English language for technical colleges (42840)

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I. Гласные звуки [i], [i:].

II. Text A: «About myself»,

Text B: «My Biography».

III. Личные местоимения, определенный и неопределенный артикль, множественное число существительных.

Phonetic warm-up (Фонетическая разминка)

Гласный звук [i] При произнесении краткого гласного звука [i] кончик языка находится у основания нижних зубов: оттенок русского звука [и] в словах шить, шило практически совпадает с английским [i]: it, sit, in

Гласный звук [i:] При произнесении долгого гласного [i:] язык продвинут вперед, кончик языка касается нижних зубов, губы несколько растянуты и слегка обнажают зубы. Оттенок русского звука [и] в словах ива, иго, игры, избы практически совпадает с английским звуком [i:].

Сочетания ее, еа читаются [i:]. Например, meet, peat.

Долгота звука влияет на лексическое значение слова.

Например: feet (ноги) — fit (вмещаться), steel (сталь) — still (все еще)

Exercise A

lead — lid

if — it — tip — kit

did — bill

mill — meal

pill — peel

keel — kill

sit — seat

Exercise В

beat — bin

it — seat

steel — still

feel — fill — feet

fit — eat — bean

simple — Pete — feel — peel

meet — meat — ill — bill — steel — feel Exercise D

be — been — bean

did — deed

pit — peat

fit — feet

it — eat

lid — lead

Exercise С

bin — bean

me — meet — meat

see — seat — seed

meal — seal — mean

pea — Pete — peat

sea — see — meet

bee — been — feet

mean — lean — keen

Exercise E

I see a sea. I see a clean sheet. I eat meat. I like meat.

I like tea. I make tea. I take tea. I like fine tea. I like fine meals.

People make steel. People make fine steel. People make steel pipes. People make fine steel planes. I like life. I like kind people. I like kind smiles. I feel fine. I smile.


Hello, friends. Let me first introduce myself. My name is Ann or Anya for my friends. My surname or last name is Sokolova. I was born on the 2nd of October in Sochi, Krasnodarsky Krai. This is the most beautiful city in Russia situated on the Black Sea coast. Now I am a first-year student at the Technical Academy. In five years I'll be an engineer.

Now let me describe my appearance. I am tall and slim and have fair hair and blue eyes. My friends say that I am pretty. I think I am just good-looking. I love sports and music. I was very serious about a career in gymnastics when I was in the 5th form. But then I broke my arm and doctors didn't let me go in for gymnastics. I love to listen to modern music and dance. I dance a lot and I hope I am good at it. I also love swimming. I always swim in the Black sea when I visit my parents, my dear family.

I would like to tell you about my family. There are five people in our family. My father's name is Vladimir Stepanovich. He is a mathematician by education and businessman by profession. My mother's name is Tatyana Petrovna. She is a housewife. She has much work about the house because I have a younger sister. She is a pupil. My sister Natasha is in the fifth form. My grandmother, my mother's mother, lives with us. She is very kind and helps us a lot.

Our family is very friendly, we have many friends. In summer many relatives come to visit us. And, of course, they use a chance to spend several weeks in beautiful Sochi.

In May I have finished school No 5 in Sochi. I did well in all the subjects but my favourite subjects at school were Physics and Computer Science. I also enjoyed English lessons.

I am very interested in learning English because I always wanted to become a programmer or maybe a businesswoman. I also think that the knowledge of foreign languages helps in everyday life and career.

Two years ago I travelled much around Europe. I have visited France, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. There the knowledge of English helped me a lot.

As you see,' my biography isn't very long yet. But we'll meet again in the next lesson and I'll tell you more about myself. See you later...


introduce — представлять, знакомить

Black Sea coast — побережье Черного моря

a first-year student — студент(ка) первого курса

region— область

appearance— внешность

slim — стройная

career— карьера

gymnastics — гимнастика

mathematician — математик

housewife — домохозяйка

several — несколько

to do well — зд. успевать

chance — случай, шанс

kind — добрый

a lot — много

the Netherlands — Нидерланды

the United Kingdom — Соединенное Королевство (Великобритания)ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY


tall — высокий

short маленького роста

stout — приземистый, коренастый

slim — стройный

fat — толстый

plumpy — полный

fair hair — светлые волосы

blonde — блондин(ка)

brunette — брюнет(ка)

gray hair — седые волосы

bold headed — лысый

short sighted — близорукий

smart, clever, bright — умный (я)

stupid — тупой, глупый

boring — скучный

fun to be with — веселый человек

easy to go along — легкий в общении

quiet — спокойный

impulsive — порывистый, импульсивный

aggressive — агрессивный

rude — невежливый, грубый

shy, confused — застенчивый

active — активный

talkative — разговорчивый

enthusiastic — энтузиаст, затейник

Exercise 1.1. Please, introduce yourself. The questions below will certainly help you:

1. What is your name?

2. Where and when were you born?

3. How old are you?

5. Have you got a family?

6. How many people are there in your family?

7. Do you have brothers, sisters, grandparents in your family?

8. Where do you live?

9. Did you study well at school?

10. What school did you finish?

11. Did your teacher of English help you to choose your future profession?

12. What was your favourite subject?

13. What do you like to read?

14. What sport do you go in for?

15. What are you going to be?

16. Do you still live with your parents?

17. Do you have a girlfriend / boyfriend?

Exercise 1.2. Bring a picture of a person you know well (mother, father, grandfather, friend) to class. Show it and describe that person. Use the active vocabulary of the unit.


after Mark Twain

I was born on the 30-th of November 1835 in the village of Florida, Missouri. My father was John Marshal Clemens.

According to tradition some of my great-great parents were pirates and slave traders — a respectable trade in the 16-th century. In my time I wished to be a pirate myself.

Florida contained a hundred people and when I was born I increased the population by one per cent. It had two streets and a lot of lanes. Both the streets and the lanes were paved (мостить) with the same material — black mud in wet times, deep dust in dry. Most of the houses were of wood — there were none of brick and none of stone. Everywhere around were fields and woods.

My uncle was a farmer. I have never met a better man than he was. He was a middle-aged man whose head was clear and whose heart was honest and simple. I stayed at his house for three months every year till I was thirteen years old. Nowhere else was I happier than at his house. He had eight children and owned about fourteen Negro slaves whom he had bought from other farmers. My uncle and everyone on the farm treated the slaves kindly. All the Negroes on the farm were friends of ours and with those of our own age we were playmates. Since my childhood I have learned to like the black race and admire some of its fine qualities. In my school days nobody told me that it was wrong to sell and buy people. It is only much later that I realized all the horror of slavery.

The country school was three miles from my uncle's farm. It stood in a forest and could take in about twenty five boys and girls. We attended school once or twice a week. I was a sickly (хилый) child and lived mainly on medicine the first seven years of my life.

When I was twelve years old my father died. After my father's death our family was left penniless. I was taken from school at once and placed in the office of a local newspaper as printer's apprentice (подмастерье) where I could receive board and clothes but no money.

For ten years I worked in printshops of various cities. I started my journalistic life as a reporter on a newspaper in San-Francisco. It was then that I began to sign my publications by my penname Mark Twain.

General understanding:

1. In what state was Samuel Clemens born?

2. What were the great-great parents of Mark Twain?

3. What did Mark Twain want to be?

4. What were the streets and lanes of Florida paved with?

5. How does the author describe his uncle?

6. How many slaves did Mark Twain's uncle own?

7. What was the author's attitude toward slavery?

8. Was Mark Twain a healthy boy?

9. When did the author start his career of a writer?


Неопределенный и определенный артикли. Неопределенный артикль a (an) происходит от числительного one (один), определенный — от указательного местоимения that (тот).

Артикль употребляется:

перед каждым нарицательным существительным.

Если перед существительным артикль не употребляется, то нужно уметь объяснить, почему.

Артикль не употребляется если перед существительным стоит:

указательное или притяжательное местоимение,

другое существительное в притяжательном падеже,

количественное числительное,

отрицание no.

Например: This is my book. It's friend's book. I have one book.

Упоминая предмет впервые, мы употребляем перед ним неопределенный артикль а (ап). Упоминая этот же предмет вторично, мы ставим перед ним определенный артикль the. Например: This is a book. The book is interesting.

Неопределенный артикль a (an)

употребляется перед единичным, отдельным предметом, который мы не выделяем из класса ему подобных. Неопределенный артикль an обычно стоит перед существительным, которое начинается с гласного звука: an apple, an egg.

Например: I bought a book yesterday. Я купил вчера книгу (одну из многих ей подобных). I have an apple. У меня есть яблоко (одно, какое-то).

Неопределенный артикль a (an) может употребляться только с исчисляемыми существительными, стоящими в единственном числе. Перед неисчисляемыми существительными или существительными во множественном числе неопределенный артикль опускается.

Неопределенный артикль не употребляется:

а) с неисчисляемыми и «абстрактными» существительными:

I like coffee and tea. Friendship is very important in our life.

б) с существительными во множественном числе:

They are students now.

в) с именами собственными:

I told Jane about that.

г) с существительными, перед которыми стоят притяжательные или указательные местоимения:

This car is better than that. My bike is old.

д) с существительными, за которыми следует количественное числительное, обозначающее номер:

I have read page eight of the magazine.

Неопределенный артикль а необходим в конструкциях:

I have a... This is a... I am a... What a fine day! I see a... There is a... He is a...

Определенный артикль the выделяет предмет или предметы из класса им подобных:

The book I bought yesterday was interesting Книга, которую я купил вчера, была интересной (это — конкретная книга, которую говорящий выделяет из класса ей подобных).

Определенный артикль the употребляется как с исчисляемыми, так и с неисчисляемыми существительными, как с единственным, так и с множественным числом.

Например: This is a book. The book is interesting (исчисляемое в единственном числе).

This is meat. The meat is fresh, (неисчисляемое)

These are books. The books are good. (множественное число).

Определенный артикль употребляется:

а) когда известно (из контекста, из окружающей обстановки) о каком предмете (предметах, явлениях) идет речь: Open the door, please. I am going to the Academy.

б) когда речь идет о единственном в своем роде предмете или явлении: The moon is shining brightly.

в) когда существительное имеет ограничивающее определение, чаще всего с предлогом of.

I don't know the name of this pupil.

г) в словосочетаниях типа in the north, to the west, at the cinema, the same, in the country, the rest of the...

д) если перед существительным стоит прилагательное в превосходной степени

This is the most interesting book.

e) перед порядковыми числительными

He lives on the fifth floor.

Географические названия и артикль

С географическими названиями и с именами собственными, артикль, как правило, не употребляется, кроме следующих случаев:

а) с названиями морей, рек, океанов, горных хребтов, групп островов используется определенный артикль: the Pacific Ocean, the Black Sea, the Thames, the British Isles.

б) определенный артикль используется с несколькими названиями стран, областей и городов, (хотя обычно с этими типами названий артикль не используется):

the Ukraine, the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Netherlands, the Hague, the Riviera, the Congo, the West Indies

в) определенный артикль используется с названиями стран типа:

the Russian Federation, the United States of America, the United Kingdom.

г) перед собирательным именем семьи The PetrovsПетровы

Exercise 1.3. Translate into Russian. Explain the use (использование) of definite (определенных) and indefinite (неопределенных) articles:

1. Last week I met my friend. He was with a young girl. The girl was a student of our Academy. 2. This is a pencil. The pencil is red. 3. She is a teacher. She is our teacher of English. 4. It is a lake. The lake is deep. It's one of the deepest lakes in the world. 5. There are many flowers in your garden. The flowers are beautiful. 6. Did you write a plan? Give me your plan, please. Is this plan effective? 7. The Black Sea is in the South of Russia. 8. This is Mike. He works as an engineer. Mike is a highly qualified engineer. 9. There are some schools in our street. The schools are new. 10. Gagarin was the first cosmonaut of the world. 11. In summer the sky is blue and the sun shines brightly. 12. The Petrovs are very friendly. 13. This is Ann's book. I don't like such books. 14. Winter begins in December.

Exercise 1.4. Insert (вставьте) the article where necessary:

1. This... pencil is broken. Give me that... pencil, please. 2. I can see three... boys.... boys are playing. 3.1 have... bicycle.... bicycle is black. My... friend has no... bicycle. 4. Our... room is large. 5. We wrote... dictation yesterday.... dictation was long. 6. She has two...daughters and one...son. Her...son is...pupil. 7. My...brother's... friend has no... dog. 8. This is... tree.... tree is green. 9. She has...ball....ball is...big. 10. I got... letter from my... friend yesterday.... letter was interesting.

Exercise 1.5. Use the articles a, an, the where it is necessary:

1. Yesterday I saw... new film, but... film wasn't very interesting. 2. London is situated on... Thames. 3. Yuri Gagarin was... first man to fly over... Earth in spaceship. 4. My daughter will go school... next year. 5.1 decided to visit... Ivanovs, but they were not at... home 6. In... summer we live in... country. 7. Lomonosov,... great Russian scientist, was born in... small village on... shore of... White Sea. 8.... United States of America is one of... most powerful countries of the world. 9. Is your dress made of... silk or... cotton? 10...Peter's brother is... student and we are...pupils.11. What would you like:... apple or... orange? 12. What... strange man he is!

Exercise 1.5. Use the articles a, an, the where it is necessary:

I... Volga is... longest river in... Europe. 2....History and... Literature were... my favourite subjects at... school. 3.What is... nearest way to... Drama Theatre?4....butter and... cheese are made of... milk. 5. Usually I get up at... 7 o'clock in... morning. 6...Rostov is situated on... Don. 7. Will you have... cup of... tea? 8.What... good friend you are! 9. We shall go to...cinema... next week together with... Petrovs. 10. This is... book,... book is very interesting. 11. Do you see... sun in... sky today? 12.He is... engineer by... profession.

Exercise 1.6. Insert (вставьте) the article where necessary:

Three men came to... New York for... holiday. They came to... very large hotel and took... room there. Their room was on... forty-fifth floor. In... evening... friends went to... theatre and came back to... hotel very late.

«I am very sorry,» said... clerk of... hotel, «but... lifts do not work tonight. If you don't want to walk up to your room, we shall make... beds for you in... hall.» «No, no,» said one of... friends, «no, thank you. We don't want to sleep in... hall. We shall walk up to our room.»

Then he turned to his friends and said: «It is not easy to walk up to... forty-fifth floor, but we shall make it easier. On... way to... room I shall tell you some jokes; then you, Andy, will sing us some songs; then you, Peter, will tell us some interesting stories.» So they began walking up to their room. Tom told them many jokes; Andy sang some songs.

