Canada and tourism (42801)Посмотреть архив целиком
Canada in Brief 3
Canada as a country with developed tourism industry 4
Transportation in Canada 4
Catering service 11
Tourism industry 17
Canada is the second biggest country in the World – it takes one week non-stop to drive across the country coast to coast. Only parts of this huge territory are unhabited, as most Canadians live within 200 kilometers of the USA border.
Although one can feel the American modern life influence, Canada generally is safer and quieter than the USA. We are not allowed to carry guns! Canada has a much smaller population and more wilderness than our neighbors to the south.
Canada is very multicultural, with over 100 ethnic/linguistic minorities accounting for 40% of the population. It has always prefered multiculturalism over assimilation, but now suffers identity problems: one multicultural nation, or many different nations in one country? Quebecer and natives, respectively 25% and 2% of the population, clearly (and legally) define themselves as a nation.
The main cities are interesting and very multicultural. Forests, mountains, coastlines, islands, vast wilderness, and arctic areas are also fantastic. The central Prairies will appeal to those that love big sky view and open plains.
The West coast is great, it has beautiful nature and laid-back people, but the St. Lawrence and Great Lakes valley has more history.
The canadian Hospitality Club network, proportionally to the population size, is the most important in the Americas. Otherwise there are lots of camping grounds and cheap hostels.
The climate is cold and icy in winter except on the West Coast. In summer it is warm to hot in the south, cold in the Arctic East side, warm in the Artic west coast.
Top Things to See and Do: Vancouver and Vancouver Island, Inside Passage to Alaska, Coast Mountains, Rocky Mountains, Lake Louise, Badlands, Yukon-Whitehorse dogsledding, Toronto, Montréal, Ottawa, Québec Old walled city, Sault Ste. Marie, The Canadian Shield, Gaspésie, Mont-Tremblant. Neighboring countries: USA and Russia.
Canada in Brief
Landscape: Mountains, Prairies, Desert, Arctic Tundra, Glaciers, Valleys, Foothills, Rivers, Lakes, 9,976,000 sq km (3.9 million sq mi).
Population: 30 Million.
Capital city: Ottawa, Ontario (pop: 1,010,500).
People: British descent (28%), French descent (23%), Italian descent (3%), aboriginal peoples (2%), plus significant minorities of German, Ukrainian, Dutch, Greek, Polish and Chinese.
Languages: English, French and 53 native languages.
Religion: Catholic (45%), Protestant (36%) and minorities from most of the world's major religions.
Government: Parliamentary democracy.
Prime Minister: Paul Martin.
GDP: US$774 billion.
GDP per head: US$25,000.
Primary sectors: services 74%, manufacturing 15%, construction 5%, agriculture 3%, other 3%.
Annual growth: 3%.
Major products/industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products, petroleum and natural gas.
Major trading partners: USA, Japan, EU (UK, Germany, Netherlands), China and South Korea.
Political Divisions: Key Attractions, Transportation, Wildlife.
Canada as a country with developed tourism industry
Transportation in Canada
There are five primary modes of transportation in Canada – air, road, rail, water and pipeline. Depending on the circumstances, one mode of transportation usually dominates over the others. Air transportation is becoming increasingly important in today's world. TransCanada Airline, which began in 1937 was Canada's first airline. In its humble beginnings, it had 10 passenger airplanes and one crop duster. In 1965 the company changed its name to Air Canada, and today has 157 aircraft serving 545 destinations around the world, and is Canada's largest airline. Air Canada's main competition --Canadian Pacific Airlines --began operation in 1942. By 1969, the new airline had links to the far East, Australia, and South America. In 1968, Canadian Pacific Airlines became CP Air. In total, Canada has 515 airports with paved runways, 878 with unpaved runways and 17 heliports. Ontario alone has more than 60 airports with scheduled flights and 20 that service jet aircraft. Ontario handles 40% of Canada's national passenger traffic through the Lester B. Pearson Airport in Toronto. This airport serves 45 different countries around the world. It is also ranked fourth in North America in terms of the number of international passengers using the airport. The heliports are used primarily by Helicopter Transport Services which opened in Timmins, Ontario in 1974, and now operate throughout Canada and the United States. The helicopters are used for news broadcasts, air ambulance services, executive transport, aerial construction, police aviation and sightseeing. However, they are used most extensively in the resource sector, serving the forestry and mining companies. While airplanes are very attractive for longer journeys, most people prefer the automobile for shorter distances.
