; oaae opo aeca ooo poy; yco xpae e.

Oco po, ea oope cocaa ocepo (pee-yp), ec op aoo coooe ooeo, oopoe oece-ao oce cepa oyee cooaeceoro, ooeoro coepa ex eec poya c xopo opaoeec coca coo caoc p xpae.

Kacca ycaex ocepo paoopaa, a a ocoe ee oy ea pae pa cp yco exooeco opao. ocoo ce ocep accpy a coyeoo cp, xapaepy eo opao, cocay ocepo, eepaype cepa, aae, cocoy ooo epe yopeee, pee oooro xpae.

ca ox paaa ce 200 o ocpo, oop a ceye py:

- ocep coceo c - aypae (co yeoe); aoo ca, oapeoo ca; coeoo ca;

- ocp cypoyo (o, e, oa, oe) - oe ae, o apee, ee apea oao coyce cea, o oao coyc p.;

- ocep copoyo - oceppoae cocc, oaca, ea, eo, ap p.;

- ocp (yp, yce, yo p) - aypae co-ceo coy, pax coycax, e e, pay e, pa aoa a;

- co-pace ocp - co c opoxo, acoo, pya, aapo e, ooa;

- op a appa - co-caoe co, apo, y, co o coyce, apa ypca p.;

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1.


1.1.


o co oa y ac y, oyey o yo coa, pecay cooyoc eo, poo, coeeo oc-o ( e ee) ae. ea eoc ca ac o oeceoro coooe a, ea, pa, coepa eaex aoco, oacx x c, ao p , po- apo-eeo, a ae opaoeecx oaaee ca.

Coca coca ca pyx poo o ac o a, opo, oa, opaca, yco paa ope ox ex ee, oope oa ax ox o oece epeo, poopao, copoa oxa pyx aopo.

pooca ocepo coy co pyoo eoo poaoo coa, co ce, oa pyx ox. oycaec co ocee, oxae aopoeoe, ec oo xpaoc oee 6 ec e opaoc oopoy aopaa. Mco oo ce, o opox ox. y co ec co, oyeo o ox peoo opaca, e cap 10 e..oycaec cooae ca oa. .

H ca, eo ae xec coca, e peec eoc e cee oopeoc ox aoc.

Mco ox e a ceye aeop: oa, apaa, oa - I, II aop yaoc oe. 1 aeop ooc co, oyeoe p ox e cpee yaoc, o opo aeop - coa e cpee aoc. Mco, eee oaa o oc e peoa, ycoex II aerop, .

Mco ce opae a aerop acoc o acc y, , opaca xapaepa epo opao: 1 - eoa, II - co oo, III - pa, IV - poa eepaoa, V - co opoc. a - pa ( o 4 c oee), eoa ceao oopa ( o 2 o 4 c), ca ( o 1,5 o 4 c) opea, y oopo c oo co pa.

Ka pao, aerop yaoc opee ooceo coepa oa-eo, oa-p, a ae epeeco ec.

Ha ocepe ao co pyoo poaoo coa ocyae oy eep (p pao coooe epex ax ace y), co eoo coa - e ya, o ce - ya oyya.

a yax oyyax ca caapo - eepapoe eo, oopoe yocoepe, o co poo pap ocop opa o yac. Ta, a , ap, I aeop ca pyo o, II aeop - , oe - p, a oo ca yy M, a c po - pyoe eo, a - cpaa po yy , a a c op - apao o.

: (, py, yy, oo, apoe, y, ee ope), ce (epe, oy, apo c).

Kocepa apa oa oecea epeoc oppooy cooc, eoc, oy eopoooc, ecooc, po-oc, ay accy, y coc. , .

Tapo cx ocepo cya ec (cope eo-ye) ce a, oope o oaa poo oc- a poy , co oepc, yco oc coep-oo. Cea apa oe o eaeco ee e oe eopoooc ycooc ee eepayp, oe o-y accy, oaae xpyoc, o oee ea e oepaec e-e pee oppo.

y apao cy a ec. pe apy a xpopoao ca, a a epo c, opo ca ao a. a opoo pop poc c ooo cax a, oop coa oo a ayy. Hpe, eoppoa c oppo pyx o a pooco oyca.

Tapa oa co po peapey caapy op, cay poa apeoc. Cee a 2-% - pacopo poca ap (ayceco coo), ocao ap p. oce o a opaaa ocp apo op oo 95-98C. Meaece p, peaaee yyop ceo ap, ap e oe 2-3 ceax.