At last they came to... thirty sixth floor. They were tired and decided to have... rest. «Well,» said Tom, «now it is your turn, Peter. After all... jokes, I would like to hear... sad story. Tell us... long and interesting story with...sad end.» «... story which I am going to tell you,» said Peter, «is sad enough. We left... key to our room in...hall.»

Образование множественного числа имен существительных.

Множественное число существительных (кроме тех, у которых основа оканчивается на -ch, -s, -ss, -sh, -х) образуется путем прибавления к основе окончания -s: a boy — boys, a trick — tricks, a pen —pens, a girl — girls.

Множественное число существительных, основа которых оканчивается на -ch, -s, -ss, -sh, -x, а также существительных, имеющих, как правило, окончание -о, образуется путем прибавления к основе окончания -es; a bench — benches, a bus- buses, a glass — glasses, a box — boxes, a potato — potatoes.

Существительные, оканчивающиеся на (после согласной) во множественном числе имеют окончание -ies: an army — armies, a fly — flies, a lady — ladies. Конечное f(-fe), как правило, меняется на -ves:

a calf — calves, a knife — knives, a shelf — shelves,

a wife — wives (но: roof — roofs).

Ряд существительных образует множественное число не по общим правилам:

а) изменяется корневая гласная:

a man - men, a woman - women, a foot - feet, a tooth - teeth, a goose - geese, a mouse - mice

б) добавляется окончание -en:

an ox — oxen. a child — children.

в) заимствуются формы единственного и множественного числа из латинского и греческого языков:

a formula - formulae (formulas), a crisis - crises, a criterion - criteria, an index - indices, a bacterium — bacteria, an axis — axes

В английском языке есть существительные, которые имеют одну (общую) форму для единственного и множественного числа: a deer (олень) - deer (олени), a sheep (овца) - sheep (овцы), a fish рыба) - fish (рыбы), a swine (свинья) – swine (свиньи).

Некоторые существительные имеют только единственное число: advice, information, news. knowledge, furniture, luggage.

Некоторые - только множественное число, clothes, riches, damages, goods, looks, manners, thanks.


this is — these are

that is -— those are

there is — there are

it is — they are

Exercise 1.7. Decide which of the following nouns are countable (исчисляемые) or uncountable (неисчисляемые):

Time, water, machine, music, snow, word, coffee, money, idea, family, darkness, knowledge, sea hour. tree, silver, meat, happiness, information, speed, book, news, house, friend, milk, student, pen, paper, clothes picture, air, goods.

Exercise 1.8. Read and translate the sentences. Decide which of the underlined nouns (существительных) are countable or uncountable and explain why:

1. We have read all the official papers. There were some sheets of paper on the table. 2.Two coffees, please. I like strong coffee. 3. Give me two glasses. Are they made of glass or plastics? 4. Many thousands of bricks are produced at the factory. Our school is built of brick.

Exercise 1.9. Write down the following nouns in plural.

Box, sheep, place, library, photo, mouse, lady, glass, bush, dress, country, bus, party, wife, day, knife, knowledge, month, pen, hero, goose, company, life, deer, tomato, city, man, play, news, child, fruit, shelf, leaf, foot, fish, woman, money, information.

Exercise 1.10. Write down the following nouns in plural:

A star, a mountain, a tree, a waiter, the queen, a man, a woman, an eye, a shelf, a box, a city, a boy, a goose, a watch, a mouse, a dress, a toy, a sheep, a tooth, a child, an ox, a deer, a life, a tomato.

Exercise 1.11. Write down the following nouns in plural:

this man, that match, this tea-cup, this egg, that wall, that picture, this foot, that mountain, this lady, that window, this knife

Exercise 1.12. Put the following sentences in plural and write them down. Pay attention to the changes of the verb (глагол):

1. A new house is in our street. 2. This story is very interesting. 3. There was a woman, a man, a boy and a girl in the room. 4. In the farm-yard we could see an ox, a sheep, a cow and a goose. 5. Put this knife on that table. 6. Why don't you eat this potato? 7. This strawberry is still green. 8. A yellow leaf has fallen to the ground. 9. Can you see a bird in that tree? 10. Does your tooth still ache? 11. I held up my foot to the fire to warm it. 12. His child studies very well. 13. Is this worker an Englishman or a German? — He is a Frenchman. 14. What is that child's name? 15. The cat has caught a mouse. 16. I have hurt my foot. 17. The wolf has been shot. 18. He keeps his toy in a box. 19. This man works at our office.

Exercise 1.13. Put the following sentences in plural and write them down. Pay attention to the changes of the verb:

1. This is my stocking. 2. He has a new suit. 3. This metal is very hard. 4. That ship is a Russian one. 5. I heard her voice. 6. His dog does not like bread. 7. The plate was on the table. 8. This town is very large. 9. I was talking to her at the tram stop yesterday. 10. Is that girl your sister? 11. I shall give you my book. 12. This story will be a good one. 13. Is this a good match? 14. The boy put his book on the desk. 15. She took off her hat. 16. That house is new. 17. The pupil put his book into the bag. 18. Is this student coming with us, too? 19. The woman didn't say anything. 20. Does she speak English?

Притяжательный падеж существительных

Examples: The child's toys — The children's toys

The boy's books — The boys' books

Exercise 1.14. Use the Possessive Case of the Nouns:

Example: The poems of Lermontov. (Lermontov's poems).

1. The toy of their children. 2. The questions of my son. 3. The wife of my brother. 4. The table of our teacher. 5. The life of animals. 6. The voice of this girl. 7. The new tool of the workers. 8. The letter of Peter. 9. The car of my parents. 10 The room of my friend. 11. The handbags of these women. 12. The flat of my sister is large. 13. The children of my brother are at home. 14. The room of the boys is large.

Exercise 1.15. Translate into English.

1. Это семья моего друга. Отец моего друга — инженер. Мать моего друга — учитель. 2. Она взяла книги своего брата. 3. Дайте мне тетради ваших учеников. 4. Вы видели книгу нашего учителя? 5. Вчера дети моего брата ходили в кино. 6. Он показал мне письмо своей сестры. 7. Чья это сумка? — Это сумка Петра. 8. Чьи это словари? — Это словари студентов. 9. Принесите игрушки детей.


I. Гласные звуки [е], [æ].

II. Text A: «My working day»,

Text B: «Nick's usual working day».

III. Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий, порядок слов в английском предложении, типы вопросов.

Гласный звук [е]

При произнесении гласного [е] масса языка находится в передней части ротовой полости. Кончик языка находится у нижних зубов. Губы слегка растянуты. Звук близок к русскому звуку [э] в словах эти, жесть.

Гласный звук [æ]

При произнесении звука [æ] губы несколько растянуты, нижняя челюсть сильно опущена, кончик языка касается нижних зубов, а средняя спинка языка немного выгибается вперед и кверху.

Exercise A

am — Ann — lamp

man — can — cat

sat — hat — bat

Pat — rat — cam

tanned — tent

fan— fen

man — men

pat — pet

Exercise В

tan — ten

pan — pen

bad — bed

land — lend

Exercise C

bat — bet

pet — net — red

let — met

ten — pen —• men — hen


Hi again... As you already know, I am a first-year student of the Technical Academy. My parents live in Sochi and I study in Rostov-on-Don so I need some housing. There are two opportunities for me: I can live in a dormitory (a students hostel), or to rent a flat (an apartment).

I decided to rent a flat. To make the rent smaller, I also decided to share my flat with another girl — Natasha Kozlova. She studies at the Academy, too, and she is my best friend now. I'll tell you more about her later.

Now, let me describe my usual working day. My classes begin at 8:30. So on week-days I have to get up at 7:15.1 don't have an alarm clock and usually my roommate wakes me up and my working day begins. I turn on the radio and do my morning exercises while Natasha takes a shower. I don't take a bath in the morning because I don't have enough time for it. I take a cool shower (that's when I completely wake up), brush my teeth. After that I go back to our room and get dressed. I brush my hair and put on a light make-up. Then we have breakfast. Natasha makes breakfast every Monday, Wednesday and Friday. I have to serve breakfast on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. I love to listen to the latest news on the radio while I am eating and Natasha prefers light music.

We leave the house at ten minutes past eight and walk to the nearest bus-stop. We live rather far from the Academy and it usually takes us about a quarter of an hour to get there by bus. Sometimes when the weather is fine and we have enough time we walk to the Academy. It is very healthy to walk much.

The classes begin at 8:30 in the morning and they end at 2:00 p.m. We have lectures in different subjects. As a rule we have three or four classes a day. Sometimes it is very hard to wait till they end.

Usually I don't miss my classes because I want to pass my exams successfully. But sometimes I do, especially when the weather is fine and the classes are boring.

At 11:50 we have lunch. That's my favourite time. That is the time to share the latest news and to gossip. My friends and I prefer not to go to the canteen and we often have lunch in a small cafe not too far from the Academy. At 12:30 we have to be back to our classes. During the working day we also have several short breaks that last for ten minutes.

Occasionally I have to stay at the Academy till 5 or even 6 o'clock in the evening because I go to the library to get ready for my practical classes or to write a report. As a rule I have no free time on week-days. So by the end of the week I get very tired.

We come home at about 7 o'clock in the evening. We eat supper together and share the latest news.

After supper we wash dishes, drink coffee or tea and watch TV. I prefer old comedies and Natasha likes serials or films about travelling. Sometimes Natasha and I go for a walk in the park or visit our friends.

At about eleven at night I go to bed. I like to read something before going to bed and Natasha likes to listen to some music. Sometimes I fall asleep while I am reading and Natasha gets up and switches off the light and says — Good night!


housing — жилье

opportunity — возможность

dormitory, students hostel — студенческое общежитие

to rent a flat (an apartment) — снимать квартиру

to share — делить(-ся)

week-days — будние дни

alarm clock — будильник

usually — обычно

roommate — сосед по комнате

rather — довольно

to turn on (off) — включать, выключать

enough — достаточно

completely — полностью, совершенно

to get dressed — одеваться

to serve — обслуживать

make up — макияж

while — пока, в то время как

to prefer — предпочитать

healthy — здоровый, полезный

to miss — пропускать

successfully — успешно

boring — скучный

to gossip — сплетничать

have to be back — должны вернуться

break — перерыв

report — доклад

share — делиться

canteen — столовая


tape-recorder — магнитофон

to brush one's hair — причесывать волосы

it takes me... minutes to get to the Academy by bus —у меня уходит... минут, чтобы добраться до Академии на автобусе

cloackroom — гардероб

upstairs — наверху, вверх по лестнице

downstairs — внизу, вниз по лестнице

to miss classes — пропускать занятия

to pass exams — сдать экзамены

to do well — делать успехи, хорошо учиться

for the first (second) course — на первое (второе) блюдо

to get ready — подготовиться

as a rule — как правило

to get tired — устать

to take pleasure in — получать удовольствие от...

to look forward to — ждать с нетерпением

acquaintance — знакомый

Exercise 2.1. Write one sentence with each word:

1. Usual — usually — as usual — unusual

2. occasion — occasional — occasionally

3. to end — to finish — to be over

4. to start — to begin — to get ready for

5. on Sunday — at five o'clock — in cafeteria...

6. full time student — part time student

7. freshman — second year student — school graduate

Exercise 2.2. Translate into English:

быть студентом (студенткой) дневного отделения

• рассказать вам о...

• в будние дни

• просыпаться — вставать в 7 часов утра

• включать магнитофон

• принимать душ

• чистить зубы

• одеваться

• слушать последние новости

• У меня уходит час, чтобы добраться до института

• ездить на автобусе (троллейбусе, трамвае)

• опаздывать на занятия

• заканчиваться в 15:50 вечера

• пропускать занятия

• сдать экзамены успешно

• время от времени

• подготовиться к занятиям

• как правило

• устать

• приходить домой

• быть дома

• иметь свободное время

Exercise 2.3. Tell about your typical day. The following questions will help you:

1. Do you get up early?

2. Is it easy for you to get up early?

3. Do you wake up yourself or does your alarm-clock wake you up?

4. Do you do your morning exercises?

5. What do you prefer: a hot or a cold shower in the morning?

6. How long does it take you to get dressed?

7. What do you usually have for breakfast?

8. Some people look through newspapers or listen to the latest news on the radio while having breakfast. What about you?

9. When do you usually leave your house?

10. Do you work? If yes, where?

11. How long does it take you to get to your Academy (Institute)?

12. Do you go there by bus/trolley-bus or walk?

13. Where do you usually have lunch (dinner)?

14. What time do you come home?

15. How long does it take you to do your homework?

16. How do you usually spend your evenings?

17. Do you have a lot of free time?

18. Do you play any musical instrument?

19. Are you fond of listening to music?

20. What kind of music do you prefer?

21. Do you collect anything (stamps, records, postcards, coins, matchboxes, etc.)?

22. What time do you usually go to bed?

Exercise 2.4. Tell about:

a) the working-day of your father or mother

b) the usual weekend at home

c) the best day of your life

d) a holiday spent with your friends or relatives (New Year's day, Christmas, 8th of March)

e) the working day of famous people (writers, artists, politicians etc.)


Hi, nice to meet you all!

My name is Nick Price. I am a freshman at MIT — Massachusetts Institute of Technology. I am not from Boston myself. I was born in Vermilion, Ohio, not far from Cleveland.

My family is not very rich, that is why I can't afford to live on a campus. But it is a rule, that every student must reside during his or her freshman year on the campus. To cover some of the expenses I've got to work part-time on the campus. I work in cafeteria.

Now let me tell you about my usual working day. I wake up at seven in the morning. My alarm-clock radio is tuned to my favourite radio station. My roommate Todd Hall is a football player. He jogs every morning at 6:30. He is still out jogging when I get up. First I take a cold shower and brush my teeth. Then I dress myself up and rush to work — to the University cafeteria. I wash dishes and clean the tables. It is not a very interesting job, I know that, but soon I'll be a cook and will earn more. My boss Suzie is very strict but very nice when you do your job properly.

My first class starts at 11:15. The professor is never late for his classes. The lecture hall we sit in has about 100 seats. MIT is a very big school. I think that it is the best school of science and technology in the US.

At 2:00 p.m. I eat lunch at school cafeteria. The food is free for me because I work there. I am a vegetarian and I don't like drinks with caffeine. I prefer cool filtered water or juice.

Then I have two more classes. I need to go to the library right after the classes to do my homework. There I meet my friends and we talk a lot. Twice a week I play basketball with my friends. I swim once a week. Usually after library we go out to the cafe or just sit outside and talk.

