Teaching sentence structure (43012)Посмотреть архив целиком
The goal work is dedicated to the English grammar I hope my work will the process of teaching and learning grammar fun and exciting for students, also want to make teaching grammar as easy as possible by providing you with all tools heeded to give students a rich and enjoyable experience.
Grammar becomes exciting and dynamic when you bring the real world into your classroom and bring your class out into the world. The aim of investigation.
1) To acquire a terminology for discussing sentence correctness and effectiveness
2) To look for subjects and verbs when puzzling out the meaning of difficult sentences.
3) To understand how structure clues help identify parts of speech
4) To recognize participles, gerunds, and infinitives and use them to improve sentences
To study the structure of the simple sentence, to make the process of learning grammar understandable.
One of the main tasks of qualification work is the saving private tasks of grammar, to show:
SV Patterns 1 Subject Verb
SVN Pattern 2 Subject Verb Predicate Nominative
SVA Pattern 3 Subject Verb Predicate adjective
SVO Pattern 4 Subject Verb Object
SVIO Pattern 5 Subject Verb Indirect object Direct object
SVOC Pattern 6 Subject Verb Direct object complement
The actually of the work. It is no doubt that student grow toward maturity and independence of thought, as they progress trough the grades.
Explains that, inspire of the great interest to a learning grammar, to the problem sentences structure, there are some difficulties in learning it. There is a great number of some foreign linguists.
In my work I tried to choose the best works of some foreign linguists as Henry I Christ, Francis B. Connors and other grammarians
The novelty of the work. Introduce some of the newest and most challenging concepts of modern grammar. It utilizes new terminology and shows how teachers may begin working new definitions new explanations, and new approaches into the regular language study. Yet the work is arranged so that we can concentrate upon traditional elements.
The theoretical signifies of the work is concluded in comparison with the nature languages Russian and Uzbek, the correlation between the principle parts of the sentences which based on practical application.
1. Practical significance
The practical works are given in the work and tests, what can be used in learning the structure of the sentences on the course of theoretical grammar and at the practical classes of learning English.
The main recourse from where I have taken the material of my qualification work are works done by Henry I Christ Modern English in Action work done by Francis B Connors «New voyages in English» Material from Internet and world encyclopedia.
1.1 The structure of the Simple Sentence
«Every sentence has a subject and a predicament».
Although you may not be like the school boy who wrote the preceding explanation, you will probably welcome a review of grammar. Knowing the names of eight parts of speech and about two dozen other terms will give you tools for improving your writing and speaking. This chapter will also provide a refresher course on fundamentals of sentence structure.
DIAGNOSTIC TEST 1.A Parts of the Simple Sentence.
Copy the italicized words in a column and number them 1 to25. Then, using the abbreviations given below, indicate the use in the sentence of each word. Write the abbreviations in a column to the right of the words.
s.s.-simple subject d.o.-direct object
v.-verb i.o.-indirect speech
p.a.-predicate adjective o.p.-object of preposition
p.n.-predicate noun ap.-appositive
p.pr.-predicate pronoun a.n.-adverbial noun
1. The Pharos of Alexandria, a tall lighthouse, was a wonder of the ancient world.
2. The next day the new neighbors brought us a dinner of spaghetti and delicious sauce.
3. The son of Mr. Oliver, the corner grocer, gave me a piece of apple pie with raisins in it.
4. In the morning the gypsies strung beads a round the neck of the donkey and tied her tail with a bright red ribbon a yard long.
5. What kind of minerals can you find in the old lead mine?
6. The Buddha of Kamakura, a huge bronze statue, is considered one of the most beautiful sights in Japan.
7. The imprint of the fossil shell in the rock was sharp and clear.
In the winter the rock garden looks lifeless and barren.
2. The main part
2.1 Subject, verb
A.1 SENTENCE A sentence expresses a complete thought. It contains a subject and a predicate (or verb) either expresses or understood.
The nation’s largest herd of buffalo grazes in Custer State Park.
PREDICATE VERB The predicate verb makes a statement, asks a question, or gives a command.
Statement Custer State Park borders on the Black Hills National Forest in South Dakota.