1.2.


acoc o o paaaex ocepo exooece cxe x pooca coco pax exooecx oepa. aae x ycoo opae a ceoe (ocop, oop cp), (oa, oa, eee, peapea eoa opaoa, oco p) oc (opopoae-acoae, aaa, cepa). oca c eoo pooa ocepo ae: ooo cp yae aoex ooeo (oaa, oa, aca), pea a y, ee, oppoae-acoae, aaa, eoa opaoa, oxaee (.1)

Ocoeoc oex o ocepo yy ace o cee ee cp, peeyp, a ceax oepa (apoae, oapae, epeeae c aoe, oco, copeae, oee p).


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co - ,

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1.

Texooeca cxea pooca apex ocepo ee ceye ocoeoc: epy ca oce epoo ee ocoe opoe eee, oycoeoe eoxooc oye oee eeo cpyyp apa, pa ey coo oocae cocooc. Beee peeyp apex ocepo acopoo co peoxpae poy o eeaex ee p pooce cox eepayp, a poecc cepa oecea coxpaee eo eoc.

exooeco cxe pooca copacex ocepo xapaep pyoe eee coo cp a co-paex aax oax oceyee epea ooooo ca c pace aoe (ae, apoe, ..), oy paopoo pacp ooeo ocepax. , , .

p pooce cypoyox ocepo cpe oce ee oapa pa ceecoo yca apoaa, apy ( yae oo o) e peapeo eoo opao cpay epeea c co ce epea a acoae a .

ooee ocepo ca ae oee coy oooy cp (oaae ye, opoe, ce). aee acoc o a ocepo co opaaa o c peape apoae, o o. Mco acy oce pae y.


2.


2.1.


Ha ocp o c y yy oca pacop aoax aoax-ax, aopo-o co - aao, oxa - coco. oca co a aopacopo apx aax, po- aopppaopax.

pacopa p a o yoop ycao caapo- poa.

Mco a ocpx aax pa ac, y x yaoc. ppao apo oxa co paa xpaax oo coco a ocx oopcax, oop pc xoo po c po, a px, ycax a aax, o y oyy co py c pyo.

, .

aopoeoe co paopaa cey coa.

Paopaae oyo cpee. Teepaypy oyxa o oceo oa o 0 o 6-8C eee 3-5 cy p ac oyxa 90-92%. p o cocoe yxyac a ca, pxc o caoc o, oa opaec co, y acc e pocxo.

pyoy apay eepaypy oyxa oa a e, oocey aoc eo oepa a ypoe 65-70%. p o a oepxc ca opayc oa opoa; y ca ocae 3-4%.

cpoe paopaa oyxo poo aepax, oopyoax aoppa. Teepaypy oyxa oepa 15-20CC, a ooc-y aoc - ooo 55-60%. Paopaa pooac 15-25 . cya ocae 3%. Ha oepxoc ca opayec cyxa opoa.

Coco oyoo yea. Boyx cepaypo 20-25C c ooco aoco 90-95% oa aepy co copoco 10 /c ep coa, ycaoee aaax, pacoox o ap. Paopaae pooac 10-12 . p o coco nop e pocx, xopo coxpaec e ca, oepxoc ocac cyxo.

cooae apooyo cec. apooya cc ycop paopaa ca, a ap oaae o co oeo , oyx.

Paopaa apooyo cco ocyecc apax p payp ooo 4-5C e 16 p 20 - 25C a 10-12 . p o coco acca ca yac a 0,5-1% a c oca a a o opxoc, op o coa p popa, oa o ya.

Paopaa ayy. o coco ocoa a cooa cpo eo oca apa. ap oc ac o a, axoc ap, opo coac ayy. oa a a ooc pypoa ap paypy. oa , popaa opy ca. o ca acco 30 paopaac a 1 . p o coe xopoo coxpac , aax yc ca.

. ca oa ocepo poo o oco cxe: aca, pa y oyy, oaa, oa, pa ca.

aca y. p oooe cp ocooe ae ye aecy ac . C y oyy cpea caapo-eepapoe eo, poe cyc, poooe, oca apa, ao ao ya ooe ape c oepxoc. p a ooc o epc x c-a c oo ao a, cpo poo ae opxoc y oyy. peee opo ac coo cp oeceae cee oe poao oceeeoc, o cyeceo opaaec a aece oaex ocepo.

Paea y oyy. Paey oy (y) o a opoa, a epepoa cxea. (.2).

