Сanada and Australia in Focus (43540)

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Сanada and Australia

in Focus


Навчальний посібник

із країнознавства



Навчальний посібник „Сanada and Australia in Focus” вміщує короткі відомості про Канаду й Австралію, міфи й легенди цих країн із прозорою фабулою, різноманітні за змістом, дібрані з урахуванням сфери інтересів і потреб учнів основної школи. Запропоновані тексти ілюструють особливості суспільного життя Канади й Австралії: соціальної, історичної, релігійної та культурної сфер. У навчальному посібнику пропонується список лексичних одиниць, глосарій та словник. До кожного з автентичних текстів додаються різноманітні вправи і завдання, що дозволяють зацікавити учнів / студентів, забезпечити їхню комунікативну активність, здійснювати контроль рівня сформованості їхніх іншомовних комунікативних навичок і вмінь, надати учням / студентам можливість самостійно себе оцінити, порівняти власні навчальні досягнення.

Посібник може бути корисним для учнів загальноосвітніх навчальних закладів, студентів педагогічних факультетів університетів, вчителів і викладачів, а також для усіх тих, хто вивчає англійську мову самостійно.



Canadian and Australian Myths and Legends


The Monkey and the Crocodile


Key words and expressions:

to yell

to slap

to come up with a plan

to be greedy

to be sad and miserable

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

1. How do you think? Is it possible for monkey and crocodile to be good friends?

2. Divide into two groups. Make up a list of advantages and disadvantages to be a monkey and a crocodile. Share your ideas.

Reading

A long time ago a monkey lived in a great fig tree on the riverbank. Life was good for him. He grew big and strong eating the tree's fruit. A lot of crocodiles lived in the river and one of them watched the monkey for a long time as he ate and slept in the tree.

That monkey's heart must taste so sweet from all the fruit he eats” the crocodile thought to herself. “I want to eat it”.

She turned to her husband and said “See the big monkey up there in that tree. Bring me his heart, I want to eat it”.

Her husband looked up at the monkey in the tree and then looked at his wife.

But the monkey lives high in the tree and I’m here in the river. How can I catch him?”

I don’t care how you do it, just bring me his heart” yelled his wife, slapping the water angrily with her tail.

Her husband knew there was no way of talking her out of something, once she had made up her mind. She wouldn’t talk to him again until he brought her the monkey’s heart.

Ok, Ok, calm down, I’ll think of something, dearest” he said.

The crocodile thought and thought and finally came up with a plan.

I know what I’ll do” he said to himself. “I'll trick the monkey into riding on my back”.

The crocodile swam closer to the tree.

Hello Mr Monkey. How are you today?” he called out, smiling and trying to sound friendly. He wasn’t too bright. When he smiled he showed all his big teeth.

I'm fine, thank you” said the monkey, trying not to look scared as he stared down from the tree at the open mouth with all those big sharp teeth.

Mr Monkey, why do you only eat the fruit from that fig tree when there are so many juicy mangoes on trees on the island in the middle of the river?” asked the crocodile.

Because I can’t get across the river, the water is too deep” answered the monkey.

No problem, you can ride on my back and I'll take you over there” said the crocodile.

The monkey didn’t trust the crocodile completely, but he was greedy and he wanted to taste all those juicy mangoes on the island. So he jumped down onto the crocodile’s back.

Hold on tight and off we go” said the crocodile.

The crocodile had only swum a little way when he dived under the water.

Why did you do that?” said the monkey, spluttering and spitting out water. “I could have drowned”.

You are going to drown” said the crocodile. “I'm going to hold you under the water and kill you. My wife wants me to bring her your heart so she can eat it.”

Ah, you should have told me before we left” said the monkey. “I didn’t bring my heart with me. I don’t keep it inside me all the time because it could get knocked to pieces from all that jumping around in the tree” he said. "Take me over to the island and after I've eaten some mangoes, we'll go back to my tree and I'll get my heart for you” said the monkey.

No way, monkey” said the crocodile. "We’re going back for your heart first and then we’ll see about the mangoes.”

Fair enough, you’re the boss” said the monkey.

When they got back to the tree the monkey jumped off the crocodile’s back and ran up high into the tree.

The monkey yelled down at the crocodile “You dumb crocodile, who ever heard of anyone keeping their heart up a tree. You may be bigger than me and have lots of sharp teeth but you're not smarter than me. My heart is inside me, come up here and get it if you can”.

The crocodile realised he'd been tricked. He was sad and miserable. “This is not good. How am I ever going to explain this to my wife?” the crocodile thought to himself. “She so wanted to taste that monkey’s heart”. A tear fell down his cheek as he swam back to his wife.

Comprehension check

Put the following events (A-F) in the right order. Number them (1-6).

a. The crocodile thought and thought and finally came up with a plan.

b. The crocodile realised he'd been tricked.

c. A long time ago a monkey lived in a great fig tree on the riverbank.

d. When they got back to the tree the monkey jumped off the crocodile’s back and ran up high into the tree.

e. The monkey didn’t trust the crocodile completely, but he was greedy and he wanted to taste all those juicy mangoes on the island.

f. Her husband looked up at the monkey in the tree and then looked at his wife.


a

b

c

d

e

f



1





WRITIHG

Write an article of about 100-120 words to a school newspaper. Express your point of view on the legend.


The River Snake


Key words and expressions:

distant

to stand in doubt

years passed away

an oath

brother-in-law

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

1. Work in small groups. Make a list of words and word combinations which can characterize a snake. Compare your list with other groups.

Reading

Once upon a time a certain woman had been on a visit to a distant village. As she was going home she reached the bank of a flooded river. She tried to wade across but soon found that the water was too deep and the current too strong. She looked about but could see no signs of a boat or any means of crossing. It began to grow dark, and the woman was in great distress at the thought that she would not be able to reach her home. While she thus stood in doubt, suddenly out of the river came a great snake and said to her, "Woman, what will you give me if I ferry you across the river?" She answered, "Snake, I have nothing to give you."

The snake said, "I cannot take you across the river unless you promise to give me something." Now the woman at the time was pregnant and not knowing what else to do, she promised that when her child was born, if it were a daughter she would marry her to the river snake, and if it were a son that, when the boy grew up he should become the name friend of the snake. The woman swore to do this with an oath, and the snake took her on his back and bore her safely across the flooded stream. The woman safely reached her home, and in a little time a daughter was born to her.

Years passed away, and the woman forgot all about the snake and her oath. One day she went to the river to fetch water, and the snake came out of the stream and said to her, "Woman, where is the wife whom you promised to me?" The woman then remembered her oath, and going back to her house she returned to the river with her daughter. When the girl came to the bank of the river, the snake seized her and drew her underneath the water, and her mother saw her no more.

The girl lived with the snake at the bottom of the river, and in the course of years bore him four snake sons. Afterwards the girl remembered her home, and one day she went to visit her mother. Her brothers when they came home were astonished to see her and said, "Sister, we thought that you were drowned in the river." She answered, "No, I was not drowned, but I am married and have children." The brothers said, "Where is this brother-in-law of ours?" Their sister said, "Go to the river and call him." So they went to the river and called, and the snake came up out of the water and went to their house with them. Then they welcomed the snake and gave him great quantities of rice beer to drink. After drinking this the snake became sleepy and went to sleep. Then the brothers who did not like a snake brother-in-law took their axes and cut off the head of the snake while he slept, and afterwards their sister lived in their house.

Comprehension check

Read the statements (1-8) that follow the text and decide if they are TRUE or FALSE according to what the text says. Mark your answers (x) in the table after the statements. An example has already been given for you.


Statements

TRUE

FALSE

Once upon a time a certain man had been on a visit to a distant village.


x

The woman promised that when her child was born, if it were a daughter she would become a sister to the river snake.



The woman was in great distress at the thought that she would not be able to reach her home.



One day the women went to the river to swim, and the snake came out of the stream.



Years passed away, and the woman forgot all about the snake and her oath.



The woman safely reached her home, and in a little time a daughter and a son were born to her.



The girl lived with the snake near the river.



The brothers welcomed the snake and gave him great quantities of wine to drink.




WRITIHG

Write what happened after the following:

a. It began to grow dark, and the woman was in great distress at the thought that she would not be able to reach her home.

b. Years passed away, and the woman forgot all about the snake and her oath.

c. The girl lived with the snake at the bottom of the river, and in the course of years bore him four snake sons.


Coyote and the Rock


Key words and expressions:

a blanket

to rumble

to stretch out

to squash

to howl

a witch

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

1. Tell what do you know about coyotes. Where do they live? How do they look like?

2. What are the differences between coyotes and wolves?

Reading

One sunny day Coyote and Fox were out walking up a hill together. They were warm and decided to stop for a rest. Coyote pointed to a large smooth rock in front of them and said, "that's a good looking rock. Let's rest there." He spread his blanket over the rock and they lay down. When they were ready to move on again, Coyote decided he was tired of carrying his blanket. It was too heavy on this fine day.

He spoke to the rock. "Thank you for letting us rest on you Rock. I'm leaving my blanket as a present, to protect you from the rain and the snow".

Coyote and Fox set off down the hill on the other side. They hadn't gone far when the Sun hid behind the clouds and large drops of rain fell.

Coyote said "Fox, go and get my blanket back from Rock. We need it now". Fox went back to Rock and asked for the blanket. "No!" said Rock in his deep voice. "This was a present and I need it to protect me from the rain".

Coyote was angry when Fox told him what Rock had said. He ran back up the hill.

"Rock, you are ungrateful and selfish. All these years you've been lying here with nothing to protect you - a few more drops of rain won't harm you. I am cold and getting wet and I need this blanket." And he snatched it back. Coyote and Fox sat under the blanket, keeping warm and dry. Rock was cold and wet. When the rain stopped, Sun peeked out from behind the clouds to see if anyone had missed him. Then the ground began to rumble and a crashing sound came from over the top of the hill.

"Fox, go and see what is making the ground rumble" said Coyote.

Fox rushed up to the top of the hill, then ran back down screaming "Coyote! Quick run! Run! Rock is coming to take back the blanket".

Fox leapt into a nearby Badger hole. But it was to small and the tip of his tail stuck out. Rock rolled over the hole and squashed the furry tip, turning it white. Even today Fox's tail still has a white tip. Coyote ran as fast as he could, his tail stretched out behind him. Reaching the river, he swam to the other side. "I'm safe now" he said. "Rock can't swim. He'll sink to the bottom if he follows me".

Rock rolled into the river and started swimming. Coyote's jaw dropped open in surprise. He scrambled up the bank and ran off again, heading for the forest.

"These big trees will protect me" he panted.

Rock smashed and crashed his way through the forest, knocking down trees in his path.

"Go away Coyote, before Rock kills us all," shouted the trees.

Coyote ran from the forest, down onto the prairie where he saw two bears.

"Help me! Help me!" he howled. "Rock is chasing me."

"We will stop him" growled the Bears.

The first Bear put out one paw to stop Rock, and his paw was broken.

"Yeeoow!" he cried in pain.

The second Bear put out both paws but Rock rolled right over him, squashing him as thin as a pancake. Coyote ran on until he saw some Buffalo grazing.

"Help me!" he howled. "Rock is chasing me".

The Buffalo lowered their horns and charged at Rock. Rock cracked their heads and kept rolling.

"Oooh! My head hurts" moaned one of the Buffalo. Coyote ran on until he saw two old women talking outside their lodge. They were holding stone hatchets.

"Help me!" he howled. "Rock is chasing me".

He ran up and hid behind the women and when Rock reached them they hit him with their hatchets, shattering Rock into thousands of tiny pieces. Coyote fell on the ground, exhausted. The two women started whispering, but he could hear what they said.

"Coyote is so plump and juicy, he will go well in our cooking pot".

Frightened, Coyote realised they were witches. He had to do something fast or they would eat him for dinner that night! Thinking that he was too tired to run again, the witches went inside their lodge to get their cooking pot.

Coyote noticed their water jugs outside the door. He jumped up, emptied the water out, then lay down again. When the witches came out again he said "I need a drink of water after all that running".

The witches pointed to the jugs.

"There's plenty there Coyote. Help yourself".

He turned one of the jugs upside down.

"They're empty. I'll go down to the river and fill them for you".