I have dinner at 6:00 p.m. at the little Chinese restaurant not too far from the dormitory or I cook myself in the kitchen in my dorm. My favourite food is salami pizza and potato salad.

After dinner I watch TV or play ping-pong with my friends. When it is Friday, we go to the football game.

I usually read before I go to bed. It calms me down after the long day. I guess, that's pretty much it for now. See you later!

General understanding:

1. Where does Nick Price study?

2. What year of study is he in?

3. Is Nick from Boston?

4. Is Nick's family a rich one?

5. What is Nick's job? Do you think he enjoys it?

6. Is Massachusetts Institute of Technology a good school?

7. Where does Nick spend his evenings?

8. What does Nick usually do on Friday nights?


§ 1. Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий

1. Односложные (и некоторые двусложные) прилагательные и наречия образуют сравнительную степень путем прибавления суффикса -еr, превосходную путем прибавления суффикса -est:

high — higher — the highest (высокий — выше — самый высокий),

big — bigger — the biggest (большой — больше — самый большой).

Прилагательные и наречия, оканчивающиеся на -у, меняют окончание на -ier и -iest.

Конечная согласная у односложных прилагательных и наречий удваивается.

Например: happy — happier — the happiest. hot — hotter — the hottest

2. Многосложные прилагательные и наречия, оканчивающиеся на -1у, образуют

сравнительную степень путем прибавления слов more (less),

превосходную путем прибавления слов most (least)

interesting — more (less) interesting — most (least) interesting,

easily — more (less) easily — most (least) easily.

3. Ряд прилагательных и наречий являются исключениями:

good, well (хороший, хорошо) — better (лучше) — the best (самый хороший),

bad (плохой) — worse (хуже) — the worst (самый плохой)

little (маленький, мало) — less (меньше) — the least (наименьший)

many (much) — more — the most

far — farther (further) — the farthest (furthest)

Существительное, определяемое прилагательным в превосходной степени, всегда имеет определенный артикль: the largest building.

Exercise 2.5. Make up comparative and superlative forms of the listed below adjectives (прилагательные) and adverbs (наречия):

1. large, tall, long, easy, hot, big, cold, nice, bad, strong, short, wide, good, happy, high, low, busy, well, little, many, far.

2. wonderful, necessary, quickly, interesting, comfortable, popular, active, famous, pleasant, beautiful, slowly, clearly.

Exercise 2.6. Open the brackets using the right form of adjectives:

1. Winter is (cold) season of the year. 2. Moscow is (large) than St. Petersburg. 3. Which is (long) day of the year? 4. The Alps are (high) mountains in Europe. 5. Even (long) day has an end. 6. It is one of (important) questions of our conference. 7. Your English is (good) now. 8. Who knows him (well) than you? 9. We have (little) interest in this work than you. 10. Health is (good) than wealth. 11. Your son worked (well) of all. 12. Today you worked (slowly) than usually.

Exercise 2.7. Translate the sentences:

1. This book is not so interesting as that one. 2. The Baltic Sea is not so warm as the Black Sea. 3. The more you read, the more you know. 4. My brother is not as tall as you are. 5. The earlier you get up, the more you can do. 6. Today the wind is as strong as it was yesterday. 7. Your room is as light as mine. 8. John knows Russian as well as English. 9. Mary is not so lazy as her brother. 10. The longer the night is, the shorter the day. 11. The less people think, the more they talk.

Exercise 2.8. Translate the sentences:

1. Лев Толстой — один из самых популярных писателей в мире.

2. Этот роман интереснее, чем тот.

3. Ваш дом выше нашего? Нет, он такой же высокий, как и ваш.

4. Это — самая прекрасная картина во всей коллекции.

5. Население Российской Федерации больше населения Великобритании.

6. Он выполнил работу быстрее, чем вы.

7. Австралия — одна из наименее населенных стран.

8. Его работа лучше вашей, но работа Анны — самая лучшая.

9. Россия — самая большая страна в мире.

10. Я живу не так далеко от института, как мой друг.

11. В июле столько же дней, сколько и в августе.

12. Самолет быстрее, чем поезд.

§ 2. Порядок слов в английском предложении

В английском предложении каждый член предложения, как правило, имеет свое определенное место. Так, в простом распространенном повествовательном предложении на первом месте стоит

1) подлежащее, за ним следует

2) сказуемое, далее идет

3) дополнение (беспредложное, прямое, предложное) и затем

4) обстоятельства (образа действия, места, времени).

Например: 1) I 2) gave 3) my brother 3) a book 4) yesterday.

Exercise 2.9. Build the sentences from the words:

a) Is, best, she, friend, my.

b) Learn, different, students, our, subjects.

c) The, is, Russia, the, in, country, largest, world.

d) In, the, we, city, live, a, flat, in, of, center, the.

e) Reading, is, my, of, best, son's, fond, friend.

§ 3. Основные типы вопросов, используемые в английском языке

1. Общий вопрос

Общий вопрос относится ко всему предложению в целом, и ответом на него будут слова yes или по:

Do you like ice-cream? — Yes, I do.

Can you speak English? — Yes, I can.

Are you a schoolboy? — No, I am not.

Have you bought a text book? — Yes, I have.

Порядок слов в общем вопросе

1) вспомогательный глагол (модальный, глагол-связка),

2) подлежащее (существительное или местоимение),

3) смысловой глагол (или дополнение).

2. Специальный вопрос

Специальный вопрос относится к какому-нибудь члену предложения или их группе и требует конкретного ответа:

What is your name? — My name is Peter.

Where do you live? — I live in Rostov.

Порядок слов в специальном вопросе

1) вопросительное слово (what, where, who, when, how и т.д.),

2) вспомогательный глагол (модальный, глагол-связка),

3) подлежащее,

4) смысловой глагол,

5) дополнения,

6) обстоятельства (места, времени, образа действия и т.д.).

В специальных вопросах, обращенных к подлежащему в Present и Past Indefinite, не употребляется вспомогательный глагол do (did) и сохраняется прямой порядок слов:

Who wants to go to the cinema? Who lives in this house?

3. Альтернативный вопрос

Альтернативный вопрос предполагает выбор из двух возможностей:

Do you like coffee or tea? Вы любите кофе или чай?

Альтернативный вопрос начинается как общий вопрос, затем следует разделительный союз or и вторая часть вопроса.

4. Разделительный вопрос (Tail Question)

Разделительный вопрос состоит из двух частей. Первая часть — это повествовательное предложение (утвердительное или отрицательное), вторая, отделенная запятой от первой — краткий вопрос (tail «хвостик»):

You are a pupil, aren't you? Вы ученик, не правда ли?

Если в повествовательной части разделительного вопроса содержится утверждение, то во второй — отрицание. Если в повествовательной части — отрицание, то во второй части, как правило, — утверждение:

You are a student, aren't you?

You don't go to school every day, do you?

Exercise 2.10. Read and translate into English:

1. She is a student.

Is she a student?

Yes, she is. / No, she isn't.

2. He speaks English well.

Does he speak English well?

Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't.

3. They have many books.

Have they many books?

Yes, they have. / No, they haven't.

4. The weather was fine yesterday.

Was the weather fine yesterday?

Yes, it was. / No, it wasn't.

5. We saw a new film yesterday.

Did we see a new film yesterday?

Yes, we did. / No, we didn't.

6. You can read well.

Can you read well?

Yes, you can. / No, you can't.

7. There will be five lessons tomorrow.

Will there be five lessons tomorrow?

Yes, there will. / No, there will not (won't).

Exercise 2.11. Put the questions to the following sentences:

1. общие

2. специальные

3. разделительные

1. There is a book on the table. 2. He must work hard today. 3. We are leaving for Moscow next week. 4. We were reading the whole evening. 5. They don't go to work on Sunday. 6. It is not cold today. 7. Ann has already begun to read a new book. 8. We learn English at school. 9. They will show you how to get there. 10. They finished the translation before the end of the lesson. 11. I didn't feel well that evening. 12. It wasn't difficult to do this task.

Exercise 2.12. Read and translate the sentences:.

1. Our family lives in a three-room flat.

Does your family live in a three-room flat or in a house?

It lives in a three-room flat.

2. They went to the same school.

Did they go to the same school or to different schools?

They went to the same school.

3. He will read this book tomorrow.

Will he read this text tomorrow or next week?

He will read it tomorrow.

4. They are playing chess now.

Are they playing chess or cards now?

They are playing chess.

5. Our teacher has told us to write.

Has our teacher told us to write or to read?

He has told us to write.

Exercise 2.13. Translate the sentences into English:

1. Вам нравится больше английский язык или французский?

2. Он живет в Ростове или в области?

3. Она его младшая или старшая сестра?

4. Студенты уже сдали экзамены или нет?

5. Петровы поедут летом на юг или на север?

6. Ваш друг учится в академии или в университете?

7. Он знает ее лучше или вы?

Exercise 2.14. Write down alternative questions to the following sentences:

1. Our teacher knows several foreign languages. 2. He has graduated from our University last year. 3. We shall go to Samara next week. 4. They are working in our garden. 5. I have just read this book. 6. I took this book from my friend. 7. He likes reading books. 8. She has many relatives abroad. 9. They were in many countries. 10. Russia is the largest country in the world.


I. Гласные звуки [а:], [], дифтонги [э], [ei].

II. Text A: «My Academy»,

Text В: «Moscow Slate University».

III. §1. Безличные и неопределенно-личные предложения.

§2. Неопределенные местоимения some, any, отрицательное местоимение по и их производные.

Гласный звук [а:]

При произнесении английского гласного [а:] рот открыт почти как для русского звука, но язык отодвигается дальше назад и книзу и лежит плоско. Кончик языка оттянут от нижних зубов. Губы не растянуты и не выдвинуты вперед.

Гласный звук []

При произнесении краткого гласного [], губы немножко растянуты, язык отодвинут назад, несколько глубже, чем для русского звука [а]. Кончик языка находится у нижних зубов, напоминает русский звук [а] в словах камыш, сады, валы.

Дифтонг [э]. Ядро звука — гласный похожий на русский звук в слове это. Скольжение происходит в направлении нейтрального гласного с оттенком звука.

Дифтонг [ei]. Дифтонг, ядром которого является гласный, а скольжение происходит в направлении гласного. Произнося дифтонг необходимо следить за тем, чтобы ядро не было таким широким, как русский гласный [э], а второй элемент не превращался в русский звук [й].

Exercise A

care — dare — rare

date — may — pay

car — far — bar

fare — fair — hair

lay — hay — Ray

half — calf — bath

Exercise D

part — park — fart

Exercise С

us — bus

cart — barter — shark

tape — hate — bate

tub — mud

spark — bath — mark

mate — plate — Kate

must — sum

park — raft — plant

late — fate — rate

humble — tumble

Exercise В

brave — maple — main

sun — hunt

mare — air — pair

pain — name — day

trust — last


Hello again! Now let me tell you about my Polytechnical Academy. I am really glad that I study here. It is one of the finest country's higher educational institutions. Many famous people have graduated from my Academy, and not only engineers or scientists, but many outstanding writers, actors, showmen and politicians. Studying at our Academy gives a solid background in all spheres of knowledge and prepares for practical work.

Our Academy is quite large and old. It was founded in the 19th century by the famous Russian inventor Vladimir Komarov. First, it was a small department of a large University, but later it was rearranged into an independent institution. Nowadays it is a large school where more than 5,000 students are currently enrolled. About 3,000 are full-time students, like me, and the rest are part time-students. There are also about 150 graduate students. They conduct independent research work and have pedagogical practice.

The course of study at my academy lasts five years. There are many faculties in my academy. Here are some of them: the faculty of industrial automation and robotics, the faculty of plastics, the faculty of machine tools and the faculty of metalworking.

Our academy is large and we have several buildings. One of the buildings is for lectures and seminars only. There are many large halls there so that students of 3-4 groups together can fit in there. And that is more than 100 people. The acoustics [э'ku:stiks] in such large halls is very good but sometimes it is very noisy when students chat during the lecture.

We have two laboratory buildings which are equipped with up-to-date equipment and there students can carry on lab works and conduct various experiments. Many students from my group do their own research work.

There are several cafes at the academy. My favourite one is situated in a separate one-storeyed building and people say that this is the oldest canteen or student's cafe. The food there is tasty and very affordable.

There are also several dormitories or hostel buildings where students from other cities live. But you know already that I don't live in a dormitory — I rent an apartment.


currently — в настоящее время

to be enrolled — числиться в списках студентов

full-time students — студенты дневного отделения

part time-students — студенты вечернего отделения

to conduct — проводить

course of study — курс обучения

industrial automation — промышленная автоматика

robotics — робототехника

plastics — пластмассы

machine-tools — станки

metalworking — металлообработка

figure [f'igэ] — фигура, цифра

noisy — шумный

to chat — беседовать, болтать

to be equipped with — быть оборудованным

up-to-date equipment — современное оборудование

carry on — проводить

research work — исследовательская работа

one-storeyed — одноэтажное

tasty ['teisti] — вкусный

affordable — доступная (to afford — позволять)


classroom — класс, аудитория

lecture hall — лекционный зал

laboratory — лаборатория

gym (gymnasium) — спортзал

semester (term) — семестр

school year — учебный год

course of studies — курс обучения

academy — академия

university — университет

institute — институт

faculty, college, department — факультет (ex. College of physics — факультет физики)

department, chair of... — кафедра

head of the department, chief of the department, chair (man, woman) — зав. кафедрой

substitute — заместитель

teaching instructor (TI) — преподаватель

professor — профессор

dean — декан

Rector — ректор

teaching staff, faculty members — преподавательский состав

full-time student — студент(ка) дневного отделения

part-time student — студент(ка) «вечерник»

student of distant education — студент(ка) «заочник»

student of preparatory courses — слушатель подкурсов, «подкурсник» undergraduate student — студент 1-4(5) курсов

graduate student — студент 5-6 курсов (магистрант, аспирант)

Exercise 3.1. Tell about:

a) your secondary school (college)

b) the faculty of your university

c) your favourite teacher at school.

Exercise 3.2. Do you know?

1) When was your University or Academy established?

2) Who was the first Rector?

3) Were there any famous a) scientists, engineers b) politicians c) artists among the graduates of your Institute?

4) How many people are currently enrolled?

5) What is the most popular faculty in your Academy?

Exercise 3.3. Do you agree or disagree with the following statements:

a) Larger schools are better than smaller ones.

b) It is impossible to enter the university if you haven't attended preparatory courses.

c) The best professors are the oldest ones.

d) It is better to live in a dormitory or student hostel than to rent an apartment.

e) Professors always know more than students and teaching instructors.


