Lexical and grammatical peculiarities of scientific-technical texts (42910)

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1. Theoretical issues of translation

1.1 Development of translation notion in linguistics

1.2 Equivalence of translation

1.3 Types of translation

1.4 Pragmatics of translation

2. Lexical and grammatical peculiarities of scientific-technical texts

2.1 The characteristic of the scientific and technical language

2.2 Analysis of terminology in scientific-technical style




At present time there is a great necessity to emphasize scientific-technical translation not only as a special kind of translation activity and special theory that investigates this kind of activity but as to assign scientific-technical translation a status of independent applied science. From the linguistic viewpoint peculiarities of scientific-technical are spread on its stylistics, grammar and lexics. The main task of scientific-technical translation is a possibly clear and precise bringing of the information to the reader. This can be achived by logical interpretation of actual material without explicit emotionality. The style of scientific-technical materials can be identified as formally logical.

Scientific-technical texts reveal a great number of grammar peculiarities. The most typical lexical feature of scientific-technical materials is terms and terminology saturation as well as presence of lexical structures and acronyms. A special place in such materials are the texts oriented not only for this group language speakers but for representatives of a certain professional group with certain extralinguistic knowledge.

The aim of this term paper is devoted to peculiarities of scientific-technical translation.

The following tasks were set up to identify translation peculiarities of technical materials:

1. Reveal and describe common linguistic basis of translation, identify what peculiarities of language systems and functions are the foundations of translation process.

2. Classify main kinds of translation activity.

3. Research peculiarities of scientific-technical materials.

4. Study specific English terminology required for professional translation.

5. Analyse grammatical and lexical peculiarities of scientific-technical texts.

The object of this research is some scientific-technical texts representing manuals for electric devices. The subject of this research is the translation of scientifi-technical materials.

The paper consists of introduction, two chapters and conclusion. It is also provided with bibliography list.

The introduction explains the urgency of the research theme, its theoretical and practical value, it identifies the object, subject, aim and tasks of the work.

The first chapter of this research is devoted to the review of theoretical issues of translation, classification of translation and description of certain kinds of translation as well as types of texts being translated.

The second chapter ivestigates scientific-technical terminology, morphological structure of terms (simple, compound, term phrases), it analyses the main approaches of their translation into English (use of equvalents, analogues, calking and transliteration), structure of scientific-technical terms, translation of full items, acronyms, company items and difficulties related to structure differences of compared languages.

Methodology of the research. The aim achivement of the research and implementation of the set up tasks outlines the need in a number of theoretical and emperical methods of research (theoretical research, concretization, modelling, studying of specific literature, manuals, dictionaries).

Theoretical value of the research results. The ivestigation, detalization of the issues studied, theoretical value of the received results leads to the conclusion that this research finds out the necessity to emphasize scientific-technical translation as an independent applied science.

The results of the research are submitted in the conclusion of the work.

1. Theoretical issues of translation

Translation is the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language and the production, in another language, of an equivalent text that communicates the same message. Translation must take into account a number of constraints, including context, the rules of grammar of the two languages, their writing conventions, their idioms and the like. Consequently, as has been recognized at least since the time of the translator Martin Luther, one translates best into the language that one knows best. Traditionally translation has been a human activity, though attempts have been made to computerize or otherwise automate the translation of natural-language texts (machine translation) or to use computers as an aid to translation (computer-assisted translation). [1; 48] Perhaps the most common misconception about translation is that there exists a simple “word-for-word” relation between any two languages, and that translation is therefore a straightforward and mechanical process. On the contrary, historical differences between languages often dictate differences of expression. Hence, source and target texts may differ significantly in length. In addition, translation is always fraught with uncertainties as well as the potential for inadvertent “spilling over” of idioms and usages from one language into the other, producing linguistic hybrids, for example, "Franglais" (French-English), "Spanglish" (Spanish-English) and "Poglish" (Polish-English). [2; 31]

The translation of technical texts (manuals, instructions, etc). More specifically, texts that contain a high amount of terminology, that is, words or expressions that are used (almost) only within a specific field, or that describe that field in a great deal of detail. The translation of scientific research papers, abstracts, conference proceedings, and other publications from one language into another. The specialized technical vocabulary used by researchers in each discipline demand that the translator of scientific texts have technical as well as linguistic expertise.

1.1 Development of translation notion in linguistics

Among multiple problems that modern linguistics studies an important role is played by studying of lingustic aspects of cross-language speaking activity that is called translation or translating activity. Translation is an ancient human’s activity. Due to groups of people appeared in the history of mankind had different languages the bilinguals became urgent as they helped communication between groups with different languages. Then writing appeared and along with oral interpreters written translators became urgent as well. They translated different texts of official, religious and business issues. From its very beginning translation played a significant social function allowing people of different languages communicate. Spreading of written translations gave people access to cultural achivements of other people and it made interacting and intersaturation of literatures and cultures feasible. Knowledge of foreign languages allows reading books originally written in those languages [3; 562].

The first theoreticals of translation were the translators themselves who tried to generalize their own experience. Translators of ancient world discussed the issue of proximity degree to the source text. In early Bible translations or translations of other materials that were considered to be sacral and exemplary we can find word for word approach of the source text interpretation that sometimes lead to partly or even full misunderstanding of translations. That is why later translators tried theoretically approve the right of translator for reasonable variety in subject to the source text that meant the interpretation of meaning and the impression of the source text instead of word for word coping [4; 124].

The foundations of scientific theory of translation started to be develped in the middle of XXth century when the problematics of translating appeared to be urgent amongst linguists. Before that period it was thought that translation is not the issue of linguistic range. Translators themselves considered linguistic aspects to be non-significant but totally technical role. The translator was supposed to be fluent both in source and target languages but knowledge of the language was just a preliminary condition and did not cover its meaning.

By the middle of XXth century the attitude to translation activity had changed and its systematic studying commenced. During this period the translation of political, commercial, scientific-technical and other texts was of great priority. In those types of translation the features of individual writer’s style were not important. Due to this fact more and more attention was paid to the main difficulties of translation related to different structures and functioning of languages in this process.

The meaning of language units was emphasized by more precise requirements for the translation. During the translation of such materials it was not enough to get “general” translation as the translation was supposed to provide information transmission in all details up to the meaning of single words. It was required to identify linguistic meaning of this process and what factors identified it and what range they have for information transmiting. [4,5; 37,12]

1.2 Equivalence of translation

So, there are always two texts during translation, and one of them is initial and is created independently on the second one, and the second text is created on the basis of the first one with the help of some certain operations - the inter language transformations. The first text is called “the text of original"; the second text is called “the text of translation". The language of the text of original is called “ the source language” (SL). The language of the text of translation is called “ the target language” (TL). [10; 97]

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