The witches believed him. When he was out of sight, Coyote laughed, dropped the jugs and ran away as fast as he could. When the witches realised they had been tricked, they became angry and blamed each other. They shouted louder and louder and finally hit each other on the head with their stone hatchets. They dropped down dead and that was the end of the witches.

Comprehension check

Some words are missing from the text. Choose the most appropriate answer from the box for each gap (1-6) in the text. Do not change the words. There is one word which you do not need to use.


large, on, out, heavy, rock, warm


One sunny day Coyote and Fox were _____ walking up a hill together. They were ______ and decided to stop for a rest. Coyote pointed to a _____ smooth rock in front of them and said, "that's a good looking rock. Let's rest there." He spread his blanket over the _____ and they lay down. When they were ready to move ______ again, Coyote decided he was tired of carrying his blanket. It was too ______ on this fine day.

WRITIHG

Into the box below write the words and word combinations which can characterize a rock and a coyote.


a rock

a coyote




Coyote Brings Fire


Key words and expressions:

to guard

to share

a fire being

a cunning smile

slyly

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

What legends about fire and Fire Beings do you know? Relate them to your classmates.

Reading

Long ago, the Fire Beings were the only people who had fire. They guarded it closely and wouldn't share it with other tribes or animals. This didn't matter so much in spring and summer, but in winter many young children and old people died from the icy cold. Just before the next winter, some of the animals called a meeting.

"We can't let our children and grandparents die from the cold this year," said Squirrel.

"We have to get fire from the Fire Beings to keep warm."

"How can we do that?" asked Chipmunk. "The Fire Beings won't share it with us".

"Let's ask Coyote for help" said Frog. "He's crafty and cunning, and he'll know how to get fire".

Coyote listened and thought about the problem. Then he smiled a cunning smile.

"There is a way to get fire from the selfish Fire Beings" he said.

"How? How can we do that?" asked Chipmunk

"We'll take it!" answered Coyote slyly. "I have a plan. Follow me!"

Coyote lead the animals to the Fire Beings' camp on top of the mountain. The others hid in the bushes while Coyote walked into the camp.

"Who's there?" screeched one of the Beings. "Someone's trying to steal our fire".

"It's all right," hissed another. "It's only an old moth eaten coyote".

"Huummph! Moth eaten indeed," thought Coyote, but he didn't say anything.

He lay down by the fire and pretended to go to sleep, keeping one eye half open. Three Fire Beings sat nearby. One was huge and ugly - with a small bald head and big rolls of fat around his stomach. Snot dripped in long slimy strands from his nose. The other two were old hags, with eyes like red stones and clawed hands like a vulture.

After a few minutes, a banging noise started in the bushes. It was Coyote's friends.

"What's that horrible noise?" cried the fat ugly Fire Being. "Who's there?"

The three of them went to investigate. Seeing his chance, Coyote snatched up a glowing piece of fire and ran off down the mountain as fast as he could. Realising they had been tricked, the two hags screamed and chased after him. The big fat bald Fire Being just stood there, with more snot dripping from his nose. The hags were old, but they could run like the wind. They nearly caught Coyote. One of them stretched out her claws and touched the tip of his tail. The heat turned the hairs white. Coyote threw the fire into the air towards Squirrel. She caught it in her tail and scampered off over stumps and boulders. The fire scorched her so badly, that her tail curled up over her back. She was almost caught, until Chipmunk bounded up beside her.

"Me! Me! Throw it to me!"

Catching the fire, Chipmunk turned to run. One of the hags clawed her back leaving three stripes down it. Chipmunk threw the fire to Frog, but one of the Beings grabbed his tail.

"Let me go!" yelled Frog.

He squirmed and struggled so much that his eyeballs bulged and he thought his heart would burst. With one last mighty leap he tore himself free, leaving his beautiful long tail behind, still wriggling in the hag's claw. Frog threw the fire to Wood and Wood swallowed it. The Fire Beings hit Wood and kicked him and cut him with their knives, but still Wood didn't spit out the fire. At last the hags gave up and went home, mumbling to themselves: "Oh dear, I think I broke a nail". "Never mind. We'll have frog's tail soup tonight." "Mmm! That sounds nice".

Coyote called all the animals together to teach them how to get the fire from Wood.

"Fire is a gift for everyone. If you rub two dry sticks of Wood together very fast Wood will get itchy and give you some fire. From now on you will be warm in winter".

"I told you Coyote was cunning" said Frog.

"Yes, but I wonder what frog's tail soup tastes like?" asked Squirrel.

And that is why today, Coyote's tail has a white tip, squirrel's tail curls around over her back, chipmunk's coat has white stripes and frog has no tail. But everyone is warm in winter.

Comprehension check

Some words are missing from the text. Choose the most appropriate answer from the box for each gap (1-8) in the text. Do not change the words. There is one word which you do not need to use.


Chipmunk, fat, tricked, Squirrel, investigate, old, Coyote, claws


The three of them went to ________. Seeing his chance, Coyote snatched up a glowing piece of fire and ran off down the mountain as fast as he could. Realising they had been _______, the two hags screamed and chased after him. The big ______ bald Fire Being just stood there, with more snot dripping from his nose. The hags were ______, but they could run like the wind. They nearly caught ________. One of them stretched out her ______ and touched the tip of his tail. The heat turned the hairs white. Coyote threw the fire into the air towards ________. She caught it in her tail and scampered off over stumps and boulders. The fire scorched her so badly, that her tail curled up over her back. She was almost caught, until _____ bounded up beside her.

WRITIHG

Work in pairs. Compose 10 questions on the text and ask your partner.


Why Bat Has no Friends


Key words and expressions:

a claw

a beak

vigorously

to hold a council

to nod in agreement

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

How do you think? What shall we do to have a lot of friends? Do you have friends? How to be a good friend? Share your ideas.

Reading

Many years ago there was a great war between the birds and the animals. No-one knows why. It just happened. The creatures with wings flew to the battle site and made their camp. Those who had legs, walked there. Bat joined the birds.

"Hey, I've got wings. So I must be a bird. And there are more of us, so we should win!" The first battle was long and hard, but gradually slashing claws and tearing teeth began to win over beaks and wings. Bat could see that the birds were losing so he hid behind a bush. When the battle was over the animals walked back towards their camp.

"Man, did we kick those birds' butts or what?" said Buffalo, spitting out a few feathers.

"Yeah! We kicked their butts" cried Bat in his high pitched voice.

The animals stopped. "What are you doing with us?" shouted Beaver, slapping the ground hard with his big, flat tail. "You've got wings. You're with the other side."

"Yeah, that's right" growled Bear. "And I'm going to eat you!"

"Guys! Guys! Get Real!" said Bat, pointing into his mouth. "When have you ever seen a bird with teeth? Of course I'm one of you!"

"I suppose so," grumbled Bear.

The next day there was to be another battle and Bat walked to the site with the animals.

"Let's rip their beaks off!" he yelled.

This time the birds flew as an army with the sun behind them, its bright light blinding the animals. Tearing talons and flapping wings tore into furry bodies. The birds were winning. Again Bat hid behind a bush. When it was all over and the birds started to fly back to their camp, Bat silently joined them.

"That was a good victory today", said Eagle.

"Yeah! We kicked their butts" shouted Bat.

"Hold on" said Crow. "You were with the other side."

"Guys! Guys! Get Real" said Bat. "When have you ever seen an animal with wings like mine? Of course I'm one of you." He flapped his wings vigorously.

"I suppose so", said Eagle.

And that's how it was in each battle. When Bat saw that the side he was on was going to lose, he pretended he was on the other side. Eventually the birds and animals got tired of fighting each other. They all came together while their Chiefs held a council of truce to decide how things would be settled. It was very difficult for Bat to pretend that he belonged to both sides. The Chiefs knew what he had done.

"Friends should always help each other and not pretend to be one thing when they are another" they said. "Bat has wings, but he is not a bird. He has teeth, but he is not an animal. From now on, Bat will only fly at night when other birds are asleep and the animals are hunting."

All the creatures nodded in agreement.

"You will always be alone, Bat. You will never have a friend among the creatures that fly or from those that walk!"

And that's why Bat always flies at night and doesn't have any friends.

Comprehension check

  1. Give an outline of the legend.

  2. Retell the legend as if you were a bat.

WRITIHG

Write what happened after the following:

  1. The next day there was to be another battle ... .

  2. They all came together while their Chiefs held a council of truce ... .

  3. From now on, Bat will only fly at night ... .


Spider, Hare and the Moon


Key words and expressions:

to be afraid

a moonbeam

a sunbeam

gloomily

a web

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

How do you think? What is the meaning of this sentence? «Spider is still carefully carrying Moon's message and spinning the web in the corner of our rooms - but how many of us listen?». Try to explain.

Reading

Moon was sad. She had spent many years looking at the people on Earth and she saw that they were afraid. They were afraid of dying. To make them feel better she decided to call on her friend Spider to take a message to them.

"Spider", She said, "The people of Earth are afraid of dying and that makes me very sad. Please tell them that they will all die sooner or later but it is nothing to be scared of."

So Spider slowly made his way back to Earth, carefully picking his way down on moonbeams and sunbeams. On his way he met Hare.

"Where are you going Spider?", said Hare.

"I am going to give the people of Earth a message from Moon.", he said.

"Oh, you'll be far too long. Tell me the message and I'll take it there for you", replied Hare.

"OK! Moon wants the people of Earth to know that they will all die......", Spider started.

"Right! Tell the people of Earth that they will all die", said Hare. And with that, Hare disappeared off to Earth.

Spider gloomily made his way back to Moon and told Her what had happened. Moon was very cross with Hare and when he came back to tell them that he had given them the message, she hit him on the nose! And that is why to this day, the Hare has a split lip.

"You had better take the message yourself", said Moon to Spider.

And to this day, Spider is still carefully carrying Moon's message and spinning the web in the corner of our rooms - but how many of us listen?

Comprehension check

1. Put the following events (A-D) in the right order/ Number them (1-4).

A. "Where are you going Spider?", said Hare.

B. Moon was sad.

C. And with that, Hare disappeared off to Earth.

D. She said, "The people of Earth are afraid of dying and that makes me very sad.

WRITIHG

Think a little and write your attitude to this myth.


The Crow and Its Ugly Fledglings


Key words and expressions:

a fledgling

a gift

one by one

a brood

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

How do you think what does it mean?

«Just so are all mothers. No other child is so beautiful in their eyes as their own».

Reading

Of all the birds the crow is considered the ugliest, especially its young fledglings. The legend tells that sometime after God had created all the living beings, he called everyone to see them and their offspring. He wanted to see how the young birds and animals looked, and then to give them suitable gifts, and food for their little ones.

They came one by one, and God looked at them, patted some and stroked others, and was very pleased with every one of them, for each one had something of beauty in it. And so he blessed them and gave them food by which to live. The last to come was the crow, bringing her little brood with her, very proud of them.

When God cast his eyes upon the young crows, he spat in astonishment, and said, "Surely these are not my creatures. I could not have made such ugly things. Every one of my creatures has such beautiful young ones that they are a pleasure to look at, but yours are so ugly that it makes one sick to look at them. Where did you get this one?"

"Where should I get them from?" replied the crow. "It is my very own young child," she added with pride.

"You had better go back and bring me another one. This is much too ugly. I cannot look at it."

Annoyed at the words of God, the crow went away and flew all over the earth to search for another young one that would be more beautiful than the one she had brought to God. But no other young bird appeared so beautiful in her eyes as her own. So she returned back to God and said, "I have been all over the world, and I have searched high and low, but young birds more beautiful and more dainty than mine I have not been able to find."

Then God smilingly replied, "Quite right. Just so are all mothers. No other child is so beautiful in their eyes as their own."

Then he blessed the little crows and sent them away into the world with his gifts.

Comprehension check AND WRITIHG

Making a spider. Find out as many words as you can to describe a crow and make the spider bigger.




Why Is there Enmity Between the Crow and the Hawk?


Key words and expressions:

to rear

a nest

to beg

woe

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

Find out the differences between two words FRIENDSHIP and FELLOWSHIP. Try to explain them.

Reading

The crow was in very great distress, for however she tried and whatever she did, she could not rear a family. No sooner were the young hatched, than the hawk would come and pick them up. In vain did she try to hide her nest in the hollows of a tree or in the thickets of a bush. As sure as death would the hawk find them and eat them.