Moscow State University is the oldest, autonomous, self-governing and state-supported institution of higher learning, founded in 1755 by the scientist Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov. Located in Moscow, the university is composed of faculties of biology, chemistry, computational mathematics and cybernetics, economics, foreign languages, fundamental medicine, geography, geology, history, journalism, law, mechanics and mathematics, physics, psychology, sociology, and soil sciences, as well as an institute of Asian and African Studies. Several museums, colleges, and a number of institutes are affiliated with Moscow University, and a preparatory faculty teaches Russian language and other subjects to foreign students.

Except for the science faculties and some of the arts faculties — which are situated in south-western Moscow — the remainder of the faculties are located in the older university buildings in the centre of the city. A diploma in a given field of study is awarded after five or five and a half years of study. After three additional years and the completion of a thesis, the kandidat nauk degree is awarded. The highest degree, the Doctor of Sciences, may be attained upon completion of a thesis based on independent research.


А) Безличные и неопределенно-личные предложения.

Английские предложения отличаются от русских тем, что в них всегда есть подлежащее и сказуемое. Поэтому в безличных предложениях, когда нет подлежащего, используется в качестве формального подлежащего местоимение it.

It is cold today. Сегодня холодно.

Как видим, безличные предложения такого типа состоят из местоимения it, которое не переводится, глагола-связки в нужном по смыслу времени и именной части сказуемого, выраженного чаще всего именем прилагательным. Именная часть может быть также выражена именем существительным или именем числительным.

It's nice to meet you. Приятно познакомиться.

It is nine o'clock now. Сейчас девять часов.

Очень часто безличные предложения описывают явление природы, состояние погоды, обозначают время, расстояние.

Вопросительная и отрицательная формы безличных предложений образуются по тем же правилам, что и вопросительные и отрицательные формы предложений с именным составным сказуемым.

Is it cold? Холодно?

Wasn't it interesting? Разве это не было интересно?

Частица not ставится после первого вспомогательного глагола.

Exercise 3.4. Переведите на английский язык.

1. Сегодня холодно. 2. Идет снег целый день. 3. Сейчас утро. 4. Было приятно познакомиться с вашим другом. 5. Поздно. Пора спать. 6. Разве это не смешно? 7. Сейчас уже 10 часов утра. 8. На улице холодно? 9. Сейчас ранняя весна, но уже тепло. 10. Это далеко отсюда?

В) Неопределенные местоимения some. any. отрицательное местоимение по и их производные.

Употребление some и any, а также их производных определяется типом предложения.

В утвердительном предложении употребляются, как правило, местоимение some и его производные:

Give me something to read, please. I met him somewhere before.

В вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях обычно используются местоимение any и его производные:

Have you seen him anywhere? Is there anything I can do for you?

В отрицательных предложениях используется либо местоимение any и его производные:

I cannot find this book anywhere.

либо отрицательное местоимение по

There is nobody in that room. There isn't anybody in that room.

Различия между местоимениями any и some в степени неопределенности, поэтому иногда местоимение any можно встретить и в утвердительных предложениях:

You can find this book anywhere. Эту книгу вы можете найти где угодно.

Exercise 3.5. Make 16 pronouns and translate them:

Образец: some + body = somebody кто-то, кто-нибудь

some body

any one

no thing

every where

Exercise 3.6. Insert somebody, anybody, nobody or everybody:

l. The question was so difficult that... could answer it. 2.... left his bag in our classroom yesterday. 3. Has... in this group got a dictionary? 4. I am afraid there is... in the office now. It is too late. 5.... knows that water is necessary for plants. 6. Is there... here who knows English? 7. You must find... who can help you. 6.... knew anything about our home task. 9.... can answer this question. It is very easy. 10. There is... in the next room. I don't know him. 11. Please tell us the story,... knows it. 12. Is there... in my group who lives in the hostel? 13. Has... here got a red pencil?

Exercise 3.7. Translate into English:

1. Тут есть кто-нибудь? 2. В саду никого нет. 3. В нашей комнате есть кто-нибудь? 4. В классе есть кто-то. 5. Там никого нет. 6. В саду есть кто-нибудь? 7. На столе есть что-нибудь? — Нет, там ничего нет. 8. В сумке что-то есть. 9. В этой книге есть что-нибудь интересное? 10. На стене есть какие-нибудь картины? — Да, там есть несколько. 11. В кабинете директора есть кто-нибудь? — Нет, там никого нет. 12. В нашей библиотеке есть какие-то книги на английском языке. 13. В вашей библиотеке есть какие-нибудь книги на английском языке? 14. Мой друг не хочет мне ничего сказать. 15. Я хочу провести летние каникулы где-нибудь на берегу Черного моря. 16. Если вы голодны, поищите что-нибудь в холодильнике. 17. Расскажите нам все о вашем путешествии. 18. Никто нигде не помог ему.


I. Гласные звуки [u:], [u].

II. Text A: «Sochi».

Text B: «Rostov-on-Don».

II1.§1. Местоимения little и few и местоименные выражения a little и a few.

§2. Оборот there is / there are.

Гласный звук [u:]

При произнесении долгого гласного звука [u:] губы напряжены и сильно округлены, но гораздо меньше выдвинуты вперед, чем при русском звуке [у]: moon. На письме передается буквосочетанием двойное О, за исключением случаев перед буквой k.

Например: soonскоро, вскоре, moonлуна

Исключение: book — книга (краткое и)

Гласный звук [u]

При произнесении краткого гласного звука [u] губы заметно округлены, но не выдвинуты вперед, язык оттянут назад, но несколько меньше, чем для и: (u долгого). Звук напоминает безударный русский звук [у] в словах пустой, тупой, произнесенный без выдвижения губ вперед:

hook — крюк, look взгляд

Запомните слова, в которых в качестве исключения произносится [u]: put — класть, pull — тянуть, push — толкать, full — полный

Exercise A

Exercise С

Exercise D

too — tooth — food

boot — fool — foot

soon — spoon — tooth

boot — mood — shook

fool — pool — hook

fool — too — book

cook — boot — loop

foot — cool — mood

pull (тянуть) — pool (бассейн)

tool (инструмент) — full (полный)

Exercise В

shook - soon - spoon - moon

took — shook — nook

hook — look — cook

Text A: «SOCHI»

«Big Sochi — the best place on the Earth!»

Hello, everyone! Here is Ann Sokolova again. This time I'll tell you about my lovely hometown — Sochi. I am sure everyone knows where Sochi is. For those who are not really sure I remind that it is situated on the Black Sea coast about 1500 km south from Moscow.

But what makes this city so special? Sochi is called the city of three seasons because there's no winter here. As we usually say, «the golden autumn slowly turns into the early spring.» When golden leaves slowly fall down on the earth the first flowers begin to blossom. Sochi is the only northern subtropical city in Russia. One can bathe in the Black Sea from May till October because the water of the Black Sea is still warm. The water of the Black Sea contains many chemical substances such as iodine, chlorine, bromine, sulphates, carbonates, sodium, potassium, etc. All of them react with your body and make you healthier. There are many mineral water springs in Sochi and its area.

Have you ever heard the name Big Sochi? Sochi is one of the most stretched cities along the sea coast — it is 148 km long! Small towns and cities Adler, Khosta, Kudepsta, Dagomys and Lazarevskoye belong to Big Sochi!

The history of this area goes back to the ancient times. One can call this area «the Cradle of Mankind». People came here from the Asia Minor 400-350 thousand years ago. There are more than 150 historical places of interest in the area. Here the camps and caves of prehistoric people have been found.

The dolmens — massive prehistoric grave structures from the 2nd thousand B.C. are the features of the Bronze era. The most ancient five-stone dolmens are found in the Sochi area. Travellers of the 19th century called dolmens «the houses of the giants» because each grave stone weighs from 500 to 3000 kg. It is still uncertain what technical developments made it possible to construct such structures.

The rich lands of Caucasus always attracted invaders: Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Genuese, Turks.

In the VIth century B.C. the Black Sea coast attracted Greek colonists, who have based a number of trade-settlements, such as Dioscuria (modern city of Sukhumi), Pitiunt (Pitsunda), Triglif (Gagra).

Christian religion was brought over from the Byzantynne three centuries earlier than to Russia. In the end of Xth — beginning of the XIth centuries A.D. the first known Christian constructions were built in Loo, Galitsino and Veseloye.

During the XVIIIth-XIXth centuries Russia conducted long wars with Turkey for the exit to the Black Sea. In 1829, after the end of Russian-Turkish war, by the peace treaty the Black Sea coast of Caucasus, from the mouth of the Kuban river up to a fort St.Nicholas (to the south of modern city Poti), has departed to Russia.

Symbol of the victory of the Russian weapon in the war of 1829 is the monument near modern hotel «Leningrad» — «Anchor and Cannon».

The end of Russian-Turkish war has not solved all the problems of strengthening of Russia on the Black Sea coast. The Black Sea coastal line consisting of 17 forts was created with this purpose.

On April 21st, 1838 a small wooden fortress was established in the Sochi river area to protect this land from local tribes. It was named Alexandria in honour of emperess Alexandra. It was renamed one year later, on May 18, 1839 and became Navaginskoye. But in 1854, because of the beginning of the Crimean war, the fortress was destroyed by Russian army. Russians left this area. Only 10 years later, on March 25th, 1864 the new fortress named Dakhovskiy was established on the place of the Navaginskiy fortress.

In 1896 by the decision of the Tsarist government fortress Dakhovskiy was renamed in the settlement of Sochi, after the name of the river Sochi.

In the end of XIXth century the Black Sea coast was intensively occupied by the immigrants from central parts of Russia, Moldova, the Ukraine, Byelorussia, Georgia and Armenians and Greeks from Turkey. The Sochi district becomes multinational area of Russian Empire.

In Soviet times Sochi was a quickly developing port, industrial and resort city on the Black Sea. The fast development of the city and construction of modern houses was due to Joseph Stalin's sympathy to this place. Many streets in the center of Sochi look like the center of Moscow built in 30s and 50s.

Until now the favourite residence of Russian Presidents was Bocharov creek (ручей). Ski resorts of Krasnaya polyana, warm blue waters of Black Sea, luxurious tennis courts create irresistable atmosphere around the place.

I guess, I have taken a lot of your attention already. You know yourself what a popular resort is Sochi nowadays. Just buy the ticket and have your suitcases packed!


to remind — напоминать

to turn into — прeвращаться (во что-либо)

blossom — цвести

chemical substances — химические вещества

iodine — йод

chlorine — хлор

bromine — бром

sulphate сульфат

carbonates — карбонаты

sodium — натрий

potassium — калий

to be stretched — быть вытянутым

events — события, мероприятия

«the Cradle of Mankind» — «колыбель человечества»

B.C. (Before Christ) — до н.э.

Asia Minor — п-ов Малая Азия

camp — лагерь

cave [keiv] — пещера

Bronze era — бронзовый век

pre-historic — доисторический

grave structures — могильники

dolmens — дольмены

features — особенности

to weigh — весить

uncertain — неопреленный

construct — возводить, строить

attract — привлекать

invader — захватчик

trade-settlements — торговые поселения, фактории

Byzantynne — Византия

A.D. — (Anno Domini) — нашей эры (н.э.)

to conduct — проводить

exit — выход

peace treaty ['tri:ti] — мирный договор

mouth of the river — устье реки

weapon — оружие

anchor — якорь

cannon — пушка

purpose — цель

fortress — форт, укрепление

in honour of emperess Alexandra — в честь императрицы Александры

to be occupied — быть занятым, заселенным

due to — благодаря (кому-либо, чему-либо)

luxurious — роскошный

irresistible — неотразимый


village — село, деревня

cossack's settlement — казачья станица

town — небольшой город

suburbs — пригороды

city — крупный город

center of the region — районный центр

capital of the republic — столица республики

capital of the federal district — столица федерального округа

ancient history — древняя история

medieval history — средневековая история

Dark Ages — средние века

Tsarist's Russia — царская Россия

Great October revolution — Великая октябрьская революция

Great Patriotic War — Великая Отечественная война

WWII (World War II) — вторая мировая война

soviet times — советские времена

former USSR — бывший СССР

c) historical center — исторический центр

cultural center — культурный центр

trade center — торговый центр

transport center — транспортный центр

Exercise 4.1. Translate into English:

1. Мой родной город был основан во время царствования Николая I.

2. Первое укрепление на месте современного Сочи было названо в честь императрицы Александры.

3. Во время Великой отечественной войны немецкие войска дважды захватывали наш город.

4. Владимир — один из древнейших русских городов.

5. Мягкий климат и плодородные земли всегда привлекали захватчиков на берега Кубани.

6. Великий русский изобретатель Владимир Комаров жил и работал в нашем городе.

7. Современный Новороссийск — это крупнейший портовый город на побережье Черного моря.

8. Наш город является одновременно крупным индустриальным и историческим центром региона.

Exercise 4.2. Answer the following questions:

1. Do you study in your hometown or you just live here while studying?

2. Do you like the city where you study? Why and why not?

3. Do you know the history of your hometown?

4. When was your hometown founded?

5. Do you know any famous people who were born in your hometown?

6. What are the places of interest in your hometown?

7. What is your favourite place in your hometown?

Exercise 4.3. Derive the adjective (прилагательное) from the noun (существительное):

history — historical

military —

culture —

science —

industry —

trade —

agriculture —

administration —

politics —


Rostov-on-Don, the capital of the Southern federal district and Rostov region, is a comparatively young city. Not so long ago Rostovites celebrated its 250th anniversary. The city was founded in 1749 when a custom-house on the Temernik river was set up. According to a legend, Tsar Peter the First tried the water from a spring when he stopped on the right bank of the Don on his way to Azov. He was so pleased with the taste of water that he called the spring «Bogaty istochnik» — Rich spring. The name of the spring gave the name to the street. The water is being bottled now and sold all over the country.

But only years later, after the death of Tsar Peter I, under the rule of Katherine II a fortress was built here. The main purpose of the fortress was to support the customs effectively operating in this trade and transport active region. The fortress was named after Dimitry Rostovsky, the Archbishop of Rostov the Great. The town grew later on, round the walls of the fortress and it was also called «Rostov which lies on the river Don».

Rostov is situated on the right bank of the river Don, not far from the Sea of Azov. Due to its geographical position the city grew rapidly.

After the hard years of the Civil War Rostovites restored the ruined economy of the region.