A. Cxea pae y c:

1 - ooa co eoo;

2 - ea ac;

3 - ca ac (opea);

4 - aoepea ac (oopo);

5 - oaa;

6 - aa;

7-oa epe; - oa a;

9 - o.

. Cxea pae y opo:

1 - ooa; 2 - e (ape);

3 - apo;

4 - ca ac (coa noca ac);

5 - a ac (oca oc-a ac);

6 - oyo; 7 - opyo;

8 - oe pa; 9 - aa;

10 - oaa; 11 - aoepea ac;

12-pya ac; 13 - oa epe,

14 - oa a, 15 - oa.

B. Cxea pae y eea.

1 - ooa; 2 - e,

3 - ca ac;

4 - ceoa a,

5 - aoepea ac,

6 - pya ac;

7 - oaa; 8 - aa,

9, 10 - oa; 11 - o.

Pc 2. Cxea pae y ox


Ty oyy pae a aaoce ac: oa, oopoa, pyy ey, ocy ac (pece) e. Paey poo a oecx yx, aax a coax. p o co c po, co eoo aeop yaoc epe paeo ca , oop ocec cov p paoe apex pyx ocepo. ape oe ocpo pooce e pe.

Oaa. Oao aaec oeee ca o oce. . Ka oa ceapyec a c ca c ao-o oo ac y. Taa paoa aaec epepoao oao.

Oay ca poo pyy oa pao op paepo. oee oo pyoeoo poecca peoe xa c oa x o: oc, co, a ae c pa oa c aec pao ycpoco, oopo cooae oea, o oea ycope c ca.

oa ca. p o o apa c ooo oa o cyxo, xp, py poeoce cocy pe cee, coeoa e, oo p py co oo pa. p oe c e p e ya.

Oay oy ca poo a coax, opx cao a paopo po. . , , .

oa o ca , oco ox pacoppo c pca coa oo oo. o pacppy oaa oac opy ca, o x oao co apac oa, a o oo ao co ocya a copy. C oo opax pacopp o oao ya .

xo c (% acc) p oae o aoc o ap ya coca: o - 65 - 74,5; apa - 56,5 74, 0; - 88, co - 84,5.

Pa ca. co py a yc acco 50-70 , a p aco pyy apy (a N14) - o 200 . p ca p ocoaoo ycao co cop: p p co a ooc, opa - ooc a yc.

apao co pa aco a a ay opaoy (oapy, a ..).


2.2.


epeea cp ec ao exooeco oepae. epeea oo ap co o epe acoae a; cyxy co c co epe epo ocoe, op eee a oe acoae; eee apoae cypoy epe acoae; co c eeo co ypo; apeaoe eeoe co epe acoae a c co, yo, ce, yo, a-aco, caxap, ycco, ooa, pya .. p epeea a eoopx pep-x pe ayypoae, ooee yy aeco oox e, cococyee yee oea epoooc ocepa cee aoe ap.

coo cp p ooe cx ocepo oe pooc a pax cax poca. Co oy o poy eocpeceo p eo acoa a, p epeea c oca ooa ea, yepe p ooe aex ocpo. eoopx o ocepo poecc occa coea c py a opao - aoae (co o oy), oapo ..

p pooce e ocepo oco ocyec cyx ( ), op ( ) cea cocoa ( ). .

peoc coc oca ac o a paaae ocepo. Oopoa oay ac oce ac y, a pacco epa ocoa o yx cyo pooce e eaeco acepoao. oce ocoa x epa copea- 5-7 cy, o, oaa, ap opax, oce eo oxaa acy a.

Heoop ocooo cp epe aao a oepa peapeo eoo opaoe: apoa, oapa, ape, oe.

apoae pecae coo paopeey ap c , coceo co apoo cee o eoo oooc. ec ecoo cocoo apoa ca.

epo coco oaoe cpe aaa apoae ( oe) c e oo coooe 53: 47. oye oe-ppoaoro oa oo oe apy p a ca: epy aa epa 50-60 , opy - 1 15 pe - 1 30 .

op cocoe (apoae ca coceo co) co apa apoae a 2/3 oea, oa opy oy (4-6% acc ca). oce oopaoo apoa eee 30-40 yo oyaec ocaoo oeppoa.

p pee cocoe c oa 15-20% o, pooeoc poecca 30-40 . ae co pya, a ocac vo yapa. oce apoa opo ap co pya, a oe yo oepa poe e ocep, a a coep e eee 15% cyxx eec.

apoae ca aoe, ec co a papee ee cep e e ee p aaa ocoo coo coa. ooa apoa coe cpe oxaa o 45-55C apa a acoae o a aey epepaoy.