Not knowing what to do, she bethought herself and said, "How would it do if I try and get the hawk to be godmother? For then, being a near relation, she is sure to spare my little ones."

Said and done. She went out of her place to search for the hawk, and finding her, she said, "Good morning, sister."

"Good morning," replied the hawk.

"How pleased I should feel," said the crow, "if you would become godmother to my children."

"With pleasure," replied the hawk. "Why not?" And so they made up a covenant of friendship and of good fellowship between them.

Before leaving the hawk, the crow said to her, "Now, sister, I have one request to make."

"Granted," replied the hawk. "What is it?"

"I only beg of you to spare my children. Do not eat them when you have found them."

"All right," replied the hawk. "I shall certainly not touch them. But tell me how they look, so that in case I meet them, I may spare them."

"Oh," replied the crow, "mine are the most beautiful creatures in the world. They are more lovely than any other bird can boast of."

"Very well. Rest assured. Go in peace." And they parted.

The crow, being quite satisfied with the hawk's promise, began flying about the next day trying to find something with which to feed her children. The hawk the next morning went about her own business and tried to find some nice little young ones to eat. Flying about, she saw the young ones of the thrush, the blackbird, and of other beautiful birds, and she said to herself, "Surely these are the children of the crow. Look how lovely and beautiful they are. I am not going to touch them."

She went all day without finding any little birds but these. And she said to herself, "I must keep my word to my sister. I am not going to touch them." And she went to bed hungry. The next day the same thing happened, and still the hawk kept her word and would not touch them.

On the third day she was so hungry that she could scarcely see out of her eyes. Roaming about, the hawk suddenly lighted upon the nest of the crow. Seeing the little, miserable, ugly things in the nest, the hawk at first would not touch them, although she never dreamt that these ugly things were the children of the crow, so much praised by her for their beauty, and thought they must belong to some hideous bird. But what is one to do when one is hungry? One eats what one gets, and not finding anything better, she sat down and gobbled them up one by one, and then flew away.

Not long after the hawk had left, the crow came in, feeling sure this time to find her little ones unhurt. But how great was her dismay when she found the nest empty! First she thought the little birds had tried their wings and were flying about in the neighbourhood, and she went in search of them. Not finding them, she began to be a little more anxious, and hunting a little more closely, found on the ground near some rushes some tufts of feathers with little bones and blood. She knew at once that the hawk had again been there, feeding on her children.

Full of wrath and fury, she went to find the hawk. Meeting her, she said, "A nice sister and godmother you are! After you had promised most faithfully not to touch my children, no sooner had I turned my back on them, then you come again and eat them."

"I do not understand what you are saying," replied the hawk. "It is your own fault. You told me your children were the most beautiful in the world, and those which I have eaten were monsters of hideousness. If I had not felt the pinch of hunger so strong, I would not have touched them, not for anything, such ugly things they were! They nearly made me sick."

"Is that the way you keep your promise?" replied the angry crow. "After having eaten them, you even have the impudence to tell lies and insult me. Off with you! And woe betide you if I ever catch you, I will teach you to behave properly."

From that day on, the hawk, if it gets near the crows, attacks them. And from that day on there is implacable hatred between the crows and the hawks.

Comprehension check

Work in pairs. Retell the legend as if you were the crow and your partner as a hawk.

WRITIHG

Put 10 different questions on the text.


The Coffee Mill which Grinds Salt


Key words and expressions:

to be about to die

to grind a wish

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

How do you think? Why does the water in seas and in oceans have a salt taste? Try to explain.

Reading

There was once a little boy by the name of Dan. As his parents died while he was very young, his grandmother took care of him and taught him reading and writing, and to be a good boy.

When she became very old, and thought she was about to die, she called the little boy to her and said, "I am old, Dan, and may not live long. You were always a good boy, and therefore you shall have my only treasure, a coffee mill which I have always kept at the bottom of my old chest. This coffee mill will grind all that you wish. If you say to it, 'Grind a house, little mill,' it will work away, and there the house will stand. When you say, 'Stop, little mill,' it will cease to grind."

Dan thanked his grandmother kindly, and when she died, and he was alone in the world, he opened the chest, took the coffee mill, and went out into the world.

When he had walked a long distance, and needed something to eat, he placed the mill on the grass and said, "Grind some bread and butter, little mill." Very soon Dan had all that he needed, and then he bid the mill to stop.

The next day he came to a large seaport, and when he saw the many vessels, he thought it would be pleasant to see more of the great world. He therefore boarded one of the ships and offered his service to the sailors. As it just happened that the captain needed a boy of Dan's age, he told him to stay.

As soon as the ship was out of port, the sailors commenced abusing Dan. He bore the harsh treatment as well as he could, and when he had nothing to eat the mill ground all that he wished. The bad men wondered how he could always be contented, although they gave him but little to eat. One day one of them peeped through a hole in the cabin door and discovered how the coffee mill served him.

Now the sailors offered a large sum of money to Dan if he would sell his treasure. He refused, however, saying that it was all that his good old grandmother had left him. So one day these wicked men threw Dan overboard and seized the mill. As they were in need of some salt, they bid it grind for them. The mill immediately began its work, and soon they had enough. Now they asked it to stop, but as the one who had peeped through the hole into the boy's cabin had not learned the exact command, the mill refused to obey, and before long the ship was filled with salt.

The men grew desperate, but none of them was able to find a way out of the difficulty. So at length the ship sank down with the mill, the salt, and all the wicked men. The men were drowned, but the mill is yet standing at the bottom of the sea, grinding away, and for this reason the water in the ocean has and always will have a salt taste.

Comprehension check

Read the statements (1-5) that follow the text and decide if they are TRUE or FALSE according to what the text says. Mark your answers (x) in the table after the statements.


Statements

TRUE

FALSE

There was once a little boy by the name of Dan.



Dan’s grandfather took care of him and taught him reading and writing, and to be a good boy.



He opened the chest, took the coffee mill, and went out into the world.



One day the captain through a hole in the cabin door and discovered how the coffee mill served him.



The mill is yet standing at the bottom of the sea, grinding away, and for this reason the water in the ocean has and always will have a salt taste.




WRITIHG

Write an article of about 80-100 words to express your point of view on the legend.


Why Sea Water Is Salty


Key words and expressions:

to limp

misfortune

fare well

a comrade

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

What do you think are the best and the worst things to have a magic mill which can grind all you ever wish?

Reading

Once upon a time there was a dear, brave boy who had nothing on earth but a blind grandmother and a clear conscience. After finishing school he became a ship's boy and was about to begin his first journey. He saw that all his new comrades were gambling with good money, but he had nothing, not even a penny. This saddened him, and he complained to his grandmother. She thought for a while, then limped into her room and returned with a small mill, which she gave to the boy, saying, "If you say to the mill, 'Mill, mill, grind for me; grind this or that for me at once!' then it will grind for you whatever you want. And when you say, 'Mill, mill, stand still, for I want nothing more!' then it will stop grinding. But say nothing about this, or it will bring you misfortune!"

The boy thanked her, said farewell, and boarded his ship. When his comrades again began to gamble with their money, he took his mill into a dark corner and said, "Mill, mill, grind for me; grind golden ducats for me at once!" and the mill ground out ducats of pure gold that fell ringing into his leather cap.

When the cap was full he said, "Mill, mill, stand still, for I want nothing more!" and it stopped grinding. He was now the richest of all his comrades.

The ship's captain was very miserly, and whenever there was not enough to eat, the boy had only to say, "Mill, mill, grind for me; grind fresh bread for me at once!" and it would grind away until he said the other words. The mill ground out anything for him that he wanted.

His comrades often asked him how he got these good things, but he said only that he was not at liberty to tell them. However, they continued to press him, until at last he told them the whole story.

It was not long before the evil ship's captain got wind of this, and he immediately hatched a plot. One evening he called the boy into his cabin and said, "Fetch your mill and grind out some fresh chickens for me!"

The boy went and brought back a basket full of fresh chickens, but the godless man was not satisfied. He beat the poor boy until he brought the mill to him and told him what he had to say to make it grind. However, the boy did not tell him how to make it stop, and the captain did not think to ask him about this.

Afterward when the boy was standing alone on deck, the captain went to him and pushed him into the sea, not thinking at all about how much care and concern his father and mother had given for him, nor how his blind grandmother was hoping for his return. He pushed him into the sea, then said that he accidentally had fallen overboard, thinking that this was the end of the story.

Then he went into his cabin and said to the mill, "Mill, mill, grind for me; grind salt for me at once!" and the mill ground out grains of pure white salt.

When the bowl was full the ship's captain said, "That is enough!" but the mill continued to grind forth. Whatever the captain said or did, the mill ground away until the entire cabin was full. He took hold of the mill to throw it overboard, but received such a blow that he fell to the floor as though stunned. The mill continued to grind forth until the entire ship was full and was beginning to sink.

Finally the ship's captain grabbed his sword and chopped the mill into tiny pieces; but behold, every little piece became a little mill, and all the mills ground out grains of pure white salt.

It was soon over for the ship. It sank with man and mouse and all the mills. These are still grinding out grains of pure white salt at the bottom of the sea. And even if you were to shout out the correct command, they are so deep that they would not hear it. And that is why seawater is so salty.

Comprehension check

  1. Give an outline of the legend.

  2. Describe the boy. How does he look like? Is he greedy? Is he brave?

WRITIHG

Write who said the following

1. "If you say to the mill, 'Mill, mill, grind for me; grind this or that for me at once!' then it will grind for you whatever you want. (_______).

2. "Mill, mill, grind for me; grind golden ducats for me at once!" (_______).

3. "Mill, mill, grind for me; grind fresh bread for me at once!" (_______).

4. "Fetch your mill and grind out some fresh chickens for me!" (_______).

5. "That is enough!" (_______).


The Girl and the Snake


Key words and expressions:

a herd

to get lost

handsome

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

Find out the words to describe your feeling if you ever met a huge snake. What would you do?

Reading

Once upon a time there was a girl who was supposed to go into the woods and bring home the cattle, but she could not find the herd. She got lost and came to a large mountain with gates and doors. She went inside. A table was standing there, set with all kinds of things to eat. There was also a bed there, and a large snake was lying on it. It said to the girl, "Have a seat, if you want to. Come and lie down in this bed, if you want to! But if you don't want to, it's all right!"

The girl did not do any of this.

Finally the snake said, "People are coming now who want to dance with you, but don't go with them."

Soon afterward people did come, and they wanted to dance with the girl, but she would have nothing to do with them. Then they began to eat and drink. The girl left the mountain and went home again.

The next day she went into the woods again to look for her herd, but she could not find what she was looking for. Instead, she got lost again and came to the same mountain. She went inside again and found everything the same as the first time: a set table and the bed with the snake. It said to her, as the time before, "Have a seat, if you want to! Eat, if you want to! Come and lie down in this bed, if you want to! But if you don't want to, it's all right. Now a lot more people are coming who want to dance with you, but do not go with them."

The snake had barely finished talking when a lot more people came, and they began to dance and to eat and drink. The girl had nothing to do with them, but instead left the mountain and went home.

On the third day she went into the woods again, and the same thing happened to her as on the previous days. The snake invited her to eat and drink, which she did with a good appetite. After that the snake asked her to lie down next to it, and the girl did that as well.

Then the snake said, "Hold me in your arm!" She did it. "Kiss me!" said the snake. "If you are afraid, just put your apron between us!"

The girl did it, and in that instant the snake turned into a handsome young man. In reality he was a prince who had been bewitched into this form through magic, but the girl's courage had saved him. Of course, the two of them went away, and since then they have never been heard from again.

Comprehension check

Complete the sentences

Once upon a time there was... .

There was also a bed there, and a large ... .

Finally the snake said, "People are coming now who want to dance with you... .

The snake had barely finished talking when a lot more people came ... .

The girl did it, and in that instant the snake turned into... .

WRITIHG

Make up a plan of the legend covering its main events.


Old Sultan


Key words and expressions:

to be no longer of any use

to fill pity

to be of good cheer

a scoundrel

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

Discuss. What do you know about dogs and wolves?