During the World War II Rostov was occupied by the Germans twice. They destroyed almost all the city. Nowadays Rostov is the largest city in the South of the country. It's a big sea and river port and an important railway junction. Rostov is called «The Gateway to the Caucasus».

The main branch of industry is agricultural machine building. «Rostselmash» is a giant machine building plant producing a lot of agricultural machines. Factories of Rostov produce champagne, cigarettes, musical instruments which are well-known abroad. There is also a big helicopter plant in Rostov.

Rostov is the cultural centre of the Rostov region. There are many educational establishments in Rostov including the Rostov State University founded in Warsaw in 1815. There are six theatres in Rostov (Gorky Drama Theatre, Philharmonic, Puppet Theatre, Theatre of Musical Comedy, Theatre of Young Spectators and Musical Theatre).

There are two museums (Local Lore Museum, Fine Arts Museum), eight stadiums, several Palaces of Culture, a lot of cinemas, libraries, parks and gardens.

Rostov is famous for many prominent people who lived here.

The city is very green. There are a lot of parks in the city. In summer you can see a lot of people on the beach on the left bank of the Don river.

General understanding:

1. What is the status of Rostov-on-Don now?

2. Is Rostov-on-Don an old city?

3. What role did Peter the Great play in the history of Rostov-on-Don?

4. Why did Peter the Great call the spring «rich».

5. When was the first fortress built? How was it called?


§1. Местоимения little и few и местоименные выражения a little и a few.

Местоимение little и местоименное выражение a little употребляются с неисчисляемыми существительными, местоимение few и местоименное выражение a few с исчисляемыми:

Give me a little water, please. There is little milk in the bottle.

I have a few friends in Minsk I've got only few pencils in the box.

Местоимения few и little означают «мало», а местоименные выражения a few и a little «немного».

Much (много) употребляется с неисчисляемыми существительными, many (много) — с исчисляемыми.

Exercise 4.4. Insert much, many, little, a little, few, a few:

1. I'd like to say... words about my travelling. 2. She gave him... water to wash his hands and face. 3. He had... English books at home, so he had to go to the library. 4. After the lesson everybody felt... tired. 5. Let's stay here... longer. I like it here. 6. There were... new words in the text and Peter spent... time learning them. 7. There was... sugar in the bowl, and we had to put... sugar there. 8. My mother knows German... and she can help you with the translation of this text. 10. When we walked... farther down the road we met another group of pupils. 11. Have you got... time before the lesson?

Exercise 4.5. Translate into English:

Много тетрадей, много молока, много воды, много дней, много газет, много мела, много снега, много лет, много картин, много музыки, много сахара, много чая, много лимонов, много мяса, много комнат, много учителей, много работы, много воздуха, много птиц, много машин.

Exercise 4.6. Insert much or many:

1. Please don't ask me... questions. 2. How... money have you got? 3.1 never eat... bread with soup. 4. Why did you eat so... ice-cream? 5. She wrote us... letters from the country. 6.... of these students don't like to look up words in the dictionary. 7.... in this work was too difficult for me. 8. He spent... time writing his composition in Literature. 9. There were... plates on the table. 10. Thank you very... ! 11.... of my friends are preparing for their entrance examinations now. 12. I don't like... sugar in my tea.

Exercise 4.7. Translate into English:

1. В стакане есть немного молока. 2. В тетради осталось мало чистых страниц. 3. У тебя много кофе? — Нет, очень мало. 4. Немногие из англичан говорят по-русски. 5. У них здесь очень мало друзей. 6. У него очень мало времени для чтения. 7. У Петра много русских книг и мало английских книг. 8. У меня есть немного времени вечером, чтобы закончить эту работу. 9. Я провожу много времени в библиотеке, потому что я готовлюсь к экзаменам.

§2. Оборот there is / there are.

Оборот there is / there are служит для выражения наличия (отсутствия) какого-либо предмета в определенном месте или в определенное время. Формы прошедшего и будущего времени: there was, there were и there will be.

There are some pictures on the wall. На стене несколько картин.

There was nobody in the room. В комнате никого не было.

Выбор формы глагола to be зависит от числа существительного, следующего сразу за ним:

There is a chair and two armchairs in the room.

There are two armchairs and a chair in the room. Вопросительные предложения с оборотом there is / there are строятся следующим образом

Общий вопрос: Is there anything in the bag? Will there be lessons tomorrow?

Специальный вопрос: What is there in the bag?

Разделительный вопрос. There are some pupils in the classroom, aren't there?

Exercise 4.8. Insert to be in the right form:

1.There... a telegram on the table. 2.... there any telegrams from Moscow? Yes, there... some. 3.... there... a flight for Moscow tomorrow? Yes, there.... 4. There... much snow last winter. 5.There... a lot of stars and planets in space. 6.... there... a lift in your future house? Yes, there....... 7. Some years ago there... many old houses in our street. 8.... there any lectures yesterday? No, there... 9.... there a lamp over the table? Yes, there.... 10.... there any interesting stories in this book? 11.... there a test last lesson? No, there.... 12. Soon there...... a new film on.

Exercise 4.9. Translate the following sentences and put general questions to them:

1. There are some new pupils in our group. 2. There is no book on the table. 3. There were many old houses in our street. 4. There are 4 seasons in a year. 5. There will be a conference next week. 6. There are many large cities in our country. 7. There was nobody in the room. 8. There are 7 days in a week. 9. There is something on the shelf. 10. There are many places of interest in London. 11. There are many beautiful flowers in our garden. 12. There was much work last week.

Exercise 4.10. Rewrite the following sentences in Past Indefinite and Future Indefinite, translate them into Russian:

1. There is much snow in winter. 2. There are 4 theatres in our city. 3. There is no lift in our house. 4. There are many new books in our library. 5. There is little milk in the bottle. 6. There are 3 rooms in our flat. 7. There is a map on the wall.


I. Гласные звуки [o:], [o], дифтонг [эu].

II. Text A: «The Russian Federation», Text B: «Moscow».

III. §1. Времена английского глагола,

§2. Правильные и неправильные глаголы.

Гласный звук [o:] — долгий гласный. Для того, чтобы правильно произнести звук, следует придать органам речи положение, как при произнесении звука [а:], затем значительно округлить губы и несколько выдвинуть их вперед.

Гласный звук [o]. Для того, чтобы произнести, следует исходить из положения органов речи при произнесении звука [а:], затем слегка округлить губы и произнести краткий звук [э].

Дифтонг [эu]. Звук представляет собой нечто среднее между русскими звуками [о] и [э]. Губы при произнесении начала этого дифтонга слегка растянуты и округлены. Скольжение происходит в направлении гласного [u].

Exercise A

more — score — tore

floor — for — form

fork — pork — sport

dawn — hawk — because

Exercise С

tone — note — smoke

cone — loan — moan

code — hope — cope

lobe — mould — gold

boat — soap — coat

Exercise В

not — top — hot

dot — mop — mob


The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about 1/6 of the Earth surface. The country is situated in Eastern Europe, Northern and Central Asia. Its total area is over 17 million square km.

Our land is washed by 12 seas, most of which are the seas of three oceans: the Arctic, the Atlantic and the Pacific. In the south and in the west the country borders on fourteen countries. It also has a sea-border with the USA.

There is hardly a country in the world where such a great variety of flora and fauna can be found as in our land. Our country has numerous forests, plains and steppes, taiga and tundra, highlands and deserts. The highest mountains in our land are the Altai, the Urals and the Caucasus. There are over two thousand rivers in the Russian Federation. The longest of them are the Volga, the Ob, the Yenisei, the Lena and the Amur. Our land is also rich in various lakes with the deepest lake in the world, the Baikal, included.

On the Russian territory there are 11 time zones. The climate conditions are rather different: from arctic and moderate to continental and subtropical. Our country is one of the richest in natural resources countries in the world: oil, natural gas, coal, different ores, ferrous and non-ferrous metals and other minerals.

The Russian Federation is a multinational state. It comprises many national districts, several autonomous republics and regions. The population of the country is about 140 million people.

Moscow is the capital of our Homeland. It is the largest political, scientific, cultural and industrial center of the country and one of the most beautiful cities on the globe. Russian is the official language of the state. The national symbols of the Russian Federation are a white-blue-red banner and a double-headed eagle.

The Russian Federation is a constitutional republic headed by the President. The country government consists of three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. The President controls only the executive branch — the government, but not the Supreme Court and Federal Assembly.

The legislative power belongs to the Federal Assembly comprising two chambers: the Council of Federation (upper Chamber) and the State Duma (lower Chamber). Each chamber is headed by the Speaker. The executive power belongs to the government (the Cabinet of Ministers) headed by the Prime Minister. The judicial power belongs to the system of Courts comprising the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and federal courts.

Our country has a multiparty system. The largest and most influential political parties are the «Unity», the Communist party, the «Fatherland-All Russia», «The Union of the Right Forces», «The Apple», Liberal-Democratic and some others.

The foreign policy of the Russian Federation is that of international cooperation, peace and friendship with all nations irrespective of their political and social systems.


to occupy — занимать

surface — поверхность

total area — общая площадь

to border on — граничить с

numerous — многочисленные

steppes — степи

taiga — тайга

highlands — горные возвышенности

the Urals — Уральские горы

the Caucasus — Кавказ

climate conditions — климатические условия

moderate — умеренный

ore —руда

ferrous and non-ferrous metals — черные и цветные металлы

state — государство

to comprise — включать, охватывать

banner — знамя, флаг

legislative — законодательный

executive — исполнительная

judicial — судебная

Federal Assembly — Федеральное Собрание

the Council of Federation — Совет Федерации

State Duma — Государственная Дума

Supreme Court — Верховный суд

influential — влиятельный

foreign policy — международная политика

irrespective — независимо

General understanding:

1. Is Russia the largest country in the world?

2. What oceans wash the borders of the Russian Federation?

3. How many countries have borders with Russia?

4. Are Russian flora and fauna various?

5. What are the highest mountains in Russia?

6. What is Baikal famous for?

7. What is the climate in Russia like?

8. What is the national symbol of Russia?

9. What does the Federal Assembly consist of?

10. Who is the head of each Chamber of the Federal Assembly?

Exercise 5.1. Translate into English:

1. Общая площадь Российской федерации составляет более 17 миллионов километров.

2. В мире вряд ли есть еще одна страна с такой разнообразной флорой и фауной.

3. Озеро Байкал — самое глубокое озеро на земном шаре и служит предметом гордости россиян.

4. На территории Российской федерации существует 11 часовых поясов.

5. Россия является конституционной республикой с президентской формой правления.

6. Законодательная власть принадлежит Федеральному Собранию, состоящему из двух палат.

7. В Российском парламенте представлены такие партии, как «Единство», КПРФ, «Отечество—Вся Россия», «Яблоко», СПС, ЛДПР.

8. Законодательная и судебная власти прямо не подчиняются Президенту.

Exercise 5.2. How well do you know your Homeland?

What is (are):

the biggest Russian lake?

the longest Russian river (in European and Asian parts of the Russian Federation)?

a city with subtropical climate?

cities with arctic climate?

agricultural regions?

old historical cities?

places of recreation and tourism?

Text B: «MOSCOW»

Moscow is the capital and largest city of Russia. It is also the capital of Moscow Oblast, and it stands on the Moskva River. Moscow is the economic, political and cultural centre of Russia. Railways and numerous airlines link the city with all parts of Russia. Navigable waterways, including the Moscow Canal, Moskva River, and Volga-Don Canal, make the port areas of the city directly accessible to shipping from the Baltic, White, Black, and Caspian seas and the Sea of Azov.

Moscow covers an area of about 880 sq.km. Concentric boulevards divide the city into several sections. At the centre of the concentric circles (and semicircles) are the Kremlin, the former governmental seat of Russia, and adjacent Red Square, which form the centre of a radial street pattern. Moscow has a modern underground system famous for its marble-walled stations.

Situated on the north bank of the Moskva River, the Kremlin is the dominant landmark of Moscow. A stone wall, up to 21 m in height and 19 towers, surrounds this triangular complex of former palaces, cathedrals, and other monuments of tsarist times, some of them dating from the Middle Ages. The Great Kremlin Palace, completed in 1849, is the most imposing structure within the Kremlin. Other notable Kremlin palaces are the Granovitaya Palace (1491) and the Terem (1636).

Among many cathedrals, now used mainly as museums, are the Cathedral of the Assumption (Успения) and the Archangel Cathedral, each with five gilded domes, and the Cathedral of the Annunciation (Благовещения) (13th-14th century), with nine gilded domes. Another landmark of the Kremlin is the Tower of Ivan the Great, a bell tower 98 m high. On a nearby pedestal is the Tsar's Bell (nearly 200 tons), one of the largest in the world. A recent addition to the Kremlin is the Palace of Congresses, completed in 1961. In this huge modern building were held meetings of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and congresses of the Communist party of the Soviet Union; theatrical and other artistic performances have been held here as well.

St Basil's Cathedral, famous for its unique architecture and coloured domes, stands at one end of Red Square.

One of the best-known sections of Moscow is the Kitaigorod (Chinese City), the ancient commercial quarter lying to the east of the Kremlin. This section is now the site of many government office buildings. Other points of interest in Moscow include the Central Lenin Stadium, comprising about 130 buildings for various sports and the tall Ostankino TV tower, which contains a revolving restaurant and an observation platform.

General understanding:

1. Where is Moscow located?

2. Is Moscow a port city?

3. How is Moscow divided into sections?

4. What is known about Moscow Underground system?

5. What are the places of interest in Moscow?

6. Why is the Kremlin the most important place of interest for tourists?

7. What Russian Orthodox cathedrals are situated inside the Kremlin?

8. What is Palace of Congresses used for at present time?

Exercise 5.3. Where are these places of interest situated?

* Granovitaya Palace

* Terem

* the Red Square

* the Kremlin

* the Great Kremlin Palace

* the Cathedral of the Assumption

* the Archangel Cathedral

* the Cathedral of the Annunciation

* the Tower of Ivan the Great

* the Tsar's Bell

* the Palace of Congresses

* St Basil's Cathedral

* the Central Lenin Stadium

Exercise 5.4. Please, write a short story about your visit to Moscow. The following questions will certainly help you:

1) Have you ever been to Moscow?

2) If yes, when was it?

3) Was it a business trip or a pleasure tour?

4) Did you fly, take a bus or a train to Moscow?

5) What railway station (airport) did you arrive at?

6) What was your first impression of Moscow?

7) What places of interest have you visited?

8) Where did you stay in Moscow?

9) How long did you stayed in Moscow?

10) Did you enjoy your visit to Moscow?