Oapae - eoa opaoa poyo pcyc ocaoo ooo oeca pa. , . , - . pooeoc oapa acoc o paepo yco a cp cocae o 8 o 45 . Cpee eepayp p oapa coca 105-160.

Kee oapy coy p pooce cepo ex, eox pyrx coex e. Koee pooc oce ocoa coo cp. B poeoc poecca ac o a e. Bey eaecy xo coco eee 3 , ey - eee 1 . . .

Bap oo cocc oce opo oap, ocoeoe cpe ooe ex ocepo, coeoe ecoeoe cpe opax. o apo opayeaec eoa opaoa p eepaype o 58-70C epao ac poya. Tao ape eceae eaypa eo, poepec paca oe ac oaea, eee po cpax eec eaey copoy o ooe yoee eeao .

yca e cooo aeca eoxoo pao pa pe ap xapaep ooa ea. ap e pe co cy a oa, ocp ap apooya cpea. Bapa op oe ee p peec epe p cocoa. o ee oep acc poya ea eop ooo p coxpae oee po opac oepxoc e.

Teepapa pee cpe epe apo aep ap oa ooo 100C, o pe ap ee oepa a poe 70 oy ap oa o 85C. p ecoe eepaypoo pea oy oy ee, apep, p eepaype e oco poy ye yapo e oo, a p coo - oe oy oooa cece epaepoo pacpe apa. pooeoc ap cocco capee 20-30 .

Heoope ocep oaa c cooae cx yoo, opayx p oxae ee. yo oya eo apo oe ox apax oce, xpaxc oce oa e oee 24 , cyxo, coocoo cp.

Ec ec oooc exooecoe oopyoae, oc poa 15-20 pooo oe aax aax. Koc oo e. ae oc oapa aox oaox eax eee 20-40 p 120-160, o yo e opey opacy xopo yc aax. Oapee oc apya yxe oe, aa oo coooe 1: 3 ap eee 3-4 p 90-95 C. ooa ap yo caa, ya c oepxoc p. o yoa ooe oe coca 1: 1. oye yo oa a aex pax.

Cyecy pye coco oye yoa, apep p-ooee yoa p apoa coo cp p.

Coyc pa ocepa ceec yc peae e . acoc o oo ooea, oop opee opao e a oppoae yca a oooo coyca, x opae a oa, e, cea, ca . Haae coyca ac o a aoe: y oaoo coyca - oa-aca, y ceaoo - ceaa, y - e caxap, y eoo - accepoaa ya. Coyc oo a ocx cx yoax ceye cxee. Ha epo ae op yo oc accepoay (oapey) yy p epeea o 10-20 o ceoe pyo y. ae oc oa - acy, ceay pyo aoe, co, caxap, poc o epeea epeea 5-15 . oo coyc aa a p 70-75.

. p aoe (acoa-opopoa) ap aae aaa oe cocae ac: co, ce, p-cpe, co .., oce eo a aa e ooe - yo, coyc. , , .

Haoee a o aoao-oaopo pacopepy epea a opooe eae aay. a aaa ayy-aaox aax, c ooo oopx ya oyx ao (caycpoa) epo ayopa. Ceye o, o ocac a oyx a oppo eaa, a opoooc p cpa, cococyc pa ocx poecco poy ca cae aeco cpo xpae ocpo.

. ("") .

oce aa ao exooeco peycopea poepa epeoc aoex yyopex ao. oo co e ocop, opoo - oy ay ( oe ox ypo oe). Oo oy ay oopea o 85-90C. .. .

, .

oce poep ao a epea x epea a cepa. Ocooe aee ee pooeoc poco poya oce acoa o cepa. opaoo poecca oceppo oa e oa pea 30 .

Cepa - ocooe o exoocoo poecca p oo aox cx ocepo. Oa aac oo opao ca np payp 100 oae eeeoc opao o x ooo yoe. Bcoa epaypa (120), oop coyec p pooc cx aox ocpo, ca cocooc cop popac. Coa, ape copoya o epayp 100 ooe oy ocep, oop oo xpa 3 - 5 .

c c pocxo cyc e: ayppyc , pec aa ac a, epax, cpax eec pa, aco ooco apyc a-. p cpa e 100 y oco ao aoa cepooopoa, a opao cec yooro pacnaa o, pa-x c a, ee o ype opxoc c-o ap copoo, a ae o epoo aaxa.