Reading

A farmer had a faithful dog named Sultan, who had grown old and lost all his teeth, and could no longer hold onto anything. One day the farmer was standing with his wife before the house door, and said, "Tomorrow I intend to shoot Old Sultan. He is no longer of any use."

His wife, who felt pity for the faithful animal, answered, "He has served us so long, and been so faithful, that we might well give him his keep."

"What?" said the man. "You are not very bright. He doesn't have a tooth left in his mouth, and no thief is afraid of him. He can go now. If he has served us, he has eaten well for it."

The poor dog, who was lying stretched out in the sun not far off, heard everything, and was sorry that tomorrow was to be his last day. He had a good friend, the wolf, and he crept out in the evening into the forest to him, and complained of the fate that awaited him.

"Listen, kinsman," said the wolf, "be of good cheer. I will help you out of your trouble. I have thought of something. Tomorrow, early in the morning, your master is going with his wife to make hay, and they will take their little child with them, for no one will be left behind in the house. While they are at work they lay the child behind the hedge in the shade. You lie down there too, just as if you wanted to guard it. Then I will come out of the woods, and carry off the child. You must run swiftly after me, as if you would take it away from me. I will let it fall, and you will take it back to its parents, who will think that you have rescued it, and will be far too grateful to do you any harm. On the contrary, you will be treated royally, and they will never let you want for anything again."

This idea pleased the dog, and it was carried out just as planned. The father screamed when he saw the wolf running across the field with his child, but when Old Sultan brought it back, he was full of joy, and stroked him and said, "Not a hair of yours shall be hurt. You shall eat free bread as long as you live."

And to his wife he said, "Go home at once and make Old Sultan some bread soup that he will not have to bite. And bring the pillow from my bed. I will give it to him to lie on. From then on Old Sultan was as well off as he could possibly wish.

Soon afterwards the wolf visited him, and was pleased that everything had succeeded so well. "But, kinsman," he said, "you will just close one eye if, when I have a chance, I carry off one of your master's fat sheep."

"Don't count on that," answered the dog. "I will remain true to my master. I cannot agree to that."

The wolf thought that this was not spoken in earnest, and he crept up in the night to take away the sheep. But the farmer, to whom the faithful Sultan had told the wolf's plan, was waiting for him and combed his hair cruelly with a flail. The wolf had to flee, but he cried out to the dog, "Just wait, you scoundrel. You'll regret this."

The next morning the wolf sent the boar to challenge the dog to come out into the forest and settle the affair. Old Sultan could find no one to be his second but a cat with only three legs, and as they went out together the poor cat limped along, stretching its tail upward with pain.

The wolf and his friend were already at the appointed place, but when they saw their enemy coming, they thought that he was bringing a saber with him, for they mistook the cat's outstretched tail for one. And when the poor animal hopped on three legs, they thought that each time it was picking up a stone to throw at them. Then they took fright. The wild boar crept into the underbrush and the wolf jumped up a tree.

As the dog and the cat approached, they wondered why no one was to be seen. The wild boar, however, had not been able to hide himself completely in the leaves. His ears were still sticking out. While the cat was looking cautiously about, the boar wiggled his ears, and the cat, who thought it was a mouse, jumped on it and bit down hard. The boar jumped up screaming loudly, "The guilty one is up in the tree."

The dog and cat looked up and saw the wolf, who was ashamed for having shown such fear, and who then made peace with the dog.

Comprehension check

Say which of the characters of the story you like the best. Why?

WRITIHG

Making a spider. Find out as many words as you can to describe Old Sultan and make the spider bigger.



A Bird Legend


Key words and expressions:

a pet

a totem

a calamity

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

What do you know about totems? Can they protect us from a calamity. Do you have a totem or something like that?

Reading

The aborigines sometimes kept birds and animals as pets, but in all instances that may be enquired into it is found that the pet by some mischance or peculiar trait or impulse strayed into a camp and stayed there. However, this had nothing to do with the belief in an "affinity." Nor yet the belief in and recognition of a "totem." That possibly originated in a knowledge of evolution-in the settled idea that during the ages everything has changed in form and no outstanding fact of Nature escaped being considered the beginning or the dwelling-place of an ancestor or an originator.

But something of a parody of this fundamental belief is the acceptance of an affinity in the shape of a bird or an animal that knows of its being related to a human and who acts as a protector of those of whom it is a family part. In this way the last full-blooded woman of the Cammaray people believed in the snake. She says that the black snake always indicates to her whether or not an undertaking of hers is to be successful, when a calamity is about to happen or has just happened in her immediate family, when she is personally threatened with great loss and whether or not the time be propitious for the doing of any important thing.

She tells many weird tales of warnings shown to her by her affinity. The lyre-bird, she tells, was the affinity of a man of her people away back in the time before history, and he had one as a pet. He was very proud of the fact that his bird mimicked so marvelously, and he arranged a competition. People who belonged to such birds as parrots, black cockatoos, wattle birds those with a clear, distinctive call-assembled, and they listened to the lyre-bird not only imitating, but excelling each in its own song.

One bird was not claimed by anybody, and it sat disconsolately on a limb, apparently taking no notice of the proceedings; and then, just before dark, it made its effort.

The lyre-bird, nothing loth, imitated it perfectly. But the other bird was not finished. In another key it performed again, and still in another, until the lyre-bird was bewildered. It failed to follow; therefore we may now hear the great bird mimic as we stand, say, at Echo Point in the Blue Mountains, or under the hills of the Snowy or the Cann, going through all its repertoire, imitating not only every other bird, but every sound it has ever heard. But when it comes to the laugh of one it fails. The bird it cannot properly mock is the kookaburra. The lyre-bird man of the story was discredited, and therefore in later years such men were never of much account in the eyes of their compatriots, while those of the kookaburra, though it is recognized as an affinity of a much later date, are always people of great importance.

And by some strange coincidence we have taken the kookaburra to our hearts, and we picture him much more as the bird-representative of Australia than the emu which figures as such officially.

Comprehension check

  1. Try to retell the legend in five simple sentences.

  2. Give better title for the legend.

WRITIHG

Compose ten different questions on the legend.


Why the Turtle has no Tail


Key words and expressions:

to squeeze

a sorcerer

an axe

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

Say what you know about tortoises. Do they have tails? Find out the difference between two words TORTOISE and TURTLE.

Reading

The Australian aborigines believed that the Milky Way was a "pukkan" or track, along which many spirits of departed blacks traveled to heaven, and that the dark place that we call Magellan's Cloud was a hole or split that occurred when the universe was frightfully shaken by some mighty upheaval which gave us many of the wonders of Nature, including the brilliant waratah, gorgeous caves such as Jenolan and others less magnificent, burnt patches of rock, and so on.

Legends also make mention of a hidden river, over which certain spirits have to travel to a Promised Land. This river flowed at the edge of a mighty forest, and beyond a fearful range of huge jagged mountains, at the nearer foot of which lay an extensive marshy lake, in the centre of which was an enchanted island. The natives of the South-East of Australia were very clear about the picture just described. They said that not only had some people spoken to returned men who had waded through the lake and been on the island and climbed the mountain and nearly reached the river, but they had also had amongst them at one time and another living men who had seen these fairy places and always knew that a continuous stream of spirits passed that way to the Unseen River.

Two giant trees grew on the bank, and a tortoise lay athwart it. Up to the time of this happening all tortoises and turtles had long tails. This tortoise reached from the bank just opposite the big trees, to the other.

On the journey many spirits were supposed to be in some way tempted to do evil, and succumbed to the temptation; therefore there were some fallings by the way. Some were kept floundering about in the lake itself, and these congregated on the island until they had expiated their sins, when they were allowed to go on. Others failed when climbing the mountain, and there on some barren peak they had to wait, while others remained faithful until reaching the lower level, and then were within sight of the river. But there was a test for them. They had to squeeze between the trunks of the giant trees, and then the bridge they reached was the tortoise.

Then came a time when many people quite good enough to get into heaven failed to reach the opposite bank of the river. It was known that they had got between the trees, and then all trace of them was lost; but one day a man arrived amongst the people who had been remade, and he told them his experiences.

He said that he had died and reached the tortoise on the unseen river. He stepped upon it, and was half way along it when it gave a sly jerk, and he fell off its tail into the river. He was borne along very swiftly, for it is a fast flowing stream, and suddenly he was swept underground. For a long time he was carried through deep subterranean passages, and at last he came out into sunlight. He found himself still in a river, and now it flowed between high banks, and playing in it were blacks that he knew. Some were just swimming, some were fishing, some were hiding in the rushes awaiting ducks. They did not know of his presence, though some seemed to hear him, for they suddenly became afraid and rushed off to their camp. At last he was swept into the sea, and a great wave washed him ashore. As soon as he touched land he found that he was changing. It took a long time, but at last he became a man again, and when he looked at his chest and felt his back he was aware of the scars that he 'had borne in his other existence.

Then a sorcerer came forward and proclaimed that he would undertake to go to the river and secure the passage of it for all time. He selected some other brave people, and by the aid of his sorcery he set out on the way of the spirits. He soon reached the forest, but found it full of the "little men of the bush." They barred the way of the party. Try as they would, no passage through the ranks of the "little men" could be made. So then they turned and followed the flow of the river, and that way no opposition was offered.

They came to a tree even higher than those at the crossing-place, and up that the great sorcerer climbed. From the top of it he could see the spirits stepping on to tail of the tortoise and some being shaken off. Many of these were taken by the claws of the hind feet of the beast and afterwards eaten. Others were carried down stream. The shadow of the tree was impenetrable to the "little men," and a bright star shed a beam to the tortoise.

The sorcerer saw that he must die before he could pass the little men and he and his party returned home. He sharpened again his axe. He put a sharpened bone in the fire, and scraped some of the burnt part off into his food. Then he died, and as a good spirit, he reached the giant trees, and there were no "little men" to stop him. But in their place was a great snake that reared its head and prepared to strike.

With a blow of his axe he severed the head from the body, and picking it up he squeezed between the trees and stepped on to the tail of the tortoise. When he was about half way over, just as he had seen it do to others, and just as the returned man had told it did to him, it gave a great shake. But he was wary, and with another great blow of his axe he cut the tail off. Quickly rushing to the other bank he turned and swung the axe at the head of the tortoise and that was severed too. Of this, though, he repented, and as the head swung down the stream he put the head of the snake in its place. Then the beast rolled over and sank out of sight.

And so now all tortoises and turtles have a snake's head and are tailless.

And if the last woman of the Illawarra Group, who is still living, is asked about it, and if all the points of the story are examined, it will be found that there is as much truth as fiction in it.

Those who ask, however, must have the right sympathy or they will hear nothing.

Comprehension check

  1. Discuss the main idea of the legend.

  2. Is it true or fiction?

  3. Choose the better title for the legend.

WRITIHG

Make up a plan of the legend covering its main events.



How the Stars Were Made


Key words and expressions:

a weird land

to and fro

an octopus

mangrove

swamp

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

Do you know how the stars were made? Try to imagine. Share your ideas.

Reading

Rolla-Mano was the old man of the sea. The blue ocean, with all its wonderful treasures of glistening pearls, white foam and pink coral, belonged to him. In the depths of the sea, he ruled a kingdom of shadows and strange forms, to which the light of the sun descended in green and grey beams. The forests of this weird land were many trees of brown sea-kelp, whose long arms waved slowly to and fro with the ebb and flow of the water. Here and there were patches of sea grass, fine and soft as a snow maiden's hair. In the shadow of the trees lurked a thousand terrors of the deep. In a dark rocky cave, a giant octopus spread its long, writhing tentacles in search of its prey, and gazed the while through the water with large lusterless eyes. In and out of the kelp a grey shark swam swiftly and without apparent motion, while bright-colored fish darted out of the path of danger. Across the rippled sand a great crab ambled awkwardly to its hiding place behind a white-fluted clam shell. And over all waved the long, brown arms of the sea kelp forest. Such was the kingdom of Rolla-Mano, the old man of the sea.