§1. Времена английского глагола.

Таблица временных форм глагола


Indefinite (Simple) Простое

Continuous Длительное

Perfect Завершенное



I write

Я пишу (вообще, обычно)

I am writing

Я пишу (сейчас)

I have written

Я (уже) написал



I wrote

Я(на)писал (вчера)

I was writing

Я писал (в тот момент)

I had written

Я написал (уже к тому моменту)



I shall/will write

Я напишу, буду писать (завтра)

I shall/will be writing

Я буду писать (в тот момент)

I shall/will have written

Я напишу (уже к тому моменту)

Глаголы в формах Indefinite (Simple) описывают обычные, повторяющиеся действия как факт — безотносительно к их длительности или к результату действия:

I go to school every day. — Я хожу в школу каждый день. В этом высказывании интересует не время, потраченное на дорогу, не процесс движения, не результат походов, а сам факт: я хожу в школу, а не на работу.

То же самое относится к прошедшему времени и к будущему:

I went to school when I was a boy. Я ходил в школу, когда был мальчиком.

I shall go to school when I grow up. Я буду ходить в школу, когда вырасту.

Отрицательная и вопросительная формы в Indefinite образуются при помощи вспомогательных глаголов do, does, did с частицей not, краткая форма: don't, doesn't, didn't. Порядок слов прямой. Вопросительные предложения образуются, как правило, простой перестановкой подлежащего и вспомогательного глагола. Вопросительные местоимения при этом стоят всегда впереди.

Не is a student. — Is he a student?

We do not write much. — Do we write much?

You have a computer. — What do you have?

She does not live in Moscow. — Does she live in Moscow?

He didn't like the film. — Did he like the film?

Особую группу составляют разъединительные вопросы, которые переводятся как утверждения плюс «не так ли?» Они применимы к любому времени. Например:

You speak English, don't you? Вы говорите по-английски, не так ли?

Но: Let us speak English, shall we? Давайте говорить по-английски, хорошо?

§2. Правильные и неправильные глаголы.

По способу образования прошедшего времени все глаголы в английском языке можно разделить на две группы: правильные и неправильные. У правильных глаголов вторая и третья формы (Past Indefinite Tense и Past Participle — простое прошедшее время и причастие прошедшего времени) совпадают между собой и образуются путем прибавления к основе глагола окончания -ed (-d):

to ask — asked, to change — changed, to receive — received, to work— worked

При этом существует ряд особенностей:

а) если глагол оканчивается на с предшествующей согласной, то буква у меняется на i и добавляется окончание -ed

to supply — supplied, to apply — applied

если глагол оканчивается на с предшествующей гласной, то буква у не меняется и добавляется окончание -ed

to stay — stayed to play — played

б) если глагол оканчивается на согласную с предшествующим кратким гласным звуком, то согласная на конце удваивается:

to stop — stopped

После звонких согласных и гласных звуков окончание -ed или -d произносится как [d] loved, said, а после глухих согласных как [t] looked.

После звуков [d] и [t] на конце слова окончание -ed (-d) произносится как [id] landed, started.

Неправильные глаголы образуют вторую и третью формы различными способами, без четких правил. Это наиболее часто употребляемые глаголы.

Глаголы в формах Continuous описывают действие как процесс, как длительность в соотнесенности с определенным моментом в прошлом, настоящем или будущем:

I am reading a book now. — Я читаю книгу (сейчас, в настоящий момент).

I was reading a book yesterday at 5 o'clock. Я читал книгу вчера в 5 часов.

I will be reading a book tomorrow at 7 o'clock. — Я буду читать книгу завтра в семь часов.

Помимо этой функции, глаголы в Present Continuous Tense выражают действие, отнесенное в ближайшее будущее:

We are leaving for Moscow in July.Мы уезжаем в Москву в июле.

Глаголы в формах Perfect выражают действие завершенное, приведшее к определенному результату (или к отсутствию результата). Можно сказать, что с помощью форм Perfect мы подводим итоги определенному периоду времени, определенных действий. Время подведения итогов — либо настоящий момент Present Perfect, либо момент в прошлом Past Perfect, либо — в будущем Future Perfect.

I have written the letter. (Present Perfect) Я (только что) написал письмо (передо мной письмо как результат).

I had written the letter when he came. (Past Perfect) Я написал письмо, когда он пришел. (2 действия, одно завершилось раньше другого)

I will have written the letter by 10 o'clock tomorrow. (Future Perfect) — Я напишу письмо к 10 часам завтpa. (действие завершится к определенному моменту времени в будущем).

Exercise 5.5. Open the brackets:

1. He (know) several foreign languages.

2. I (learn) English at school.

3. Usually the train (leave) at 10 o'clock.

4. Our grandparents (live) now in Moscow.

5. He (visit) them regularly last year.

6. As a rule I (go) to my Academy by bus.

7. She (work) abroad next year.

8. She (not like) poems.

9. Your children usually (ask) many questions.

10. At present he (work) at school.

11. My brother (like) music.

12. What you (do) yesterday?

13. His sister (go) to the seaside next July.

14. Soon we (leave) the school.

15. Who (take) his book yesterday?

Exercise 5.6. Put the verb to write in the appropriate form:

1. We often... letters to our parents.

2. What... you... now?

3. Yesterday they...... tests from 10 till 12 o'clock.

4. Who...... this letter tomorrow?

5. I...... some letters last week.

6. What... you... tomorrow at 10?

7. When I came in she...... a letter.

8. Do you often... letters to your parents?

9. I... not... this article now. I...... it in some days.

10.... he... his report at the moment?

11. What... she... in the evening yesterday?

12. As a rule he... tests well.

Exercise 5.7. Put the verbs in brackets in the right form:

1. Peter and Ann (go) away five minutes ago. 2. I (write) the letter but I (not send) it. 3. He just (go) away. 4. She already (answer) the letter. 5. She (answer) it on Tuesday. 6. I just (tell) you the answer. 7. I (read) that book in my summer holidays. 8. The greengrocer (sell) now all his vegetables. 9. He (sell) all of them half an hour ago. 10. I (not see) him for three years. I (be) glad to see him again some time. 11. What you (do)? I (copy) the text from the text-book now. 12. He (go) to Moscow next week? 13. He (not smoke) for a month. He is trying to give it up. 14. When he (arrive)? — He (arrive) at 2:00. 15. You (switch off) the light before you left the house? 16. I (read) these books when I was at school. I (like) them very much. 17. I can't go out because I (not finish) my work. 18. I already (tell) you the answer yesterday. 19. What you (do) tomorrow in the morning? 20. I (not meet) him last week. 21. I usually (leave) home at seven and (get) here at twelve. 22. Here is your watch. I just (find) it. 23. You (not have) your breakfast yet?

Exercise 5.8. Translate into English. Pay attention to the Tense used:

1. Я никогда об этом не слышал. 2. Мальчику только четыре года, но он уже научился читать. 3. Вы уже переехали на новую квартиру? 4. Вы сделали много ошибок в диктанте. 5. Вы когда-нибудь видели этого писателя? 6. В этом месяце я прочитал две новых книги. 7. Мой приятель уехал в Киев неделю назад и еще не писал мне. 8. Я не видел своего брата за последнее время. 9. Вы читали сегодня в газете статью о нашем новом театре? 10. Вы были когда-нибудь в Лондоне? — Нет, я поеду туда в этом году. 11. Вы уже прочитали эту книгу? — Как она вам понравилась? 12. Я хотел посмотреть этот фильм на прошлой неделе, но смог посмотреть его только вчера. 13. В этом году я собираюсь поступать в институт. 14. Ваш сын уже окончил институт? 15. Его дочь окончила школу в прошлом году.

Exercise 5.9. Translate into English:

1. Он писал письмо, когда я пришел к нему. 2. Он делал свою работу, пока его братья играли в футбол. 3. Я упал, когда бежал за автобусом. 4. Мы делали уроки, когда пошел дождь. 5. Когда учитель давал урок, новая ученица вошла в класс. 6. Когда зазвонил телефон, я работал в саду. 7. Я увидел своих одноклассников, когда я шел по улице. 8. Начался дождь, когда мы наблюдали за игрой.

Exercise 5.10. Put the verbs in brackets in the right form. Use Past Tenses:

1. When I (arrive) the lecture already (start). 2. Peter (sit) in a dark room with a book. I told him that he (read) in very bad light. 3. Mother (make) a cake when the light (go) out. She had to finish it in the dark. 4. When I arrived Jenny (leave), so we only had time for a few words. 5. John (have) a bath when the phone rang. He (get) out of the bath and (go) to answer it. 6. When we (come) to the airport, the plane already (land). 7. He suddenly (realize) that he (travel) in the wrong direction. 8. You looked very busy when I saw you last night. What you (do)? 9. I (call) Paul at 7.00 but it wasn't necessary because he already (get) up. 10. When I (see) him he (cross) the street. 11. While he (water) the flowers it (begin) to rain. 12. Ann said that she (be) on holiday. I (say) that I (hope) that she (enjoy) herself. 13. When I (look) through your books I (notice) that you (have) a copy of Jack London. 14. She said that she (not like) her present flat and (try) to find another. 15. When Ann (finish) her homework she (turn) on TV.

Exercise 5.11. Define the Tense and translate into English:

1. Вчера в 9 часов вечера я смотрел телевизор. 2. Она сказала, что еще не выполнила домашнее Exercise. 3. Когда пришел мой друг, я еще не закончил завтракать. 4. Когда я встретил ее впервые, она работала в школе. 5. Все студенты выполнили Exercise правильно после того, как преподаватель рассказал им, как его делать. 6. Когда мы вышли на улицу, ярко светило солнце. 7. Мой друг сказал, что его брат уже приехал. 8. Я читал книгу, когда услышал телефонный звонок. 9. После того, как врач осмотрел больного, он поговорил с его родственниками. 10. Когда мы пришли на остановку, автобус уже ушел. 11. Он смотрел телевизор, когда пришел его друг. 12. Почтальон обычно приходит в девять часов утра. Сейчас уже половина десятого, а он все еще не пришел. 13. Каждый вечер я смотрю телевизор. 14. Служащие заканчивают работу в шесть часов вечера. 15. Разве она не знала об этом? 16. Разве вы не видели этот фильм? 17. Она еще не брала своего маленького сына в театр, но уже водила его в кино в первый раз несколько дней назад. 18. Он обычно очень внимательно слушает учителя, но сейчас он не слушает, у него болит голова. 19. Я не играл в футбол с прошлого года. 20. Маленькая девочка часто помогает своей матери. 21. Автор еще молодой человек. Он написал свою первую книгу в 1989 году. 22. Сейчас 8 часов утра и ребенок уже проснулся. Вчера утром он проснулся раньше. 23. В школе он играл в футбол.

Exercise 5.12. Put in the appropriate words from the list:

  1. ... I go to the Institute by bus.

  2. I do my morning exercises...

  3. We shall have invited you...

  4. Who has seen him...?

  5. He had worked here...

  6. ... the plant was producing new machines.

  7. We have... done our work.

  8. What are you doing...?

  9. He was going home...

  10. Will you have read the book...?

  11. Did you see them...?

  12. We translated this text....

  1. before the Institute

  2. by Tuesday

  3. during October

  4. every day

  5. just

  6. last week

  7. now

  8. recently

  9. usually

  10. when we met

  11. when he comes home

  12. already

Exercise 5.13. Change the sentences into questions as in the example. Answer the questions.

Example: He can play chess. — Can't he play chess? — Yes, he can. / No, he can't.

1. They left for Moscow.

2. He has finished his work.

3. She will visit us on Monday.

4. She has many relatives.

5. His father works here.

6. You know his address.

7. We shall go home together.

8. They are at home.

9. I am listening to you.

10. His friends were working in the garden.

11. You have done the task.


I. Дифтонги [iэ], [ai], согласный [h].

II. Text A: «United Kingdom», Text B: «History of London».

III. Модальные глаголы и их заменители.

Дифтонг [iэ]

Ядро звука — гласный [i], а скольжение происходит в направлении нейтрального гласного, имеющего оттенок звука [/\].

Дифтонг [ai]

Ядро дифтонга — гласный звук, похожий на русский звук [а] в слове чай. Скольжение происходит в направлении звука [i], однако его образование полностью не достигается, в результате чего слышится лишь начало звука [i].

Согласный звук [h].

Этого звука в русском языке нет. В английском языке он встречается только перед гласным и на слух представляет собой легкий, едва слышный выдох. В отличие от русского [х] английский [h] образуется без всякого участия языка, поэтому необходимо следить за тем, чтобы задняя спинка языка не поднималась близко к мягкому нёбу.

Exercise A

year — hear — ear

here — near — fear

tear — peer — beer

rear — leer — mere

Exercise В

mile — pile — kite

site — side — ride

height — light — fight

might — right — tight

pike — hike — hide

Exercise С

hope — heap — hat

heal — heel — heal

health — height — hear

hood — his — ham

her — here — hate

Exercise D

hit — heat — head

hall — hollow — hammer

hand — happy — hard

harm — hair — hazard


The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, is an island nation and constitutional monarchy in north-western Europe, member of the European Union (EU).

Great Britain is the largest of the British Isles. It comprises, together with numerous smaller islands, England and Scotland, and the principality of Wales. Northern Ireland, also known as Ulster, occupies the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland.

The United Kingdom is bordered to the south by the English Channel, which separates it from continental Europe, to the east by the North Sea, and to the west by the Irish Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The only land border is between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. The total area of the United Kingdom is 242 sq.km. The capital and largest city is London.

The names «United Kingdom», «Great Britain», and «England» are often used interchangeably. The use of «Great Britain», often shortened to «Britain», to describe the whole kingdom is common and widely accepted, although strictly it does not include Northern Ireland.

However, the use of «England» to mean the «United Kingdom» is not acceptable to members of the other constituent countries, especially the Scots and the Welsh.

England and Wales were united administratively, politically, and legally by 1543. The crowns of England and Scotland were united in 1603, but the two countries remained separate political entities until the 1707 Act of Union, which formed the Kingdom of Great Britain with a single legislature. From 1801, when Great Britain and Ireland were united, until the formal establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922, the kingdom was officially named the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Hong Kong, which has 200,000 population, was returned to China in 1997.

The mainland of the island of Great Britain is 974 km at its longest and 531 km at its widest; however, the highly indented nature of the island's coastline means that nowhere is more than about 120 km from the sea.