Cepa cepo oo poo, coy pae eo: epoao oe ox cepxcox aco, opy ye, op oyxo, aoaax (epepeo oo), epepeo oo apo aapaax epepoo ec.

Oe pe c epepeo oo ap coca- 115-118C eee 40 . Pe cepa p eoa yy ace ocoeocx exooecoo pyoa.

pac p cepa yoac c cop, o coca a aay ocaoy poopy. o poop o poc oo p a aop yco ( , poc ao ..), p oo yxya ycoe ae coca poya, opy ( o ce oyyca), .

po a ccoo copoopa po ocp (opoo o 5% 6o) pa poca p pyp 37 - 38 10 cyo. poopa pa poy c opaoa ao, ax oa ao. Tay opy ocp aa ooec oae.

Kpoe oo, aac xec o (ec) oa. Xc oa aec oopoo, oop opayec peyae oppo ao. Tae ocp paoa. o oa oa cece eocaooo ya oyxa ao a peya pacp aa p o eepayp (epec oa). ax cyax p aaa a py cyeo a e opa occaaaec c xapap yo.

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oe cepa p pooce cx ocep npe acepao. p acepa yac peyeo eea-e op .

Oo pe acepa ae pe popa ao p 100 (15 ), epo ce eepayp aoae o 80 (15 ), pe acepa 80C (80-110 ) ox o 20 (65-80 ). Oa p ocepo oe coca o 165 o 210 .

a ooceo e eepaype pe eoo o-pao, acepoae e ooc oyocepa opaa x cpo xpae p eepaype 0-5 ooceo aoc oyxa e e 75 eee 6 ec.

. oce epoopao ocep ocya a coppoy, oxaee yaoae. p o poo opaoy eepex ao, ao c oea, ooc, papa, pea .. O aoee pacpocpaex eeo c "" - eopa oe pe e yoo y opo a.

oce coppoa a oxaa oo o 40 a a xpaee. epe opao a xpaee oepxoc ao caa exec aeo yaa .

. Xpa ce ocep p eepayp 0-5 ooceo aoc oyxa 75%. p xpae e ceye oyca oe a aax pa, oopa oe pec apye peoc. Ec ocep oce ooe apa peaa, o a ay aea y c yaae aa, copa, eca pao poya, opa ap a yca.

Kocep xpa oaaex eex p opaex ooex epaypax. cpo xpae yeae, o e a op- oaae ocepo.

Mce ocep ocye a o oxaeo e (p O0), pae eepaype oyxa e eee 2C c ocey oeee e pex epeao eepayp ooc oyxa. oaaex caax ee oa oepac a ypoe 2-4C, a ooce oyxa - e e 75%.

Cpo xpae acoc o a pea epec cepa oy coca o 1 oa o 3 e. Ko ex aax xpa eoe.




" " :

1. pooca ocepo coy co pyoo eoo poaoo coa, co ce, oa pyx ox. oycaec co ocee, oxae aopoeoe, ec oo xpaoc oee 6 ec e opaoc oopoy aopaa. Mco oo ce, o opox ox. y co ec co, oyeo o ox peoo opaca, e cap 10 e..oycaec cooae ca oa. .

2. Kocepa apa oa oecea epeoc oppooy cooc, eoc, oy eopoooc, ecooc, po-oc, ay accy, y coc. , .

3. acoc o o paaaex ocepo exooece cxe x pooca coco pax exooecx oepa. aae x ycoo opae a ceoe (ocop, oop cp), (oa, oa, eee, peapea eoa opaoa, oco p) oc (opopoae-acoae, aaa, cepa). oca c eoo pooa ocepo ae: ooo cp yae aoex ooeo (oaa, oa, aca), pea a y, ee, oppoae-acoae, aaa, eoa opaoa, oxaee.

4. Ocoeoc oex o ocepo yy ace o cee ee cp, peeyp, a ceax oepa (apoae, oapae, epeeae c aoe, oco, copeae, oee p).




  1. .. .. "˸ ", 1983.

  2. Kypo A. A, o B. B. Texooecoe copyoae epepao poy oooca. .: opapoex, 1998.

  3. .., .. / . - : , 1999.

  4. Poo . A. p. Tex ca copoyo. .: Apopo-a, 1988.

  5. Cooo B. B. p. epepao poy oooca peccx, epepcx oex xocax.

  6. .. . .: Apopo-a, 1988.