Teaching English Grammar (43011)

CONTENT


INTRODUCTION3

PART 1 WHAT IS THE GRAMMAR4

    1. The Importance of grammar..4

    2. The Psychological Characteristic of Grammar Skills4

    3. The Content of Teaching grammar.6

PART 2 MAJOR METHODS AND PRINCIPLES ....8

    1. A Brief Review of the Major Methods of Foreign Language Teaching.8

      1. The Grammar Translation method..8

      2. The Direct Method..9

      3. The Audiolingual Method.10

      4. Grammar explanations as used in the major methods...10

    2. Some General Principles of Grammar Teaching...11

      1. Conscious approach...11

      2. Practical approach..12

      3. Structural approach12

      4. Situational approach...13

      5. Different approach.13

PART 3 FURTHER POINTS FOR CONCIDERATION....14

    1. Introduction of new Material..14

      1. Introducing new language structure...14

      2. Types of context.....................................................................................15

      3. The presentation of structural form....15

      4. A general model for introducing new language.15

    2. Teaching grammar patterns....16

    3. Correction...18

    4. The Most Common Difficulties in Assimilating English Grammar...20

PART 4 TYPES OF EXERCISES FOR THE ASSIMILATION OF GRAMMAR..21

    1. Recognition exercises21

    2. Drill exercises....21

    3. Creative exercises..23

    4. Grammar tests....24

CONCLUSION.....25

LITERATURE..26


ITRODUCTION


Language is the chief means by which the human personality expresses itself and fulfills its basic need for social interaction with other persons.

Robert Lado wrote that language functions owing to the language skills. A person who knows a language perfectly uses a thousand and one grammar lexical, phonetic rules when he is speaking. Language skills help us to choose different words and models in our speech.

It is clear that the term grammar has meant various things at various times and sometimes several things at one time. This plurality of meaning is characteristic of the present time and is the source of confusions in the discussion of grammar as part of the education of children. There have been taking place violent disputes on the subject of teaching grammar at school.

The ability to talk about the grammar of a language, to recite its rules, is also very different from ability to speak and understand a language or to read and write it. Those who can use a language are often unable to recite its rules, and those who can recite its rules can be unable to use it.

Grammar organizes the vocabulary and as a result we have sense units. There is a system of stereotypes, which organizes words into sentences. But what skill does grammar develop?

First of all it gives the ability to make up sentences correctly, to reproduce the text adequately. (The development of practical skills and habits)

The knowledge of the specific grammar structure helps pupils point out the differences between the mother tongue and the target language.

The knowledge of grammar develops abilities to abstract systematize plural facts.

The name of my work is Teaching Grammar. And the main aim is to clearly recognize how to teach grammar right.


PART 1 WHAT IS THE GRAMMAR


1.1 The Importance of Grammar in Learning a Foreign Language


To judge by the way some people speak, there is no place for grammar in the language course nowadays; yet it is, in reality, as important as it ever was exercise of correct grammar, if he is to attain any skill of effective use of the language, but he need not know consciously formulated rules to account to him for that he does unconsciously correctly.

In order to understand a language and to express oneself correctly one must assimilate the grammar mechanism of the language studied. Indeed, one may know all the words in a sentence and yet fail to understand it, if one does not see the relation between the words in the given sentence. And vice versa, a sentence may contain one, two, and more unknown words but if one has a good knowledge of the structure of the language one can easily guess the meaning of these words or at least find them in a dictionary.

No speaking is possible without the knowledge of grammar, without the forming of a grammar mechanism.

If learner has acquired such a mechanism, he can produce correct sentences in a foreign language. Paul Roberts writes: Grammar is something that produces the sentences of a language. By something we mean a speaker of English. If you speak English natively, you have built into you rules of English grammar. In a sense, you are an English grammar. You possess, as an essential part of your being, a very complicated apparatus which enables you to produce infinitely many sentences, all English ones, including many that you have never specifically learned. Furthermore by applying you rule you can easily tell whether a sentence that you hear a grammatical English sentence or not.

A command of English as is envisaged by the school syllabus cannot be ensured without the study of grammar. Pupils need grammar to be able to aud, speak, read, and write in the target language.

1.2 The Psychological characteristics of grammar skills


To develop ones speech means to acquire essential patterns of speech and grammar patterns in particular. Children must use these items automatically during speech-practice. The automatic use of grammar items in our speech (oral and written) supposes mastering some particular skills the skills of using grammar items to express ones own thoughts, in other words to make up your sentences.

We must get so-called reproductive or active grammar skills.

A skill is treated as an automatic part of awareness. Automatization of the action is the main feature of a skill.

The nature of Automatization is characterized by that psychological structure of the action which adopts to the conditions of performing the action owing frequent experience. The action becomes more frequent, correct and accurate and the number of the operations is shortened while forming the skill the character of awareness of the action is changing, i.e. fullness of understanding is paid to the conditions and quality of performing to the control over it and regulation.

To form some skills is necessary to know that the process of the forming skills has some steps:

  • Only some definite elements of the action are automatic.

  • The Automatization occurs under more difficult conditions, when the child cant concentrate his attention on one element of the action.

  • The whole structure of the action is improved and the automatization of its separate components is completed.

What features do the productive grammar skills have?

During our speech the reproductive grammar skills are formed together with lexis and intonation, they must express the speakers intentions.

The actions in the structural setting of the lexis must be learnt.

The characteristic feature of the reproductive grammar skills is their flexibility. It doesnt depend on the level of Automatization, i.e. on perfection of skill here mean the original action: both the structure of sentence, and forms of the words are reproduced by the speaker using different lexical material. If the child reproduces sentences and different words, which have been learnt by him as a ready-made thing he can say that there is no grammar skill. Learning the ready-made forms, word combinations and sentences occurs in the same way as learning lexis.

The grammar skill is based on the general conclusion. The grammar action can and must occur only in the definite lexical limits, on the definite lexical material. If the pupil can make up his sentence frequently, accurately and correctly from the grammatical point of view, he has got the grammar skill.

Teaching grammar at school using the theoretical knowledge brought some critical and led to confusion. All the grammatical rules were considered to be evil and there were some steps to avoid using them at school.

But when we learn grammatical items in models we use substitution and such a type of training gets rid of grammar or neutralizes it. By the way, teaching the skills to make up sentences by analogy is a step on the way of forming grammar skills. It isnt the lexical approach to grammar and it isnt neutralization of grammar, but using basic sentences in order to use exercises by analogy and to reduce number of grammar rules when forming the reproductive grammar skills.

To form the reproductive grammar skills we must follow such steps:

  • Selection the model of sentence.

  • Selection the form of the word and formation of wordforms.

  • Selection the auxiliary words-preposition, articles, and etc. and their combination with principle words.

The main difficulty of the reproductive (active) grammar skills is to correspond the purposes of the statement, communicative approach (a questionan answer and so on), words, meanings, expressed by the grammatical patterns. In that case we use basic sentences, in order to answer the definite situation. The main factor of the forming of the reproductive grammar skill is that pupils need to learn the lexis of the language. They need to learn the meanings of the words and how they are used. We must be sure that our pupils are aware of the vocabulary they need at their level and they can use the words in order to form their own sentence. Each sentence contains a grammar structure. The mastering the grammar skill lets pupils save time and strength, energy, which can give opportunity to create. Learning a number of sentences containing the same grammatical structure and a lot of words containing the same grammatical form isnt rational. But the generalization of the grammar item can relieve the work of the mental activity and let the teacher speed up the work and the children realize creative activities.






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