Question Who was calamity Jane?
Command For an authentic view of the old West visit Custer State Park.
AUXILIARY VERB An auxiliary helps a verb to make a statement, ask a question, or give a command.
The auxiliaries are: (be group) be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being; (have group) has, have, had; (do group) do, does, did; (other) may, might; can, could; shall, should; would, must. With auxiliaries a complete verb can be two, or for words.
Have you ever eaten buffalo steak?
Income from the sale of buffalo meat has been partially paying for the upkeep of Custer State Park.
You should not have been amazed at the sight of buffalo burger stands.
SIMPLE SUBJECT The simple subject answer the question «Who?» or «What?» before the verb.
A simple subject is commonly a noun or a pronoun.
Winter temperatures in Alaska may fall to 60 degrees below zero.
(Temperatures answer the question «What my fall?»)
Fort Yukon has recorded temperatures of 100 degrees above zero in July. (Fort Yukon answer the question «What has recorded?»)
Write the Alaskan Visitors Association for information about vacations in Alaska. (You, understood, answer the question «Who write?»)
MODIFIER A modifier is a word or expression that makes clearer or limits the meaning of another word.
For further help see Teacher’s Manual.
George Washington planned one of the first American canals. (the first American canals is more limited than canals. The, first, and American modify canals.)
Canalboats were drawn by sturdy mules. (Were drawn by sturdy mules is different from were drawn. By sturdy mules modifies were drawn.)
Complete Subject The complete subject is the simple subject with its modifiers.
A windmill on Nantucket still grinds cornmeal.
COMPLETE PREDIDICATE The complete predicate is the predicate verb its modifiers and the words that complete its meaning.
Words which complete the meaning of a verb are complements or completers. Ordinarily every word in a simple sentence belongs either to the complete subject or the complete predicate.
Windmills were once a common sights along the Massachusetts coasts (The vertical line separates the complete subject from the complete predicate. The complete subject is underline once and the predicate verb twice.)
The first copper coins in the colonies were minted by John Higley at Simsbury, Connecticut.
Find the verb.
Ask «Who?» or «What?» before the verb. Your answer is the simple subject.
Find all the words attached to the subject. This step gives you the complete subject.
Everything else is the complete predicate.
PRACTICE 1 Expanding Complete Subject and Complete predicates.
Expand each of the italicized subjects and predicates by adding colorful, exact modifiers.
Example: The rain came.
The prayed-for rain came with the crack of thunder and the persistent tattoo of raindrops as big as marbles.
INVERTED ORDER A sentence is inverted when the verb, or part of it, precedes the subject.
In most English sentences the subject precedes the verb.
Inverted order. Along the Hudson River are found reminders of our Dutch heritage.
Reminders of our Dutch heritage are found along the Hudson River.
Was the first elementary school in the United States on Staten Island?
Natural order. The first elementary school in the United States was on Staten Island.
THERE When there begins a sentence in invented order, it is not the subject and does not modify anything.
There is never the subject and doesn`t add anything to the meaning.
Inverted order. There were English settlers in New England before the Pilgrims.
Natural order English settlers were in New England before the Pilgrims.
OVERDOING THERE. Don’t overuse there.
Too frequent use of there is monotonous.
OTHER WORDS BEFORE SUBJECT Frequently a portion of the complete predicate precedes the subject. Other words before subject In1889 the first movie. Film was produced in America by Thomas A. Edison.
Natural order. The first movie film was produced in America by Thomas A. Edison in 1889.
ARRANGEMENT FOR STILE Often a portion of the predicate verb can be placed before the complete subject for emphasis, for joining the sentence to the preceding sentence, or for improving the rhythm of the passage in which it occurs.
(Use this device for emphasis only sparingly.)
Emphasis That will never forget. (I will never forget that.)
Sentence rhythm: Suddenly and without warning, the panther leaped suddenly without warning upon the deer).
PRACTICE 2 Rearranging for stile
Rearrange each of the following sentences for increased emphasis or improvement in sentence rhythm.
SIMPLE SENTENCE A simple sentence has one subject and one predicate, either or both of which may be compound.