The climate of the United Kingdom is mild relative to its latitude, which is the same as that of Labrador in Canada. The mildness is an effect of the warm Gulf Stream. This current brings the prevailing south-west winds that moderate winter temperatures and bring the depressions which have the main day-to-day influence on the weather. The western side of the United Kingdom tends to be warmer than the eastern; the south is warmer than the north. The mean annual temperature is 6°C in the far north of Scotland; 11С in the south-west of England. Winter temperatures seldom are below -10°C and summer temperatures rarely higher than 32°C. The sea winds also bring plenty of moisture; average annual precipitation is more than 1,000 mm.

Rain tends to fall throughout the year, frequently turning to snow in the winter, especially in Scotland, the mountains of Wales, and northern England. The western side of Britain is much wetter than the eastern: average rainfall varies is from 5,000 mm in the western Highlands of Scotland, to less than 500 mm in parts of East Anglia in England.

The population of United Kingdom is more than 56 mln people, but it is one of the world's leading commercial and industrialized nations. In terms of gross national product (GNP) it ranks fifth in the world, with Italy, after the United States, Japan, Germany, and France.


island nation — островное государство

constitutional monarchy — конституционная монархия

European Union — Европейский союз

to comprise — включать

numerous — многочисленные

principality — княжество

North Sea — Северное море

interchangeably — взаимозаменяемо

to accept — принимать, допускать

strictly — строго, зд. строго говоря

include — включать

constituent — составляющий

administratively — административно

entities — зд. субъекты

single — зд. единая

indented — зд. изрезанная

latitude — широта геогр.

prevailing — преобладающий

moderate — умеренный

depressions — зд. циклоны

mean — средний

throughout — на всем протяжении

average annual precipitation — среднегодовое количество осадков

in terms of — говоря (о чем-либо)

GNP (Gross National Product) — валовой национальный продукт.

Exercise 6.1. Translate into English.

1. Официальное название Великобритании — Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии.

2. Соединенное королевство является членом Европейского союза и конституционной монархией.

3. Северная Ирландия занимает северо-восточную часть острова Ирландия.

4. Пролив Ла-Манш отделяет Соединенное Королевство от континентальной Европы.

Exercise 6.2. Use the following phrases and word combinations to retell the text:

1. As I understood from the text...

2. According to the text...

3. According to the author...

4. As it is described in the text...

5. As it is said in the text...

6. As the author puts it...

7. According to the figures (data, information, opinions) from the text...

Exercise 6.3. Discuss the following statements. Use the following phrases to express your opinion:

1. It seems to me (that)...

2. I would like to say that...

3. As I see it...

4. I think that...

5. I guess...

6. I suppose...

7. I (strongly) believe that...

8. I am (absolutely) sure that...

Statement A: The United Kingdom is a small country. It is one of the leading countries now because it had many rich colonies in the past.

Statement B: UK will loose Northern Ireland soon and Wales and Scotland later, like it lost Hong Kong in 1997, because of the differences in languages, culture and history.

Statement C: British people don't travel much because they live not too far from the sea (ocean).

Exercise 6.4. Which events in the modern history of Great Britain had an impact on world science and technology. Choose five the most important and briefly describe them.

Exercise 6.5. What inventions in UK made life more convenient and safer? What inventions have become dangerous for the mankind?

Exercise 6.6. Use the information below to be able to make a report on the following:

1) Land, 2) Climate, 3) Population, 4) Ethnic groups, 5) Economy.

Table: Modern history of Great Britain


World War I begins.


World War I ends.


First regular London-Paris air service instituted.


John Logie Baird demonstrates television system.


British Broadcasting Corporation chartered.


Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.


First regular television broadcasts from Alexandra Palace.


Independence for India and Pakistan. Nationalization of coal mines and railways.


Foundation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization.


Britain explodes atomic bomb in Australia.


Irish Republican Army begins terrorist campaign.


Independence for Cyprus and Nigeria. «The Beatles» form.


Oil discovered off Scottish coast.


North Sea oil makes Britain self-sufficient in certain petroleum products.


Trident ballistic missile system ordered from US.



241,752 sq km

Highest Point

Ben Nevis

1,343 m above sea level

Lowest Point

Holme Fen 3 m below sea level


Average Temperatures


January 4C

July 18C


January 3C

July 15C

Average Annual Precipitation

London 590 mm

Edinburgh 680 mm



58,395,000 (1994 estimate)

Population Density

242 persons/sq km (1994 estimate)

Urban/Rural population

92% Urban

8% Rural

Largest Cities

London (Greater) 6,933,000

Birmingham 1,017,000

Leeds 724,500

Glasgow 681,000

Ethnic Groups

94,5% English, Scottish, Welsh, or Irish

5,5% Other


Official Language


Other Languages

Welsh, Scots-Gaelic, other minority languages


54% Anglicanism

13% Roman Catholicism

33% Other

including other Protestant denominations, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, and Sikhism


Gross Domestic Product

US$1,023,900,000,000 (1994)

Chief Economic Products


Wheat, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, oilseed rape, livestock, animal products.


Mackerel, herring, cod, plaice


Coal, limestone, petroleum and natural gas.


Machinery and transport equipment, food products, chemical products, minerals and metal products.

Employment Statistics

58% Trade and Services

23% Manufacturing and Industry

16% Business and Finance

2% Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing

1 % Military and Defense

Major Exports

Industrial and electrical machinery, automatic data processing equipment, road vehicles, petroleum.

Major Imports

Road vehicles, industrial and electrical machinery, automatic data processing equipment, petroleum, paper and paperboard, textiles, food.

Major Trading Partners

Germany, the United States, France, the Netherlands, Italy, Japan


The Romans were the first to settle and occupy the Celtic fortress of Londinium. Construction of a bridge in 100 A.D. made London an important junction: it soon became a busy commercial and administrative settlement, and in the 2nd century A.D. a wall was built round the city.

The Roman Empire fell in the 5th century. London have maintained its trading activity. In the 9th century Danish invaders destroyed much of the city. They were followed by the Saxons led by King Alfred the Great, who entered the city in 886. The Danes remained a powerful force in England, however, and it was not until the reign of Edward the Confessor, which began in 1042, that civic stability was re-established, to be cemented by the Norman Conquest in 1066.

William the Conqueror centred his power at the Tower of London, and his White Tower is still the heart of this impressive monument.

The City soon united its economic power with political independence. Late in the 12th century it elected its own Lord Mayor. From 1351 it elected its own council, and by the end of the 14th century the reigning sovereign could not enter the City without permission.

In the reign of Elizabeth I had the arts a renaissance with such great dramatists as Shakespeare, Marlowe, and Ben Jonson.

In 1665, London had been devastated first by the Great Plague, and then by the Fire of London, which destroyed most of the city the following year. During the reconstruction of the city, following the original street pattern, the architect Sir Christopher Wren was given responsibility for the design of a number of State-funded buildings, including St. Paul's Cathedral.

The western part of London was developed under the Hanoverian Kings: great squares were laid out such as those of Grosvenor, Cavendish, Berkeley, and Hanover, and more bridges were built across the river. Public services were improved, such as the water supply and sewerage systems, and the streets were paved.

In the 19th century London's population began to rise still more rapidly: it increased sixfold over the century as a whole, thanks to influx from all over the British Isles, from Britain's colonies, and from continental Europe. The Industrial Revolution was creating huge numbers of jobs, but never enough to satisfy the hopes of all the poor people who came to the capital. The novels of Charles Dickens tell us about the social problems of that period.

The First World War had little effect on London, but the Depression that followed in the late 1920s and early 1930s hit the whole country, including the capital. There were hunger marches and riots. London was to pay far more dearly during World War II. The intensive bombing of London (The Blitz) in 1940-1941 took the lives of 10,000 people and left 17,000 injured. Countless historic buildings were damaged, including the Houses of Parliament.

After the war London was to re-emerge as a radically different city. The docks had been so severely damaged that reconstruction, a very expensive process, was not reasonable. By the end of the 1950s most of the war damage had been repaired. New skyscrapers were built, outdoing each other in height and spectacular design. The 30-storey Post Office Tower was built in 1965. It is 189 m high. Other significant post-war developments include the 183 m National Westminster Bank Building (1979); and Britain's highest building, the 244 m Canary Wharf Tower on the Docklands site, near to a new City airport.

General understanding:

1) What was the original name of London? Why was it so important for Romans?

2) Who was King Alfred the Great? When did he enter the city?

3) What is still the reminder of William the Conqueror?

4) How was Britain governed in 12th-14th centuries?

5) How did plague influence the history of London?

6) Who was in charge of the reconstruction of the city? Why did it need reconstruction?

7) Why did the population of London grow in the 19th century?

8) How did the First World War affect the history of London? What about the WWII?

9) How did London change after the WWII?

10) What are the names of skyscraper buildings in London?


Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

Модальные глаголы показывают отношение говорящего к действию, выраженному инфинитивом. Например, сравните:

You can speak English. Вы можете (умеете) говорить по-английски.

You must speak English. Вы должны говорить по-английски.

You may speak English. Вы можете говорить по-английски. (Вас поймут.)

Как видим, в одном и том же предложении изменение модального глагола меняет смысл всего предложения, т. е. меняется отношение к действию, выраженному инфинитивом.

Модальные глаголы не имеют форм во всех временах, для этого употребляются их эквиваленты (заменители).

Вопросительные и отрицательные предложения с модальными глаголами строятся без вспомогательных глаголов: Can you help me? — Yes, I can. — No, I can't. Вы можете помочь мне? — Да. — Нет.

К основным модальным относятся глаголы:

can мочь, быть в состоянии, could прошедшее время

предполагает наличие физической, умственной и прочих возможностей, позволяющих сделать что-либо:

I can swim. Я могу (я умею) плавать.

I could translate this text.- (Я мог, был в состоянии) перевести этот текст.

В будущем времени у глагола can есть заменитель — конструкция to be able to (быть в состоянии что-либо сделать): I shall be able to help you when I am free. — Я смогу помочь тебе, когда освобожусь.

may иметь возможность, получить разрешение (делать что-либо),

might — прошедшее время

May I help you?Можно вам помочь? — Yes, you may. Да, можно.

В будущем времени у модального глагола may есть заменитель — конструкция to be allowed to (получить разрешение сделать что-либо).

Не will be allowed to take the book. Ему разрешат взять книгу.

must должен, обязан.

You must write it down now. Вы должны написать это сейчас.

Заменителями глагола must являются глаголы to have to и to be to, которые имеют некоторые дополнительные оттенками значения. Глагол to have to означает долженствование, вызванное обстоятельствами, вынужденную необходимость, в то время как глагол to be to долженствование, связанное с расписанием, планом или заранее сделанной договоренностью.

She had to stay at home. — Она вынуждена была (ей пришлось) остаться дома.

The train was to arrive at 8 in the evening. Поезд должен был прибыть в 8 вечера. (По расписанию).

После модальных глаголов и некоторых их эквивалентов инфинитив употребляется без частицы to.

Заменителями модального глагола must являются также модальные глаголы ought to, should значении совета, рекомендации, упрека) и shall (испрашивается разрешение на совершение действия).

You should enter the Institute. Вам следует поступить в институт (рекомендация, совет),

В сочетании с перфектным инфинитивом глагол should выражает сожаление о невыполненном действии и переводится «следовало бы».

You should have helped them. Вам следовало бы помочь им. (Но вы не сделали этого).

Shall I read? Мне следует читать?

Модальный глагол would может иметь следующие


1) Вежливая просьба. Would you help me? He поможете ли вы мне?

2) Повторяемость действия в прошлом. Не would often help me. Он, бывало, часто помогал мне.

3) Стойкое нежелание совершать какие-либо действия. Не wouldn't listen to me. Он никак не хотел слушать меня. -

Модальный глагол need - «нужно, надо» употребляется, в основном, в отрицательных предложениях. You needn't do it now. Вам не нужно делать это сейчас.

Exercise 6.7. Analyse the use of modal verbs and translate the following sentences:

1. Who can answer my question?

2. Nobody could translate this text.

3. He ought to do this task at once.

4. Must I attend this meeting? — No, you needn't.

5. You should have shown your notes to the teacher.

6. I asked him, but he wouldn't listen to me.

7. They should visit her, she is in the hospital.

8. Last summer we would often go to the country.

9. Your son can do this work himself.

10. Would you tell me the way to the station?

11. Your friend might have informed us.

12. May I leave for a while? — Yes, you may.

13. She should be more attentive at the lessons.

14. You needn't come so early.

Exercise 6.8. Insert necessary modal verbs:

1. I... not go to the theatre with them last night, I... revise the grammar rules and the words for the test. 2. My friend lives a long way from his office and... get up early. 3. All of us... be in time for classes. 4. When my friend has his English, he... stay at the office after work. He (not)... stay at the office on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday and... get home early. 5.... you... work hard to do well in your English? 6. «... we discuss this question now?» «No, we... We... do it tomorrow afternoon.» 7. I'm glad you... come. 8. «... you... come and have dinner with us tomorrow? » «I'd love to. » 9. «Please send them this article.» «Oh,... I do it now?»

Exercise 6.9. Translate into English using modal verbs:

1. Мы обязательно должны писать диктант сегодня? — Да, завтра мы будем учить новые слова. 2. Вчера мне пришлось ответить на все эти письма. 3. Виктора тоже пригласить на обед? — Да, сделайте это, пожалуйста. 4. Вам пришлось остаться дома, потому что была плохая погода? 5. Вы обязательно должны прийти и посмотреть нашу новую квартиру.— С удовольствием. 6. Я рад, что мне не пришлось заканчивать эту работу вчера. 7. Я не люблю поздно ложиться спать, но иногда мне приходится. 8. Можно мне пойти погулять сейчас? — Нет, нельзя. Ты должен скоро ложиться спать. 9. Вам следует навестить вашего друга. Он вчера не пришел на урок. 10. Почему ты не пришла? — Я не могла, я должна была помочь маме по дому. 11. Вам не нужно идти в библиотеку, у нас много книг дома, и вы можете взять любую, какую хотите.


I. Согласные звуки [], [].

II. Text A: «The USA»,

Text В: «Transport Sustem of the USA».

III.§1. Согласование времен в главном и придаточном предложениях.

§2. Страдательный залог

Согласный звук []

В русском языке подобного звука нет. Звук [] – глухой. При его произнесении язык распластан и не напряжен, кончик языка образует узкую плоскую щель, неплотно прижимаясь к нему. В эту щель с силой проходит струя воздуха. Кончик языка не должен сильно выступать за верхние зубы или слишком плотно прижиматься к губам. Зубы должны быть обнажены, особенно нижние, так, чтобы нижняя губа не касалась верхних зубов и не приближалась к ним.