One day Rolla-Mano went to fish in a lonely mangrove swamp close to the sea shore. He caught many fish, and cooked them at a fire. While eating his meal he noticed two women approach him. Their beautiful bodies were as lithe and graceful as the wattle tree, and in their eyes was the soft light of the dusk. When they spoke, their voices were as sweet and low as the sighing of the night breeze through the reeds in the river. Rolla-Mano determined to capture them. With this intention he hid in the branches of the mangrove tree, and, when the women were close to him he threw his net over them. One, however, escaped by diving into the water. He was so enraged at her escape that he jumped in after her with a burning fire stick in his hand. As soon as the fire stick touched the water, the sparks hissed and scattered to the sky, where they remain as golden stars to this day.

Rolla-Mano did not capture the woman who dived into the dark waters of the swamp. After a fruitless search he returned to the shore and took the other woman to live with him for ever in the sky. She is the evening star. From her resting place, she gazes through the mists of eternity at the restless sea-the dark, mysterious kingdom of Rolla-Mano. On a clear summer night, when the sky is studded with golden stars, you will remember that they are the sparks from the fire stick of Rolla-Mano, and the beautiful evening star is the woman he captured in the trees of the mangrove swamp.

Comprehension check

Try to retell the legend in ten simple sentences.

WRITIHG

Write out all the adjectives in the text and try to memorize them.


The Sneaky Hoop Snakes


Key words and expressions:

push bike

a hoop

a cyclist

Make up sentences with new words

Reading

An Australian snake that you don't read much about in the encyclopedias. This snake has not been seen in a number of years but the myth goes something like this. In the early nineteen hundreds, children would wag school and ride around all day on their push bikes. (not much has changed since) The resourceful parents in an effort to get the children home before dark made up the story of the Hoop Snake. The Hoop Snake, it was told, would lie on the sides of the dirt roads waiting for the sounds of the children on their push bikes. Just as the unexpecting cyclist would pass, the snake would then coil up biting its own tail to make the shape of a hoop, it would then roll down the road trying to catch the cyclist. If it caught its prey it would proceed to bite heavily into the heals of its victim and no child wanted this to happen. As an result the legend of the Hoop Snake was born.

Comprehension check

  1. Retell the myth in detail.

  2. Why parents do not let their children ride push bikes after dark? What about your parents?

WRITIHG

Write an outline of the myth.


The Hungry Bush-man.


Key words and expressions:

bush-man

juicy grass

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

Work in small groups. Make a list of words and word combinations which can characterize a bush-man who lives in Australian Bush. Compare your list with other groups.

Reading

There is a sad story that sets the scene in the Australian Bush. In early days bush-men, more commonly know as swagman, went around from property to property looking for work. These bush-man would take any sort of work that was avaliable. The wool industry was booming, sheep were plentiful and shearers were needed everywhere. This particular bushy had finished his days shearing but as his employer wasn't paying wages until the wool had been sent to the markets, they would sometimes have to wait weeks for their pay. After a hard days work the bushman would find a big shady tree preferably near a water hole to unroll their swag and set up camp for the night. As night was falling the bush-man saw an ideal opportunity walking not more than thirty feet away. Grazing on some juicy grass, between some trees, just up a bit from the camp site was this plump sheep. Knowing full well that if he was able to catch this sheep his meals would be taken care of for a least the next week. The chase was on.! After he caught it he packed it neatly into his tucker bag and proceeded to put the billy on for his cuppa before bed. Unfortunately, he was blissfully unaware that the owner of the property where he was camping was watching his every move. The owner of the land would not tolerate a swaggy on his land, let alone one that was stealing from him and quickly informed the authorities. The billy was just about boiled when three burly police officers on horse back rode into his camp site. Knowing full well what he had done, the police officers asked, "Just what have you got in your tucker bag?. You'd better come a waltzing down to the police station with me".

As to why the swaggy did what he did next is a mystery but that swaggy ran and jumped straight into the water hole never to be seen again saying "You'll never catch me alive".

To this day his ghost maybe heard as you pass by that water hole.

Comprehension check

Put the following events (A-D) in the right order/ Number them (1-4).

A. Knowing full well that if he was able to catch this sheep his meals would be taken care of for a least the next week. (№____).

B. These bush-man would take any sort of work that was avaliable. (№____).

C. To this day his ghost maybe heard as you pass by that water hole. (№____).

D. After a hard days work the bush-man would find a big shady tree preferably near a water hole to unroll their swag and set up camp for the night. (№____).

WRITIHG

Compose ten different questions on the myth.


The Boogie Man


Key words and expressions:

encounter

creature

Make up sentences with new words

Reading

This myth is told on any given night in Australia, "The boogie man maybe watching". Our family had a house in my hometown Toowoomba, that was raised about three foot off the ground. My strict instructions were never to go under the house, for that was where the boogie man lived. This was a rule that I could live with as it was never really enticing to venture under there anyway. The boogie man as it turns out is more resourceful than I first imagined. Not only is he hiding under houses but as it turns out he is under your bed, in the cupboards, hiding around corners, even if you don't do your homework he appears. I specifically remember one time as I was going to the toilet (we had an outside toilet), I would run down the back stairs into the toilet and lock the door. The journey back however was my first encounter with the boogie man. Our back stairs were not covered and you could see under the house through them. It was that night that I swore that I saw him. Dark hideous black creature with bright shinny yellow eyes. I screamed with fright and my parents came running but the creature was gone. Talking to my friends I soon realized that he didn't just live only at my house, he had been sighted all over Toowoomba. Not being one to install fright, I kept this story to myself for all these years, but I keep telling my children how lucky we are to have an inside toilet.

Comprehension check

Complete the sentences.

  1. This myth is told on any given night... .

  2. Our family had a house in my hometown Toowoomba... .

  3. This was a rule that I could... .

  4. I specifically remember one time... .

  5. The journey back however was my first... .

  6. Dark hideous black ___________ with bright shinny yellow eyes.

WRITIHG

Write out all the verbs from the text and define their forms.


The Mysterious Drop Bears


Key words and expressions:

a fish trap

a mate

to whimper

Make up sentences with new words

Reading

A legend is told of two Australian bush-men on their annual cattle muster. On this particular night, after setting up camp, one of the bush-men went down to the river to check the fish traps, while the other stayed by the camp fire strumming a tune on his faithful old guitar. Just as he ended his first tune a terrifying scream rang out. Leaving the safety of the camp fire he ran down through the bush to the river to see his mate lying on the ground shaking, with claw marks all over him. After stopping the bleeding and calming his mate down, the horrible truth was revealed.

"It was a drop bear" his mate said, in a voice more like a whimper,» I just reached for the first fish trap and all of a sudden, out of that overhanging branch pounced a drop bear." "I fought as hard as I could but it was just too strong and far too fast."

"Did you get a glimpse of it?", the first bushy said.

"A bit of a one, It looked a lot like a koala, but much much meaner."

Leaving all their camping gear behind, they speedily trekked out of the bush, back to civilization to tell their story to the local authorities. Their story was duly noted and recorded, but to this day no one has ever caught a drop bear, but be assured they exist, so be very careful when walking alone in the Australian bush.

Comprehension check

  1. Retell the legend in detail.

  2. Explaine why one should be very careful when walking alone in the Australian bush.

WRITIHG

Write an outline of the legend.


The Bloody Knife


Key words and expressions:

ferocity

to slip

Make up sentences with new words

Reading

Many and many a year ago, two warriors from rival villages got into a terrible argument. Harsh words were exchanged, and then knives were pulled. The warriors battled back and forth on the banks of a small creek. They fought with the ferocity of grizzlies, tearing at each other with their knives, ripping at each others clothes and hair.

Suddenly, one of the warriors slipped on the muddy bank and fell into the waters of the creek. His bloody knife slipped from his hand and sank down and down to the bottom, landing upon a rock just beyond his reach. The warrior strained his pain-wracked body towards the knife as his blood filled the waters of the creek, but it was just beyond his fingertips. He thrashed and clawed towards his knife, desperate to reach it before his rival killed him, but no matter how he stretched, it always slipped out of reach.

On the bank above, the victorious warrior saw his rival sink into the blood-stained waters and lay still, the knife just a hair-breadth beyond his fingertips. He did not rise again. The fallen man's people found him a few hours later and tenderly rescued his body from the rippling waters of the creek. But when they tried to retrieve his bloody knife from the rock beneath him, it always slipped beyond their reach, though the creek was not deep.

Many and many a year has passed since that bloody day by the creek, and still the blood-stained knife lies beneath the rippling waters of the creek. Whenever anyone tries to reach it, the knife slips out of reach. It is like trying to touch something on the bottom of the sea, although the creek itself is not deep. Even the rushing waters of the spring season do not move the mysterious knife or wash away the blood staining its blade. For this reason, the creek is called Wokun - meaning "knife" and the white men call it "Bloody Creek".

Comprehension check

  1. What do you think about the legend? Could it to be true?

  2. Try to find another title to the myth.

  3. Retell the text.

WRITIHG

Write an outline of the legend.


Why the Crow Is Black


Key words and expressions:

noonday

to wade

to spare

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

What do you know about crows and hawks? Who is the best hunter? Why is the crow black?

Reading

One day, a crow and a hawk hunted together in the bush. After traveling together for some time, they decided to hunt in opposite directions, and, at the close of the day, to share whatever game they had caught. The crow traveled against the sun, and at noonday arrived at a broad lagoon which was the haunt of the wild ducks. The crow hid in the tall green reeds fringing the lagoon, and prepared to trap the ducks. First, he got some white clay, and, having softened it with water, placed two pieces in his nostrils. He then took a long piece of hollow reed through which he could breathe under water, and finally tied a net bag around his waist in which to place the ducks.

On the still surface of the lagoon, the tall gum trees were reflected like a miniature forest. The ducks, with their bronze plumage glistening in the sun, were swimming among the clumps of reeds, and only paused to dive for a tasty morsel hidden deep in the water weeds. The crow placed the reed in his mouth, and, without making any sound, waded into the water. He quickly submerged himself, and the only indication of his presence in the lagoon, was a piece of dry reed which projected above the surface of the water, and through which the crow was breathing. When he reached the centre of the water hole he remained perfectly still. He did not have to wait long for the ducks to swim above his head. Then, without making any sound or movement, he seized one by the leg, quickly pulled it beneath the water, killed it, and placed it in the net bag. By doing this, he did not frighten the other ducks, and, in a short time he had trapped a number of them. He then left the lagoon and continued on his way until he came to a river.

The crow was so pleased with his success at the waterhole, that he determined to spear some fish before he returned to his camp. He left the bag of ducks on the bank of the river, and, taking his fish spear, he waded into the river until the water reached his waist. Then he stood very still, with the spear poised for throwing. A short distance from the spot where he was standing, a slight ripple disturbed the calm surface of the water. With the keen eye of the hunter, he saw the presence of fish, and, with a swift movement of his arm, he hurled the spear, and his unerring aim was rewarded with a big fish. The water was soon agitated by many fish, and the crow took advantage of this to spear many more. With this heavy load of game, he turned his face towards home.

The hawk was very unfortunate in his hunting. He stalked a kangaroo many miles, and then lost sight of it in the thickly wooded hills. He then decided to try the river for some fish, but the crow had made the water muddy and frightened the fish, so again he was unsuccessful. At last the hawk decided to return to his gunyah with the hope that the crow would secure some food, which they had previously agreed to share. When the hawk arrived, he found that the crow had been there before him and had prepared and eaten his evening meal. He at once noticed that the crow had failed to leave a share for him. This annoyed the hawk, so he approached the crow and said: "I see you have had a good hunt today. I walked many miles but could not catch even a lizard. I am tired and would be glad to have my share of food, as we agreed this morning." "You are too lazy," the crow replied. "You must have slept in the sun instead of hunting for food. Anyhow, I've eaten mine and cannot give you any." This made the hawk very angry, and he attacked the crow. For a long time they struggled around the dying embers of the camp fire, until the hawk seized the crow and rolled him in the black ashes. When the crow recovered from the fight, he found that he could not wash the ashes off, and, since that time, crows have always been black. The crow was also punished for hiding the food which he could not eat by being condemned to live on putrid flesh.

Comprehension check

Say which of the characters of the story you like best. Why?

WRITIHG

Into the box below write the words and word combinations which can characterize a crow and a hawk.

a crow

a hawk




How the Kangaroo Got a Long Tail and the Wombat a Flat Forehead


Key words and expressions:

ash

surely

to refuse

to chill

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

You have already seen a photo of a wombat and a kangaroo at the beginning of this book. How do you think if a wombat and a kangaroo could be good friends?