Road transportation is most competitive over small distances and offers the most spatially unrestricted form of transport in Canada. Following World War II, large sums of money were poured into the construction of a road network in Canada. In 1962, the TransCanada Highway was officially opened. At 7 821 kilometers, the TransCansda Highway is the longest national highway in the world stretching from St. John's, Newfoundland to Vancouver Island in British Columbia. The highway varies from a two-lane road to a limited access divided highway, which breaks into two different routes in northern Ontario and out west. The main southern route stays within one hour of the Canada-US border and runs along the northern shores of the Great, while the more scenic route runs farther north along wild rivers, untouched lakes, many small towns and various kinds of wildlife. At Portage- la- Prairie just west of Winnipeg, the highway breaks into two routes again with the main route crossing the southern edge of three prairie provinces and the northern route running up through Yorkton and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan where it becomes the Yellowhead Highway. Throughout its entirety, the TransCanada Highway is marked by highway signs bearing a green and white maple leaf. Mile zero is marked by a monument in Victoria on Vancouver Island. Starting here and traveling east, the highway passes through the Kicking Horse Pass in the Rocky Mountains, Kamloops and the prairies, the forests of the Canadian Shield and the Atlantic provinces.
The only province that does not have a portion of the highway is Prince Edward Island. Along with the TransCanada Highway, Canada has numerous smaller provincial highways and roads. In 1995 there was an estimated 1 million kilometers of highways in the country -- 358 371 kilometers paved and 662 629 kilometers unpaved. In Ontario, there are 72 000 kilometers of paved roads and highways, putting 40% of the total population of North America within a 24 hour drive of the province. Highway 401 is Ontario's main highway, allowing people to travel from Windsor, Ontario to Montreal, Quebec. It has a minimum of four lanes but reaches 14 lanes in Metropolitan Toronto. Secondary highways (502 - 673) exist only in northern Ontario, and are often not paved and are used to connect remote areas to major provincial roads. Tertiary highways are also exclusive to northern Ontario, are mostly gravel and connect all the remote areas that secondary highways do not reach. Territory highways have a tendency to end suddenly at a river, lake or other feature. Before highway travel and automobiles became the main ways of traveling, the train was widely used as a means of getting goods and people from one place to another.
The first railway began operation in 1854 and was the primary method of moving unprocessed resources from remote areas to industrial centers. In 1881, Canada's first transcontinental railway -- the Canadian Pacific Railroad -- was established by a Calgary-based company. This railroad covers 25, 000 square kilometers and connects the Atlantic and Pacific coasts with the interior of North America. It links major Canadian cities and 16 Midwest and northeastern US states. Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) is a freight railway that transports food (sugar, canned goods, molasses, fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables etc.), consumer manufactured products (firebrick, concrete, girders, household appliances, rubber, cotton etc.), and also handles larger volumes of two-way traffic within North America for importers and exporters. The second transcontinental railway in Canada is the Canadian National Railway (CNR) . Established between 1917 - 1923, the railway incorporates the Old Grand Trunk Railway, Grand Trunk Pacific, Intercolonial, Canadian Northern and National Transcontinental Railway. CNR connects Halifax in the east to Vancouver and Prince Rupert in the west with the Gulf Coast through Chicago and New Orleans. Covering some 72 963 kilometers of track, the railway has more than 85, 000 railcars and carries mainly coal, grain and petroleum. Canada also has railways that specialize in passenger transport.
Canadian Passenger Rail Service provides rail transport to many places in Canada through its connections with other passenger train companies in the country. The Algoma Central Railway provides passenger service from Sault St. Marie to Hearst, while AMT operates in Montreal. The Ontario Northland Railway offers travel from North Bay up to Moosonee and the Quebec North Shore and Labrador, and the West Coast Express services western Canada. BC Rail is the third largest freight/passenger service train behind CNR and CPR. Formally know as the Pacific Great Eastern Railway in 1912 and the British Columbia Railway in 1972, it became known as BC Rail in 1984. It has 1 573 kilometers of line from North Vancouver to Fort Nelson and operates mainly on the west coast. VIA Rail runs trains throughout Canada on a need only basis.