Equivalents of gerund are in Russian translation (42848)Посмотреть архив целиком
Министерство Образования и Науки Украины
Таврический Экологический Институт
Факультет иностранной филологии
Специальность 7.030502-«Язык и литература»
Тема: Equivalents of gerund are in Russian translation
Исполнитель: студентка 5 курса
Старцева Марина Александровна
доцент Цвет Л.Я.
Section I. General characteristics of the gerund
1.1 The double nature of the gerund
1.2 The tense distinctions of the gerund
1.3 The voice distinctions of the gerund
1.4 Predicative constructions with the gerund
Section II The use of the gerund
2.1 The use of the gerund
2.2 The function of the gerund in the sentence
Section III. The gerund and the other verbals
3.1 The gerund and the infinitive
3.2 The gerund and the participle
3.3 The gerund and the verbal noun
Section IV. Comparison of the English gerund and its equivalents in Russian
List of literature
The aim of my paper is the analysis of the translation and the opportunity to transmit the meaning of the gerund in Russian. I have set this aim because of a superficial translation the reader cannot see what is written between the lines. The translator doesn’t always know grammar and grammar are left behind the limits of the translation.
When one compares an original text with the translation, one can see that some difficult places are omitted or changed. For example, if the noun expresses the subject, the translator can translate this noun with an adverb, because of it sounds better than if it were translated without an adverb (6, 31).
The theme of the course paper is analysis of Russian equivalents of the gerund. The main problem of this paper is to show how one can translate gerund in all situations, how to render a gerund by other means of the language, how gerundial constructions are used. In a complex clause one can omit the translation of a gerund because of it’s difficult to express the idea in the Russian language.
There aren’t any gerunds in the Russian language. There is only a verbal noun. The English gerund cannot be translated as a verbal noun. I’ll try to show this difficulty of translation in Russian.
I’ve chosen this theme, because rendering gerund in Russian is ambiguous and difficult for a student. I want to do my own contribution in the analysis of this problem.
My course paper consists of the introduction, the two chapters and the conclusion.
Section I. General characteristics of the gerund
Origin and Development. The gerund was originally a verbal noun in –ing (until about 1250 also with the form –ung).thus it differed from the present participle in meaning, which was originally an adjective and until about the fourteenth century had a different ending, namely, ende (or inde, ynde, ande), so that the two suffixes were farther apart in form and meaning than they are today. They have both in course of time acquired more verbal force, but the gerund is still a noun and the present participle is still an adjective. [22-101]
. In the combination possessive + gerund, as in I do not like his coming here so often-мне не нравится, что он часто приходит сюда. The oblique case may be substituted for the possessive, so that the gerund becomes a present participle: I do not like him coming here so often. The difference — if any — appears to be that in the former construction the logical emphasis is on the possessive, in the latter on the verb. But there seems also to be a tendency to give up the latter construction altogether, as if it were a mere variation of I do not like him possessives: “in honors of its being Christmas day I …”-в честь Рождества я … “when metal came into use, men were able to make their knives much longer, without their being afraid of their breaking”-с появлением металла появилась возможность изготовлять более длинные ножи, не боясь, что они поломаются. In the last sentence they could be omitted but not changed into them.
So also the genitive in who told you of your wife's being there? May be made into the common case— of your wife being there. In such constructions as I cannot accept the notion of school-life affecting the poet-я не могу принять понятие о школьной жизни, которая влияет на поэта, to this extent the common case is preferred to the genitive(24-92).
"Ing" is used here as a comprehensive technical term for those English forms which from a syntactical point of view must be considered as two different things, a gerund and a participle ("first participle", generally called "present participle"). [23-129]
In order to understand the definition “gerund” we should know all its meanings and word-combinations.
The gerund developed from the verbal noun, which in course of time became verbalized, preserving at the same time its nominal character.
The gerund is formed by adding the inflection -ing to the stem of the verb and coincides in form with Participle I (15 – 170).
The double nature of the gerund
As a natural result of its origin and development the gerund has nominal and verbal properties. The nominal characteristics of the gerund are as follows:
The gerund can perform the function of the subject, an object and a predicative.
They say smoking leads to meditation. – К медитации они посоветовали использовать дымящий свинец.*
I like making people happy. – Я люблю осчастливливать людей.
He went away without saying a word. – Он ушел не сказав ни слова (1 – 222).
The gerund can be preceded by a proposition.
I’m very, very tired of rowing – Я очень, очень устала грести.
He’s fond of skating. – Он увлекается коньками.
You can’t make an omelette without breaking eggs. – Ты не можешь сделать омлет без яиц.
I’m tired f hearing about that. – Я устала это слушать (5 – 137).
Like a noun the gerund can be modified by a noun in the Possessive Case or by a possessive pronoun.
“I wonder at Jolyon’s allowing this cugagement”, he said to aunt Ann. – «Меня удивляет, что Джолиoн допустил эту помолвку», сказал он тетушке Энн.
Is there any objection to my seeing her? – Кто-нибудь возражает против того, чтобы я повидался с ней? (7 – 259).
The verbal characteristics of the gerund are the same as those of the participle:
The gerund of transitive verbs can take a direct object.
I had now made a good progress in understanding and speaking their language. – Сейчас я сделал хорошее продвижение в понимании и говорении их языка.
The gerund can be modified by an adverb.
She burst out crying bitterly. – Она горько расплакалась.
The gerund has tense distinctions; the gerund of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions. The forms of the gerund in modern English are as follows (2 – 624).
having been written
There is no gerund in the Russian language and the English gerund is rendered in Russian in different ways:
by a noun.
Dancing had not begun yet. – Танцы еще не начались (10 – 232).
by an infinitive.
He had tea with Cipriano before leaving. – Перед тем, как уйти, она выпила чай с Kиприано.
It is no good hiding our heads under our wings. – Бесполезно прятать голову под крыло. * (Here and there the translation is mine)
And without waiting for her answer he turned and left us. – И не дожидаясь ее, он повернулся и вышел.
On seeing Bella he stopped, beckoned her to him, and drew her arm through his. – Увидев Беллу, он остановился, подозвал ее к себе и взял под руку (16 – 19).
by a subordinate clause.
He regretted now having come. – Теперь он сожалел, что пришел.
It should be observed that though the active forms of the gerund may be rendered in different ways, the passive forms are nearly always rendered by a clause.
As she contemplated the wide windows and imposing signs, she became conscious of being gazed upon. – Когда она рассматривала широкие витрины и внушительные вывески, она почувствовала, что на нее смотрят.
After having been informed of the conference in my lady’s room,… he immediately decided on waiting to hear the news from Frizinghall. – После того как ему сообщили о совещании в комнате миледи,… он сразу решил подождать, чтобы узнать новости из Фризингхолла (15, 171).
The tense distinctions of the gerund
The tense destinations of the gerund, like those of the participle, are not absolute but relative.
The Indefinite Gerund Active and Passive denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb it may refer to the present, past, or future.
He can swim for any number of hours without tiring. - Он может плыть много часов подряд, не уставая.
She walked on without turning her head. – Она шла, не поворачивая головы.
Gwendolen will not rest without having the world at her feet. – Гвендолен не успокоится, пока весь мир не будет у ее ног.