Reading

Many years ago, Mirram the kangaroo and Warreen the wombat were both men. They were very friendly, and hunted and lived together in the same camping-ground. Warreen had a very comfortable gunyah made of bark and soft leaves, but Mirram who was a careless fellow-did not trouble to build a home. He was content to sleep in the open, by the side of a big fire, with the blue sky for a cover, and the green grass for a couch. This open air life was very nice in fine weather, when the stars twinkled in the sky like golden fire-flies, but it was extremely uncomfortable in the rainy season.

One night a great storm arose. The wind howled eerily, and rocked the tall trees to and fro as though they were shaken by the strong arms of an invisible giant. The rain fell in torrents, and darkness covered the light of the stars. The rain quickly quenched the glowing embers of Mirram's fire, and he was left to the mercy of the storm. After shivering in the cold for some time, he decided to seek the hospitality of Warreen. "Surely my friend would not refuse me shelter on such a night as this," he thought. "I will ask him."

Feeling very cold and miserable, he crept to the opening of Warreen's tent, and seeing there was sufficient space for both of them to sleep comfortably, he woke him and said: "The storm has killed my fire. I am very wet, and the cold wind has chilled me to the bone. May I sleep in the corner of your tent?" Warreen blinked his eyes sleepily and answered in a gruff voice: "No. I want to place my head in that corner. There isn't any room." With this rude remark he moved into the corner, but, as he could not occupy the whole space of the tent, another corner became vacant. Mirram went away and sat by the wet ashes of his fire, and his thoughts were as miserable as the weather. The fury of the storm increased and looking on his friend, he decided to approach Warreen again. He entered the shelter, and, touching Warreen gently on the shoulder, said: “The wind is very cold, and as biting as the teeth of the wild dog. The rain is falling heavily and will not cease. I should be grateful if you would allow me to sleep in that corner. I will not disturb you.” Warreen raised his head, listened to the moaning of the storm outside, and then replied: “I will not have you here; there isn’t any room. Go outside and do not keep waking me.” “But,” replied Mirram, “there is room in that corner. Surely you wouldn’t drive me out into the storm to die!”

Thereupon, Warreen moved one leg into the corner and again a space became vacant. Seeing he could no longer hoodwink Mirram and hide from him his selfish intentions, he grew very angry and yelled: “Get out! Get out! I won’t have you in my tent. I don’t care where you die.” This harsh treatment exasperated Mirram and he left the tent in a terrible rage. Outside the tent, he groped around in the dark until he found a large flat stone. Then he crept silently to the gunyah. By the sound of heavy breathing he knew Warreen was asleep. Moving very silently, he entered the tent, and, raising the stone high in his arms, dashed it on the head of the sleeper. The terrible blow did not kill Warreen but flattened his forehead. When he had recovered from his pained surprise, he heard the mocking voice of Mirram saying: “That is your reward for treating a friend so cruelly. You and your children and their children’s children will wander through the land with flat foreheads that men may know them for your selfishness.” As Warreen was no match for his opponent, he did not answer, but nursed his sore head and some very bad thoughts.

From that moment, he was always planning revenge for his injury. Some time later, Warreen was hunting in the forest, and, through the shadow of the trees, he saw Mirram a short distance ahead. He crept noiselessly towards him, and, when Mirram was looking for the marks of a possum on the bark of a tree, he threw a spear at him with all his strength. The spear struck Mirram at the bottom of the back, and so deeply did it enter that he could not pull it out. While he was struggling with the spear, Warreen walked up to him, and, in a bantering voice, said: “Aha! My turn has come at last. I have waited long to repay you. You will always carry the spear in your back and wander without a home while you live. Your children will carry the spear and be homeless for ever. By these tokens, men will always remember your attempt to kill me while I slept.”

From that time the kangaroo has had a long tail, which makes a low, thudding sound as he wanders homeless through the bush, and the wombat still has a very flat forehead as an everlasting sign of selfishness.

Comprehension check

  1. Retell the legend as if you were a kangaroo.

  2. Say which of the characters of the story (a wombat or a kangaroo) you like the best. Why?

WRITIHG

Compose ten questions on the legend and ask them your classmates.


The Fire on the Hill


Key words and expressions:

to climb

a servant

a judge

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

How do you think? What does «mother’s love» mean?

Reading

Long, long ago there was a lake of cold water in Australia. At night many animals came there to drink. But people never came to the lake at night: the wild animals might kill and eat them.

Now, a rich man who had a beautiful daughter, once said: "The young man, who will go to the lake in the evening and stay in the cold water till morning will have my daughter for his wife".

One poor young man loved the rich man's daughter very much, and she loved him. He said to his mother, "I shall try to stay at night in the lake and then marry the dear girl".

"No, no", the mother said, "you are my only son. The water in the lake is very cold, and the animals will eat you. Don't go there!"

She cried and cried, but her son said, "Mother, don't cry, I must try. I love her so much!"

So the young man went to the girl's father. He told him that he wanted to go to the lake and stay in the cold water all night. The rich man sent his servants to a place from which they could watch the young man.

When night came, the young man went to the lake. His mother followed him, but he didn't see her. There was a hill forty paces from the place where the young man entered the water. The woman climbed up the hill and made up a fire there. The wild animals saw the fire and were afraid to go near that place.

The young man saw the fire too. He understood that his mother was there. He thought of his mother's love and it was easier for him to stay all night in the very cold water.

Morning came. The young man went to the rich man's house. The rich man saw him and said, "My servants say that there was a fire on the hill forty paces from the lake. It warmed you, and that is why you could stay all night in the water. So you can't marry my daughter. Good-bye". The young man was very angry. He went to the judge.

"Well", the judge said, "this is a very simple case".

The next morning the young man with his mother and the rich man with his servants came before the judge. There were many people there who wanted to hear the case.

The judge asked for a pot of cold water. Then he walked forty paces from the pot and made a fire. "Now", he said, "we shall wait a little until the water is warm". The people cried, "But the fire is so far away, it can't warm the water in the pot".

The judge said, "And how could that young man warm himself at a fire forty paces away?" So the case was over, and the young man married the rich man's daughter. They lived happily for many years.

Comprehension check

Retell the legend as if you were a poor young man.

WRITIHG

Compose ten questions on the legend and ask them your classmates.


A Careless Tongue


Key words and expressions:

impossible

to make up a story

to go from mouth to mouth

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

Try to explain the expression «It's not difficult to throw around small stones but it's impossible to find them all».

Reading

There was a young woman who liked to tell stories about her neighbors. Some stories were good, some stories were funny and the young woman told them to make people laugh. As always happens in such cases, the people who heard the stories, told them to their friends trying to make them funnier and funnier. As a result many good people suffered because of those stories.

An old man of the village where the young woman lived knew about it. He wanted to make her stop telling stories about her neighbors. He did not know how to do it, but then he thought of a good plan.

"Daughter," he said when he met her one day. "I want to ask you to do one thing for me. I have here a bag of small stones. On your way home throw them as far as you can in all sides. When you do it, come back and tell me."

The young woman was surprised to hear it. But it was easy and she agreed to do what the old man asked.

When the young woman came back, the old man said: "Daughter, I want to ask you to do one more thing for me. Go along the same road and pick up all the stones that you have thrown away."

"But, father, it is impossible!" said the young woman. "I can find some of the stones and bring them back to you, but I cannot find all of them."

"That's true," said the old man. "Those stones are like the stories that you tell about your neighbors. It's not difficult to throw around small stones but it's impossible to find them all. It's easy to make up stories about your neighbors, but it's impossible to call them back, because they go from mouth to mouth and become worse and worse. Remember this! First think, then speak! Remember this always!"

The young woman remembered it all her life.

Comprehension check

Put the following events (A-F) in the right order. Number them (1-6).

A."Daughter," he said when he met her one day. "I want to ask you to do one thing for me.

B. "But, father, it is impossible!" said the young woman.

C. An old man of the village where the young woman lived knew about it.

D. "That's true," said the old man.

E. But it was easy and she agreed to do what the old man asked.

F. As a result many good people suffered because of those stories.

A

B

C

D

E

F






1


WRITIHG

Write an article of about 30-50 words to express your point of view on the legend.


The Sacred Python


Key words and expressions:

a slave-trader

to give a terrible scream

an arrow

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

Tell what do you know about pythons. Where do they live? How do they look like?

Reading

Many years ago a group of men went out hunting. They walked in the forest all day long. In the evening they were far from home.

"We will have to sleep in the forest tonight", said their leader. "Quickly look for a good place to sleep".

The hunters had to be careful. In those days there were many slave-traders all about the country, and they might attack the hunters at any moment.

Late in the evening they found a good place to sleep. After supper the hunters lay down on the ground and were soon all asleep.

When the weary men were asleep, a group of slave-traders surrounded them. They were to attack the sleeping men.

Suddenly something big and heavy fell from one of the trees on one of the young hunters. The hunter woke up, looked down at his body and gave a terrible scream: a huge python was lying on him! He jumped to his feet, but his comrades were already awake. In a moment they were ready to fight.

The slave-traders fired their guns. But the hunters hid behind the trees. The fight continued for a long time. When the hunters had no more arrows they fought with stones and even sticks.

The slave-traders could do nothing against the hunters. Some of the attackers were killed. The others had to run away.

After the fight was over the hunters came together round their leader. The leader looked at the young man and said: "What made you wake up?"

"It was a python", the boy said. "It fell on me from the tree".

"It was a sign specially for us", the leader said.» You can see that the python is now our friend. From this day on no man, woman or child in our clan will ever kill or eat a python".

To this day the people who live in those places remember the words of that man. If you go to their houses in the rainy season, you will find pythons there. In the daytime they sleep in holes under the houses, but at night they crawl about the rooms.

The people never harm the pythons and the pythons never harm the people.

Comprehension check

Some words are missing from the text. Choose the most appropriate answer from the box for each gap (1-6) in the text. Do not change the words. There is one word which you do not need to use.


hunters, python, kill, child, leader, attackers


The slave-traders could do nothing against the hunters. Some of the ____________ were killed. The others had to run away.

After the fight was over the _________ came together round their leader. The leader looked at the young man and said: "What made you wake up?"

"It was a _________", the boy said. "It fell on me from the tree".

"It was a sign specially for us", the ___________ said.» You can see that the python is now our friend. From this day on no man, woman or _________ in our clan will ever ___________ or eat a python".

WRITIHG

Work in pairs. Compose ten questions on the legend and ask them your partner.


The Lion and the Goat


Key words and expressions:

a she-goat

a cave

boldly

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

Try to explain the expression «to be brave».

Reading

Once upon a time there was an old she-goat. One day, when it was getting dark, she was returning home with many other goats. As she was old and weak, she got tired and was left behind. It became quite dark, and as she couldn't find her way back, she decided to enter a cave that she saw near by. What was her surprise when she went in and found a lion sitting there! She was terribly frightened and stood still for a moment, then she thought of what she could do.

"If I try to run", she thought, "the lion will soon catch me, but if I pretend not to be afraid of him I may manage to save my life". She walked boldly up to the lion as if she were not afraid of him at all. The lion looked at her, looked and looked, not knowing what to think of this boldness on the part of the goat. He knew the goats had never dared to come near him. At last he thought she could not be a goat but must be some other strange animal which he had not seen before.

"Who are you, old one?" he asked her.

"I am the queen of the goats," she replied. "I came to eat up a hundred tigers, twenty five elephants and ten lions. I have already eaten the hundred tigers and twenty five elephants and now I am looking for the ten lions."

The lion was very much surprised to hear this, and believing the goat had really come to eat him up, he went out of the cave saying that he was going to wash his face at the river.

Comprehension check

  1. Try to retell the legend in five simple sentences.

  2. Give better title for the legend.

WRITIHG

Into the box below write the words and word combinations which can characterize a goat and a lion.


a goat

a lion




Why Cats Wash Themselves After Eating


Key words and expressions:

to jump aside

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

How do you think? Why do cats wash themselves after eating?

Reading

One day a bird flew into a farmer's yard. There was always something to eat for him there. He jumped around in the dust from one place to another picking up this and that from the ground and singing a loud song. The old bird, Tim by name, had a very good appetite and always ate a lot.

