University of International Business

Term paper by discipline Management

"Forms of Ownership"

Almaty, 2010.



CHAPTER 1. Property and socio-economic relations. The theory of property rights.

1.1 The history of the ownership and development of its forms.

1.2 Property as an economic category.

1.3 The theory of property rights.

CHAPTER 2 Forms of ownership and their classification.

CHAPTER 3 Change of ownership

3.1 Change of ownership is an essential condition for the formation of the market.

3.2 Ownership in transition economies




The property is among the most important and complicated problems of economics and economic theory. History of economic life during periods of increased social activity tends to redistribute objects and property rights. Economy is primarily farming. But, where is the economy, there should be a master. Each economic entity, every resource, every product must have its master. From an economic point of view the master is a person who induces an object in the economic processes, seeking to use it in the best way to extract more value from it. Where there is an economic activity, there is always a problem of ownership. Property relations permeate the entire system of economic relations and escort the man from the moment of his birth to leaving in another world. Everywhere we constantly come upon one common fundamental question: Who owns the economic power, who assigns the material conditions of human existence, the owner of the land, factories, and spiritual wealth?

The social nature of these relations is an expression inherent to the society in the economic relations of property. Today we are ready to sue the state, which has assigned and squandered our labor savings, does not pay us wages, pensions. In this respect civilization has not moved far from the animal world, where everyone defends their environment, claims a particular "piece" or territory. It is recognized that the question of ownership is probably one of the most important issues determining the generation, the existence and the development of human society. On how and by whom it was raised, addressed and regulated in a given time, including the present historical period, the sustainability, prosperity, and often the very existence of any society for that matter, and each individual member of society depend.

Factor of limiting the life of wealth and economic resources requires not only a certain order of their distribution, but also establishing some rules of control over them. Final goods and economic resources, if limited, can not be equally accessible for disposal, use by absolutely all members of society. If this were so, then the society would come into mess.

As soon as the man has picked up a stick, it becomes not only an instrument of labor, but also in his private club, his property. Weapons defense and attack, objects of labor, fire, shelter, clothing, and household goods gradually go into possession of an individual or a group, or a tribe.

Ownership is ensuring the right to control economic resources and life benefits for the set of economic actors. In households, there is a point of view that property is the relationship between the man and his possessions, control over it. Aspirations of a man to property ownership are considered at the same time as a born instinct. However, in economics the dominance of the social, and not natural, basis of property is increasingly recognized. And in this sense we can, to some extent, recognize the approval P. Proudhon: "Property is a theft" - because no one would argue that if one person is the owner of the thing, then others are denied the opportunity to have it in their possession.

In every historical epoch, property as an economic category reflects the entire system of socio-economic relations. Forms of ownership and its variations correspond to the prevailing socio-economic system at all levels. The issue of ownership is extremely multilateral and with each new stage of development of economic thought new aspects of this problem are discovered.

So, do we need private property or not? We can not reply this question instantly, we need to understand in more detail the advantages and disadvantages of different forms of ownership. Thus, the aim of this work is to study, review and analyze ownership structure: its social, legal and economic aspects; as well as studying diverse forms of ownership, mainly private and public, as the main form of ownership; analysis of property development and interaction of public and private property.


    1. The history of the ownership and development of its forms

Property as an economic relation is formed at the dawn creation of the human society. Labor and its division between individuals, tribes have a significant influence on the emergence and development of forms of property. Possession of means of production has become one of the determining conditions of life, and production of necessary means of existence. At the same time, productive work made it possible to obtain economic product to a greater extent than was necessary to ensure the simplest necessities of life of the period. There is accumulation of the property; its type emerges in the form of wealth.

The emergence of the rich and poor, the desire to expand their holdings generate a war for possession of the territories, wealth, property, property begins to pass from hand to hand. Growing populations have more and more land, natural resources, engaged in production. As a result, all that is available to the man is segregated, captured, appropriated, divided, i.e. becomes the property.

The emergence of states contributed to the birth of public property. In this way the diversity of ownership in the form of personal, family, tribal, state was developed. Tribal, and then the inter-state wars, capturing and inheritance of wealth gave birth to the ugliest forms of property - slavery and serfdom, the objects of which are people.

In the era of feudalism subsistence is tightly bound by ties of land ownership, means of productions, and the cattle to the owning feudal lord. Under capitalism, the means of production becomes the property of the owner of capital. Private property blossoms, the relationship between subjects and objects of ownership increasingly divide into the ownership, disposal and use. In the future, private property is modified. There is a joint-stock form of ownership. Along with the ownership of land, natural resources, buildings, equipment and other real estate property, the role of gold and jewels, cash, securities constantly increases. The problems of intellectual property on a spiritual product, and ownership of information emerge.

The ongoing revolutions in certain countries transform, convert forms and property relations. In particular, the socialist revolutions try to abolish the private ownership of means of production, replacing it with the public, state. But an economy based on the overwhelming dominance of state property is ineffective. As a result, the modern economic world that has become basically the world market economy is based on private property and on the feasibility of coexistence of different forms of ownership.

1.2 Property as an economic category

Representations of the property have been forming in science and life for thousands of years, while ownership has become, above all, the official target of legal institutions and philosophy. For a long time the property as a special social relationship was the immediate object of law (especially civil law), but with the further development of social production the property along with legal became also the determining economic category. The concept of property relations includes on one hand relation of an owner to their belongings, i.e. property relationship between subject and object. The subject of property (the owner) is the active side of property relations, having objects of property, possessing, controlling and using them. It should be noted that the property can not be subjectless. As to the orphan objects, things that did not have or have lost their owner, then they cease to be property.

The object of ownership is a passive side of property relations in the form of objects of nature, matter, energy, information, possessions, spiritual, intellectual property, wholly or in some degree belonging to the owner. Often the object of property is called simply the property.

In fact, property can not be imagined without individuals or groups considering their specific things, conditions and products of production as theirs, and others as belonging to strangers. From that it obviously follows that the property is the individual's attitude to things. In this case, since this is the attitude of different people to the same concrete thing, then there is evidence of ownership as the relationship between individuals about things. Being legally settled by state, they take the form of ownership, which include the authority of the owner to possess, use and dispose of property. In the more complete definition of the deployment of property as an economic category, various economists used different static or dynamic bases in this category, its main manifestations in the everyday practice, its class and historical character and so on. From my point of view, the most functional thing to do, in terms of the present study, is to determine the owner of the thing through the main manifestations of the economic domination: the possession, use, and disposal.

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