Old Tim was so busy that he did not look up or around and did not see a large black cat watching him from behind the farmer's house.

"How hungry I am!" thought the cat. "But soon I am going to have wonderful breakfast."

Soon old Tim finished his breakfast and was going to clean his leathers when the cat jumped at him and the bird was between the cat's teeth.

"What a fine breakfast I am going to have!" said the cat.

"Oh, no, Mr. Cat, you can't!" cried out Old Tim. "You are certainly not going to eat me up, are you?"

"But I am!" answered the cat. "Do you think I am going to look at you or to listen to your silly songs?" And the cat sat down ready to begin his breakfast.

"Oh, no, Mr. Cat, you can't do that."

"But why not? Don't get it into your head that I am going to let you fly away! Oh, no, you are wrong here," answered the cat.

"But have you already washed yourself?"

"No, I haven't. But what does it matter?" said the cat.

"Oh, Mr. Cat! What did your parents teach you? How can you have your breakfast without washing yourself first?" answered the bird.

"Do you think I can't? I don't see it your way."

"Of course, you can't!" repeated Old Tim. "Ask anybody and they are going to tell you that I am right. People never eat without washing themselves first," said the poor bird.

"Hm, well, I think you are right," said the angry cat. "All right, I am going to wash myself first and only after that have my breakfast."

And with those words the cat began to wash himself. The cat was so busy cleaning his coat that he did not see how Old Tim jumped aside and flew away.

When the cat finished his washing and wanted to begin his breakfast there was no Tim therehe was high in a tree singing his song. Old Tim knew how to fool cats!

The cat was very angry with Tim and with himself.

"Well, let people do as they like but I'm never going to wash myself before eating!" he said.

So from that day on all cats wash themselves only after and not before eating.

Comprehension check

  1. Retell the legend as if you were a cat.

  2. Give an outline of the legend.

WRITIHG

Make up a plan of the legend covering its main events.


How Animals Learned to Do Something


Key words and expressions:

man's early history

to be lazy

angrily

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

Do you have a pet? Try to describe it.

Reading

Many years ago, in the man's early history, when people and animals were great friends, a man called all the animals together. He got on a large stone for all the animals to see him and began to speak:

"My dear friends! Listen to me!" the man went on to say. "I am angry with you. You are very lazy, you do not do anything. You have learned nothing. You can't go on like this, it's time for you to learn to do something. In a month's time I want you to come here and show me what you have learned. I am sure you can learn a lot of things if you want to."

With these words the man got off the stone and said good-bye to the animals. The animals said good-bye to the man and to each other and left.

The animals thought and thought, they thought from early morning till late at night. In the end they thought of something and each animal began to learn to do something. The horse began to learn to run quickly and carry loads. The dog learned to bark, it wanted to help the man to watch his animals. The cow began to give milk. The cock learned to sing early in the morning and thus wake up the man. The cock's wife, the hen, began to lay eggs. The bee learned to make honey.

Many birds learned to sing beautiful songs, they had their singing lessons every day.

A month passed and the man again called all the animals together. "Well", he said, "I think you have learned to do something. It's time for you to show me what you have learned."

And the horse ran quickly, the cow gave milk, the hen laid eggs, the bees began to make honey, the cock sang and then the birds began to sing beautiful songs.

The man was very pleased with them all. To have milk, eggs and honey every day! It was wonderful.

"And what about you?" the man said to the fish. The fish stood behind the other animals and didn't do anything.

"What's the matter with you? Haven't you learned anything?" The fish only opened and shut its mouthit didn't know what to say.

"So you haven't learned to do anything and you cannot say a word," said the man angrily. "Very well, then you must always be like that and I don't want to see you again."

And from that day on the fish has not said a word and has lived in l he water where nobody can see her.

Comprehension check

Complete the table. What can these animals do?


a horse

a cow

a dog

a cock

a hen







WRITIHG

Compose ten questions on the legend and ask them your classmates.



The Parrot


Key words and expressions:

no doubt about it

wise

to be rich

Make up sentences with new words

Pre-reading task

How do you think? What is the way to become rich?

Reading

A man who had a fine green parrot at home taught the bird to say, "No doubt about it".

One day the man buried some money in different places in the village. Next morning he went through the village with his bird. He sang, "My parrot is wise. He will show me where to dig for money..."

Whenever he came to any of the places which he knew very well because he always marked them secretly, he said, "Oh, wise parrot, if I dig here, shall I find any gold?"

The parrot answered, "No doubt about it."

Each time the man found some money in the places where he stopped with his bird, and each time he showed the money to the people who stood around.

One young man thought, "If I can get the parrot, I shall soon be rich."

So he said to the owner of the parrot," For how much will you sell your parrot?"

"For one thousand pieces of gold."

"But this is a great deal of money!" cried the young man.

"But my parrot is worth it!" answered the owner of the parrot.

The answer pleased the young man so much that he paid the one thousand pieces of gold and walked off with the parrot.

He took the parrot out to look for money at once. Many times he asked him, "If I dig here, shall I find some gold?"

Every time the parrot answered, "No doubt about it".

But though the young man dug and dug, he did not find any gold.

At last he understood the trick of the owner of the parrot and said to himself: "How foolish I was! How could I believe such a thing?"

He turned to the bird and said: "Oh, wise bird, I think I was foolish if I could give a thousand pieces of gold for you."

The parrot answered, "No doubt about it".

The parrot looked so funny as he said this that the young man laughed and laughed. "Well", he said at last, "you told the truth this time. After this I shall work. That is the only way to become a rich man."

"No doubt about it," agreed the parrot, and for the second time he told the truth.

Comprehension check

Give an outline of the legend.

WRITIHG

Write what happened after the following:

1. One day the man buried some money in different places in the village.

2. Whenever he came to any of the places which he knew very well because he always marked them secretly, he said, "Oh, wise parrot, if I dig here, shall I find any gold?"

3. At last he understood the trick of the owner of the parrot and said to himself:

4. The parrot looked so funny as he said this that the young man laughed and laughed. "Well", he said at last, "you told the truth this time.


The Fly Who Wanted to Have a Tail


Key words and expressions:

to hurry out

to make a nest

Make up sentences with new words

Reading

One day the Fly looked at the animals and birds round her and saw that they all had tails.

It’s a good thing to have a tail,” thought the Fly. “What’s a pity I have not a tail! But I am going to have one. Yes, I shall have a tail!”

And she at once flew to the Man. “Please, Man, give me a tail,” she said to the Man.» All animals and birds have tails, only I haven t, I also want to be beautiful!”

The trouble with you Fly, is that you are a fool. They all have tails because their tails help them to live. Look!” The Man pointed to the Monkey hanging by its tail from the tree. “You see, for him a tail is like one more hand. As for you, I don’t think you must have a tail”.

The Fly got very angry with the Man. “I want you to give me a beautiful tail,” she said angrily.

You strange little thing,” laughed the Man. “All right, if you see in animal with a tail only to make it beautiful, you will have a tail.

Well, “said the Fly, “I shall fly to animals and birds and ask them to give me a tail. But remember your words that if I see someone with I tail that doesn’t help him and only makes him beautiful, you will give me his tail!”

All right, “said the Man and laughed again. The Fly was happy. “ I am sure some animal or bird will give me its tail,” she thought and hurried out of the room.

She flew out of the window right to the river. There she saw I fish.

Give me your beautiful tail, will you?” she said to the Fish. I am sure you have it only to be beautiful.”

You are a fool to say that. I can t give you my tail, it helps me to swim,” answered the Fish and swam away.

Then the Fly flew to the woods. She saw a bird sitting high in a tree. “Will you give me your tail, please?” said the Fly to the bird. “It doesn’t help you, it only makes you beautiful “.

Oh, no, you are wrong. How do you think I can fly and make a nest for myself or get something to eat for my children without my tail?”

But you have your beak,” answered the Fly.

Yes, that is so, but I must have my tail, too. I cannot work without it.” The bird saluted the Fly with its beak and began to work with it sitting on its tail. “You watch me,” the bird said, “This is the way I work”.

The Fly watched the bird for a minute and saw that it was right. She flew away and soon met the Fox. The Fox had a beautiful red-brown tail. It looked wonderful. “Well, I am sure the fox will give me her tail,” thought the Fly.

Give me your tail, will you?” the Fly began her old song again.

How can you talk like that?! If I give you my tail I can die!”

But why?” asked the Fly.

When the men and dogs come to the woods I must run away. I brush the ground with my long tail. And the dogs do not know where I have gone. So you see how much my tail helps me.”

The Fly said good-bye to the Fox and flew away. She flew home straight to the Man.

When the Man saw the Fly he asked her, “Where have you been all this time? Has anyone given you a tail? Report to me.”

Well, no one wants to give me a tail. They say they must have a tail because they cannot swim, run or work without it,” answered the Fly.

You see!” said the Man. “I knew it! I knew it all along. Next time think before you ask me something.”

But I want a tail, too! Give me a tail, Man. Will you?” repeated the Fly.

Haven’t the animals and birds taught you a good lesson?” asked the Man. But the Fly didn’t t listen” to him. She flew and flew around him, sat on his nose, lips and cheeks, and repeated angrily, “Give me a tail, Man!”

Well,” said the Man. “Go to the Cow, you have not been to the Cow, have you?”

The Fly at once flew out of the window and hurried to the Cow. She sat on the Cow’s back and wanted to ask her the questions about the tail.

But “Swish-sh” went the Cow’s long tail and that was the end of the Fly who wanted to have a tail so much.

Comprehension check

  1. Discuss the main idea of the legend.

  2. Is it true or fiction?

  3. Choose the better title for the legend.

WRITIHG

Make up a plan of the legend covering its main events.


Glossary


The Snowy River is a major river in south-eastern Australia. It originates on the slopes of Mount Kosciuszko, Australia's highest mainland peak, draining the eastern slopes of the Snowy Mountains in New South Wales, before flowing through the Snowy River National Park in Victoria and emptying into Bass Strait. Up until the mid–20th century, the river was notable for its high volume of fresh water, wide reach and large rapids.While the river's course and surroundings have remained almost entirely unchanged, the majority of it being protected by the Snowy River National Park, its flow was drastically reduced in the mid–20th century, to less than 1%, after the construction of various dams and reservoirs at its headwaters in New South Wales, as part of the Snowy Mountains Scheme. From 2002 to 2008 the flow was increased from 1% to 4%, however targets of 15% by 2009 and 21% by 2012 are unlikely to be met.

The Blue Mountains is a mountainous region in New South Wales, Australia. It borders on Sydney's metropolitan area, its foothills starting approximately 50 kilometres west of the state capital. The area begins on the west side of the Nepean River and extends westward as far as Coxs River. Consisting mainly of a sandstone plateau, the area is dissected by gorges up to 760 metres deep. The highest point of the range is 1,190 metres above sea level. A large part of the Blue Mountains is incorporated into the Greater Blue Mountains Area World Heritage Site, consisting of seven national park areas and a conservation reserve. The Blue Mountains area includes the local government areas of the City of Blue Mountains, the City of Hawkesbury, the City of Lithgow and Oberon.

Totemism, totem is a religious belief that is frequently associated with shamanistic religions. The totem is usually an animal or other natural figure that spiritually represents a group of related people such as a clan. Totemism was a key element of study in the development of 19th and early 20th century theories of religion, especially for thinkers such as Émile Durkheim, who concentrated their study on primitive societies (which was an acceptable description at the time). Drawing on the identification of social group with spiritual totem in Australian aboriginal tribes, Durkheim theorized that all human religious expression was intrinsically founded in the relationship to a group.

The Milky Way, or simply the Galaxy, is the galaxy in which the Solar System is located. It is a barred spiral galaxy that is part of the Local Group of galaxies. It is one of billions of galaxies in the observable universe. Its name is a translation of the Latin Via Lactea, in turn translated from the Greek Γαλαξίας (Galaxias), referring to the pale band of light formed by stars in the galactic plane as seen from Earth (see etymology of galaxy). Some sources hold that, strictly speaking, the term Milky Way should refer exclusively to the band of light that the galaxy forms in the night sky, while the galaxy should receive the full name Milky Way Galaxy, or alternatively the Galaxy. However, it is unclear how widespread this convention is, and the term Milky Way is routinely used in either context.

Wombats are Australian marsupials; they are short-legged, muscular quadrupeds, approximately 1 metre in length with a very short tail. They are found in forested, mountainous, and heathland areas of south-eastern Australia and Tasmania. The name wombat comes from the Eora Aboriginal community who were the original inhabitants of the Sydney area.

The grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis), also known as the silvertip bear, is a subspecies of brown bear (Ursus arctos) that generally lives in the uplands of western North America. This subspecies is thought to descend from Ussuri brown bears which crossed to Alaska from Eastern Russia 100,000 years ago, though they did not move south until 13,000 years ago. Grizzlies are normally solitary active animals, but in coastal areas the grizzly congregates alongside streams, lakes, rivers, and ponds during the salmon spawn. Every other year, females (sows) produce one to four young (commonly two) which are small and weigh only about 500 grams (one pound). A sow is protective of her offspring and will attack if she thinks she or her cubs are threatened.

Illawarra is a region in the Australian state of New South Wales. It is a coastal region situated immediately south of Sydney and north of the Shoalhaven region, encompassing the cities of Wollongong and Shellharbour and the municipality of Kiama. The central region contains Lake Illawarra.

Australian bush is a term used for rural, undeveloped land or country areas in certain countries. In Australia the term has an iconic status in Australian life. In reference to the landscape, bush describes a wooded area, intermediate between a shrubland and a forest, generally of dry and nitrogen-poor soil, mostly grassless, thin to thick woody shrubs and bushes, under a sparse canapy of eucalypts.

A swagman (also called tussocker) is an old Australian term describing an underclass of transient temporary workers, who travelled by foot from farm to farm carrying the traditional swag (waterproof bedroll). Also characteristic of swagman attire was a hat strung with corks to ward off flies. Particularly during the Depression of the 1890s and the Great Depression of the 1930s, unemployed men travelled the rural areas of Australia on foot, their few meagre possessions rolled up and carried in their swag. Typically, they would seek work in farms and towns they travelled through, and in many cases the farmers, if no permanent work was available, would provide food and shelter in return for some menial task. Another form of the swagman was the "pack horse bagman" who rode a horse and led one or two pack horses in his travels, typically in the Northern Territory. The pack horse bagman called in at stations where he would work shoeing horses, mustering, repairing bores etc.

The hoop snake is a legendary creature of the United States and Australia. The hoop snake is referred to in the Pecos Bill stories; although it is his description of hoop snakes that most people are most familiar with, stories of the creature predate those fictional tales considerably. Several sightings of the hoop snake have been alleged along the Minnesota-Wisconsin border in the St. Croix River valley and in Wake County in North Carolina. According to folklore, the distinguishing feature of a hoop snake is that it can grasp its tail in its jaws and roll after its prey like a wheel, thus looking somewhat like the ouroboros of Greek mythology, or Tsuchinoko (a legendary fat snake that can roll like a wheel) in Japan. In one version of the myth, the snake straightens out at the last second, skewering its victim with its venomous tail. The only escape is to hide behind a tree, which receives the deadly blow instead and promptly dies from the poison.

Mangroves are trees and shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the tropics and subtropics – mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. The saline conditions tolerated by various species range from brackish water, through pure seawater (30 to 40 ppt), to water of over twice the salinity of ocean seawater, where the salt becomes concentrated by evaporation (up to 90 ppt).

Mangroves form a characteristic saline woodland or shrubland habitat, called mangrove swamp, mangrove forest, mangrove or mangal. Mangals are found in depositional coastal environments where fine sediments (often with high organic content) collect in areas protected from high energy wave action. They occur both in estuaries and along open coastlines. Mangroves dominate three quarters of tropical coastlines.



Dictionary


accidentally- adv випадково, несподівано.

affinity- n спорідненість, схожість, привабливість.

ancestor- n предок, прародитель.

annoy - 1. n прикрість, досада; 2. v надокучати, набридати, сердити.

annual - 1. n однолітник; 2. adj щорічний, річний.

anxious- adj стурбований, стривожений.

apron - 1. n фартух, лоток, жолоб.

arrow - n стріла.

ash - n ясен, попіл, зола.

astonishment- n здивування, подив.

awkwardly- adv незграбно, неладно.

axe - n сокира, меч.

be pregnant- v бути вагітною.

beak - n дзьоб.

beg - v просити, благати.

bewilder- v бентежити, дивувати.

blind- adj сліпий.

boar- n кабан.

boldly - adv сміливо, зухвало, стрімко.

brood - n рід, покоління, виводок.

brother-in-law - n зять.

calamity - n лихо, горе.

cautiously- adv обережно.

cave - n печера.

chase- n погоня, переслідування.

chill - 1. n холод; 2. adj холодний; 3. v охолоджувати.

chipmunk- n бурундук.

claw - n кіготь, пазур.

climb - v дертися, видератися.

comrade - n товариш.

contrary- 1. n зворотне, протилежне; 2. adj зворотний;

3. v заперечувати.

covenant- 1. n угода; 2. v укладати угоду.

creature- n створіння.

current- 1. n течія, потік; 2. adj сучасний.

cyclist - n велосипедист.

disconsolately- adv невтішно, похмуро.

distant - adj віддалений, далекий.

distress- 1. n горе; 2. v завдавати горя.

dumb- 1. adj німий; 2. v примушувати замовкнути.

eerily- adv моторошно.

empty- adj пустий.

encounter - 1. n зустріч, сутичка, змагання; 2. v мати сутичку.

ferocity - n жорстокість, лють.

ferry- n пором.

fetch- n хитрощі, зусилля.

fig tree - n фігове дерево.

fingertip- n кінчик пальця.

flap- 1. n борт; 2. v коливати, махати.

fledgling - n оперене пташеня.

flood- 1. n повінь, приплив, потік; 2. v заливати.

gift - n подарунок.

glimpse - 1. n мерехтіння, блимання; 2. v мелькнути, промайнути.

gloomily - adv похмуро, понуро.

gobble- 1. n бурмотіння; 2. v бурчати, пожирати.

grind- 1. n розмелювання; 2. v молоти, товкти.

growl- 1. n гарчання, бурчання; 2. v гарчати, бурчати.

gruff - adj непривітний, похмурий.

guard - 1. n охоронець, варта; 2. v охороняти.

gunyah- n туземна хатина.

handsome - adj симпатичний (про чоловіків).

harsh- adj грубий, жорстокий.

hedge- 1. n огорожа, живопліт; 2. v обгороджувати.

herd - n стадо, череда, гурт.

hole- 1. n діра, отвір; 2. v робити отвір.

hoodwink- v обдурювати.

hoop - n обруч.

howl - 1. n виття; 2. v вити.

huge- adj величезний.

impossible - adj неможливий, неймовірний.

impudence- n безсоромність.

intend - v мати намір, збиратися.

jerk- 1. n різкий рух; 2. v смикати, штовхати.

judge - n суддя.

limp - 1. n кульгавість; 2. v кульгати.

lithe- adj гнучкий, зговірливий.

mangrove - n мангрове дерево.

mate - n товариш, напарник.

mercy- n милосердя, жалість.

miserable- adj нещасний.

misfortune - n біда, нещастя.

moonbeam - n місячний промінь.

nest - n гніздо.

noonday - n опівдень.

nostril- n ніздря

oath - n клятва, присяга.

octopus - n восьминіг.

offspring- n паросток.

originator- n автор, винахідник.

pancake- n млинець.

peep- 1. n швидкий погляд; 2. v підглядати.

pet - n домашня тварина.

plumage- n оперення.

pretend- v прикидатися.

proclaim- v оголошувати, проголошувати.

putrid- adj гнилий, трухлий.

rear - 1. n тил; 2. adj задній; 3. v підводити, піднімати.

refuse - v відмовляти, заперечувати.

reply- 1. n перегравання; 2. v грати повторно.

resourceful - adj винахідливий.

rival- 1. n суперник; 2. adj конкуруючий.

rumble - 1. n грюкання; 2. v грюкати.

saber- n шабля.

scorch- 1. n опік; 2. v обпалювати.

scoundrel - 1. n негідник; 2. adj підлий.

selfish- adj егоїстичний.

servant- n слуга.

shade- n тінь.

share - 1. n частина; 2. v ділити.

she-goat - n коза.

slimy- adj мулистий, липкий.

slip - 1. n ковзання; 2. v ковзати.

slyly - adv хитро.

smilingly- adv усміхнено.

smooth- 1. n згладжування; 2. adj гладенький; 3. v згладжувати.

snatch- 1. n хватка; 2. v хапати.

spare - 1. n запас; 2. adj запасний; 3. v берегти.

squash - 1. n гарбуз; 2. v роздавлювати.

squeeze - 1. n стискування; 2. v здавлювати.

stomach- n шлунок.

stream- n річка, струмок.

subterranean- 1. n підземелля; 2. adj підземний.

sunbeam - n сонячний промінь.

surely - adv звичайно, безперечно.

swamp - 1. n болото; 2. v заливати, тонути.

swiftly- adv швидко.

sympathy- n симпатія, прихильність.

talon- n кіготь, пазур.

tear- 1. n розлив; 2. v рвати, розривати.

tenderly- adv ніжно, ласкаво.

thereupon- adv слідом за цим (тим).

tip- n верхівка, кінчик.

totem - n тотем.

tribe- n плем’я.

tune- n мотив, мелодія.

unerring- adj правильний, безпомилковий.

ungrateful- adj невдячний.

unroll- v розгортати.

upheaval- n зрушення, переворот.

vigorously - adv сильно, рішуче.

vulture- n яструб.

wade- n перехід у брід, брід.

web - n павутина.

whimper - 1. n виття; 2. v нити, завивати.

wise- 1. n спосіб; 2. adj мудрий.

witch - n відьма.

woe - n горе, лихо, нещастя.

yell - 1. n пронизливий крик; 2. v кричати.


Literature


  1. Мелетинский Е.М. Повествовательный фольклор австралийцев / Мифы и сказки Австралии / Собр. К. Лангло-Паркер. М., 1965.

  2. Харитонов І.К., Потапенко С.І. 101 Fairy-Tales and Stories: Тексти для шкіл, ліцеїв та підготовчих курсів. – Тернопіль: Навчальна книга – Богдан, 2007. – 192 с.

  3. American folklore: an encyclopedia/edited by Jan Harold Brunvand. p. cm. – (Garland reference library of the humanities; vol. 1551).

  4. Australian Legendary Tales (Bodley Head Source Books of Fairy Tales & Folklore), 1978.

  5. Cyrus MacMillan Canadian Fairy Tales, 1922.

  6. Dandes A. The Morphology of North American Indian Folktales № 195. Helsinki, 1964.

  7. E. Bow Native American Indian Myths. The Mythology of the Peoples of North America, 2001.

  8. Edward Winslow Gifford, Miwok Myths, 1917.

  9. Frank Russell, Myths of the Jicarilla Apaches, 1898.

  10. Henry Lawson Australian Yarns - Bush Stories, 1986.

  11. Katharine Berry Judson, Myths and Legends of California and the Old Southwest, 1912.

  12. Kervern, Bethany The Princess of the Golden Bees, 2008.

  13. Marie L. McLaughlin, Myths and Legends of the Sioux, 1913.

  14. McLaughlin, Marie L Myths and Legends of the Sioux, 2001.

  15. Myths and Legends of California and the Old Southwest, by Katharine Berry Judson, 1912.

  16. Myths of the Cherokee, James Mooney, 1900.

  17. Roheim G. Myth and Folk-Tale / American Imago. 1941.

  18. Stannеr W.Е.H. On Aboriginal Religion. Sidney, 1966.

  19. Thompson S. Myth and Folk-Tale / Journal of American Folklore, 1955.

  20. Zitkala Sa, Old Indian Legends, 1901.

  21. http://www.ckazka.com/myth/myth.html

  22. http://uk.wikipedia.org

  23. http://sovunya2009.narod.ru

  24. http://www.school.edu.ru

  25. http://history.enotes.com/myths-legends/

  26. http://americanfolklore.net

  27. http://rapidshare.com/files/245173105/Indian_Myth_and_Legend.pdf

  28. http://www.dmoz.org/Society/Folklore/Literature/

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