Согласный звук []

При произнесении звука [] органы речи занимают такое же положение, как и при произнесении звука []. Звук [] отличается от звука [] только звонкостью.

Exercise A

through — fifth — myth

thief — booth — tooth

thank — think — thought

theatre — theory — theft

threat — three — thunder

threw — throat — thumb

faith — heart — path

bath — booth — broth

Exercise С

Exercise В

thermometer — thick — thin

thirst — thirty — thorough

this — that — these — those

there — though

them — they — the


The United States of America is the 4th largest country in the world after Russia, Canada and China. It occupies the central part of the North American continent.

The United States of America is a federal republic, consisting of 50 states including the states of Alaska and Hawaii. Outlying areas include Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, and the US Virgin Islands.

The northern boundary is partly formed by the Great Lakes and the St Lawrence River; the southern boundary is partly formed by the Rio Grande. United States also has a sea-border with Russia.

The total area of the United States (including the District of Columbia) is about 9,809,000 sq km.

The country is washed by 3 oceans: the Arctic, the Atlantic and the Pacific. The country has many lakes, with the Great Lakes included. There are also many rivers on the US territory. The longest of them are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Columbia, the Rio Grande and some others. On the US territory there are mountains and lowlands. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak, Mount McKinley, is located in Alaska.

The climate conditions are rather different. The country is rich in natural and mineral resources: oil, gas, iron ore, coal and various metals.

The USA is a highly developed industrial and agricultural country. The main industrial branches are aircraft, rocket, automobile, electronics, radio-engineering and others.

Americans are made up from nearly all races and nations. The country population is over 250 min. The national symbol of the USA is its national flag «Stars and Stripes», having 50 white stars and 13 white and red stripes on its field, symbolising the number of the original and present day states.

Officially the country comprises 50 states and one District of Columbia. The states differ in size, population and economic development. Each state has its own capital. The capital of the USA is Washington. It is situated in the District of Columbia on the banks of the Potomac river and is named after the 1st US President - George Washington. There are many large cities in the country: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San-Francisco, Cleveland and some others.

The United States of America is a federal state, headed by the President. According to the US Constitution the powers of the Government are divided into 3 branches: legislative, executive and judicial.

The legislative power belongs to the Congress consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate represents the states while the House of Representatives — the population. The executive power belongs to the President and his Administration (Vice-President and Cabinet of Ministers). The judicial power belongs to the Supreme Court and the system of Federal, state and district courts.

There are several political parties in the USA, the largest of them are the Republican (symbolised by a donkey) and the Democratic (symbolised by an elephant).


outlying areas — внешние территории

District of Columbia — округ Колумбия

to pass — проходить через

frontier — граница

to include — включать

lowlands — низины

peak — вершина, пик

to be located — располагаться

aircraft — воздушное судно

to be made up from — быть составленным, состоять из

stripe — полоса

to symbolize — символизировать

legislative power — законодательная власть

to represent — представлять

to belong — принадлежать

donkey — осел


a) Great Plains — Великие равнины

Appalachian mountains — Аппалачские горы

Rocky mountains — Скалистые горы

b) driveway — проезд, выезд

sidewalk — тротуар

drive-thru shop — магазин, покупки в котором производятся через окно автомобиля

toll-road — платная дорога (магистраль)

toll-free road — бесплатная дорога

highway, parkway, thruway — автомагистрали

turnpike — главная магистраль

shopping-mall — торговый центр

shopping plaza — открытая торговая площадь, торговый ряд

free delivery — бесплатная доставка

telephone order — телефонный заказ

sale — распродажа

discount — скидка

seasons sale — сезонная распродажа

clearance sale — распродажа залежей товаров

discount coupon — купон на скидку

free gift — бесплатный подарок

Exercise 7.1. Translate into English:

1. США — четвертая по размеру страна после России, Канады и Китая.

2. Внешние границы включают в себя Пуэрто Рико, Американское Самоа и Виргинские острова.

3.48 Штатов граничат на севере с Канадой, а на юге с Мексикой.

4. США имеет морскую границу с Российской Федерацией.

6. США омывается тремя океанами: Северным Ледовитым, Атлантическим и Тихим.

7. США — высокоразвитое промышленное государство со множеством отраслей.

8. Аэрокосмическая и электронные отрасли промышленности США занимают особое место в экономике США.

9. Каждый штат имеет свою столицу.


The development of transport facilities was very important in the growth of the United States. The first travel routes were natural waterways. No surfaced roads existed until the 1790s, when the first turnpikes were built. Besides the overland roads, many canals were constructed between the late 18th century and 1850 to link navigable rivers and lakes in the eastern United States and in the Great Lakes region. Steam railways began to appear in the East in the 1820s. The first transcontinental railway was constructed between 1862 and 1869 by the Union Pacific and Central Pacific companies, both of which received large subsidies from the federal government. Transcontinental railways were the chief means of transport used by European settlers who populated the West in the latter part of the 19th century. The railways continued to expand until 1917, when their length reached a peak of about 407,000 km. Since then motor transport became a serious competitor to the railway both for passengers and freight.

Air transport began to compete with other modes of transport after World War I. Passenger service began to gain importance in 1920s, but not until the beginning of commercial jet craft after World War II did air transport become a leading mode of travel.

During the early 1990s railways annually handled about 37,5 per cent of the total freight traffic; trucks carried 26 per cent of the freight, and oil pipelines conveyed 20 per cent. Approximately 16 per cent was shipped on inland waterways. Although the freight handled by airlines amounted to only 0,4 per cent of the total, much of the cargo consisted of high-priority or high-value items.

Private cars carry about 81 per cent of passengers. Airlines are the second leading mover of people, carrying more than 17 per cent of passengers. Buses are responsible for 1,1 per cent, and railways carry 0,6 per cent of passengers.

Roads and Railways

The transport network spreads into all sections of the country, but the web of railways and highways is much more dense in the eastern half of the United States.

In the early 1990s the United States had about 6,24 million km of streets, roads, and highways. The National Interstate Highway System, 68,449 km in length in the early 1990s, connected the nation's principal cities and carried about one-fifth of all the road and street traffic.

More than 188 million motor vehicles were registered in the early 1990s. More than three-quarters were cars — one for every two persons in the country. About one-fifth of the vehicles were lorries. Amtrak (the National Railroad Passenger Corporation), a federally subsidized concern, operates almost all the inter-city passenger trains in the United States; it carried more than 22 million passengers annually in the early 1990s.

General understanding:

1. What were the first routes in the US?

2. When was the first transcontinental railway constructed?

3. What was the length of railroads in 1917?

4. When did air transport start to gain importance?

5. How many motor vehicles were registered in US in early 90s?

6. What is Amtrak? How many passengers did it carry annually in the early 90s?


§1. Согласование времен в главном и придаточном предложениях

В английском сложноподчиненном предложении с придаточным дополнительным (вопрос «что?», «кто?», «чего?» и т. д.) соблюдаются правила согласования времен в главном и придаточном предложениях. Эти правила сводятся к следующему:

1. Если глагол-сказуемое главного предложения стоит в настоящем или будущем времени, то глагол-сказуемое придаточного дополнительного предложения может стоять в любой временной форме, требуемой смыслом, например:

Не says you are right. Он говорит, что ты прав.

Не will tell why he was not at school yesterday. — Он скажет, почему он не был в школе вчера.

2. Если глагол-сказуемое главного предложения стоит в прошедшем времени (обычно — в Past Indefinite), то и глагол дополнительного придаточного предложения должен стоять в одном из прошедших времен, в том числе — в будущем с точки зрения прошедшего (Future in the Past).

He said he would not go to school tomorrow. — Он сказал, что не пойдет в школу завтра.

При этом для обозначения действия, одновременного с действием, выраженным сказуемым главного предложения, употребляется Past Continuous русском языке — настоящее время) или Past Indefinite.

Не told me he was preparing for his exam. Он сказал мне, что готовится к экзамену.

Для обозначения действия, предшествующего действию, выраженному сказуемым главного предложения, обычно употребляется Past Perfect. На русский язык глагол-сказуемое придаточного в данном случае переводится глаголом в прошедшем времени:

I didn't know he had left for Moscow. — Я не знал, что он уехал в Москву.

При указании определенного времени (in 1980, yesterday) предшествующее время выражается при помощи Past Indefinite. Например: I thought you were born in 1980.

Для выражения будущего времени с точки зрения прошедшего времени употребляется форма Future in the Past где вспомогательный глагол will меняется на would, которая на русский язык переводится будущим временем:

Не told me that he would meet me at the Institute. — Он сказал мне, что встретит меня в институте.

Exercise 7.2. Open the brackets. Pay attention to the Sequence of Tenses. Translate the sentences into English.

1. I did not know that you already (to read) this book 2. He did it better than I (to expect). 3. He said that the bus (to be) here soon. 4.1 think it all happened soon after the meeting (to end). 5. They decided that they (to bring) us all the necessary books. 6. He said that he (can) not do it without my help. 7. He asked the students whether they ever (to see) such a book. 8. It was decided that we (to start) our work at eight o'clock. 9. I told you that I (to leave) for Minsk on the following day. 10. The boy did not know that he already (receive) a good mark. 12. He wanted to know what (to become) of the books. 13. The visitors were told that the secretary just (to go out) and (to come back) in half an hour. 14. He said we (may) keep the books as long as we (to like). 15. We thought that he not (to be able) to make his work in time and therefore (to offer) to help her. 16. When I came they (to tell) me that he (to leave) half an hour before. 17. It was soon clear to the teacher that the control work (to be) a difficult one. 18. I decided that next year I (to go) to see my old friend again. I not (to see) him since he (to go) to Moscow.

§2. Страдательный залог (Passive Voice).

Формы страдательного залога английских глаголов образуются с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующем времени, лице и числе и причастия II (Participle II) смыслового глагола:

Present Indefinite

The letter is written

Past Indefinite

The letter was written

Future Indefinite

The letter will be written

Present Continuous

The letter is being written

Past Continuous

The letter was being written

Future Continuous

The letter will be being written

Present Perfect

The letter has been written

Past Perfect

The letter had been written

Future Perfect

The letter will have been written

Глагол-сказуемое в страдательном залоге показывает, что подлежащее предложения является объектом действия со стороны другого лица или предмета.

Сравните: I bought a book. Я купил книгу.

The book was bought (by me). Книга была куплена (мной).

Глаголы в страдательном залоге на русский язык переводятся

1. глаголом быть + краткая форма причастия страдательного залога:

The letter was sent yesterday. Письмо было послано вчера.

2. глаголом с частицей -ся (-сь):

This problem was discussed last week. Эта проблема обсуждалась на прошлой неделе.

3. неопределенно-личным оборотом, т. е. глаголом в действительном залоге 3 лица множественного числа, типа «говорят», «сказали»:

English is spoken in many countries. На английском языке говорят во многих странах.

4. глаголом в действительном залоге (при наличии исполнителя действия):

Pupils are taught at school by the teachers. Учеников учат в школе учителя.

Exercise 7.3. Translate into English. Determine the Tense and Voice of the verb:

1. He left for Moscow. 2. The news will be of great interest. 3. They were speaking to him. 4. She studied many subjects. 5. He was much spoken about. 6. New subjects will be studied next term. 7. I am working now. 8. The text has already been written by them. 9. He studies at our school. 10. You are playing chess, aren't you? 11. The text is being translated at the moment. 12. Do you work at this lab? 13. When I saw him, he was going home. 14. They will have passed their exams by 3 o'clock. 15. This book was written by our teacher. 16. We shall be writing our tests at 10 o'clock. 17. The work will have been done when he comes. 18. We translated this text. 19. The letter had been written before we came. 20. We shall inform you. 21. These toys are made in Japan. 22. Does he work here? 23. Is he working now? 24. The conference will be held in May. 25. Rostov was named after Dmitry Rostovsky. 26.What are you doing here? 27. This work must be done at once. 28. You may take my book. 29. I am often asked at the lessons. 30. This article was being translated when I came.

Exercise 7.4. Translate into English. Determine the Tense and Voice of the verb:

l.They can be seen in our library every day. 2. The delegation is headed by the Prime Minister. 3. The child was often left home alone. 4. These houses were built last year. 5. All letters had been written when we came. 6. This film is much spoken about. 7. The machine is being tested now. 8. His work has been already finished. 9.1 was told to wait for him. 10.Your letter will have been answered by Monday. 11. The experiment was being carried out from ten till twelve o'clock. 12.Children under sixteen will not be admitted here.

Exercise 7.5. Put the verbs in brackets in the right form:

1. I'm not reading these books today. They (return) to the library. 2. The paintings (exhibit) till the end of the month. 3. Why your home task (not do)? 4. She was taken to the hospital today, and (operate) tomorrow morning. 5. This room (use) only on special occasions. 6. Bicycles must not (leave) here. 7. This newspaper (not read). The pages (not cut). 8. Dictionaries may not (use) at the examination. 9. Usually this street (sweep) every day, but it (not sweep) yesterday. 10. This book (leave) in the classroom yesterday; it (find) by the teacher. 11. Thousands of new houses (build) every year. 12. This room (not use) for a long time. 13. The children are very excited this morning. They (take) to the circus this afternoon.

Exercise 7.6. Translate into English:

1. Эта книга была прочитана всеми. 2. Письмо будет отправлено завтра. 3. Ее часто спрашивают? 4. На ваш вопрос ответят завтра. 5. Текст переводился вчера с двух до трех. 6. Работа только что завершена нами. 7. Эти книги уже будут опубликованы к концу года. 8. Наша контрольная работа сейчас проверяется? 9. О новой книге будут много говорить. 10. В нашем городе сейчас строится много новых зданий. 11. Ключи были утеряны вчера. 12. Мальчика возьмут в кино. 13. Вам сказали об этом? 14. Телеграмма уже получена?

Exercise 7.7. Translate into English:

1. Он сказал мне, что текст будет переведен к 10 часам завтра. 2. Все картины, которые вы здесь видите, написаны одним и тем же художником. 3. Письмо будет отправлено завтра. 4. Работа будет закончена в срок. 5. За доктором послали? Сделайте это как можно скорее. У ребенка высокая температура. 6. Эта книга была написана до того, как автор стал знаменитым. 7. Сотни новых домов будут построены к концу этого года. 8. Эта история давно забыта всеми. 9. Мне предложили очень интересную работу. 10. Он серьезный человек. На него всегда можно положиться. 11. За старой женщиной ухаживает ее младшая дочь. 12. На вечере нам показали прекрасный фильм. 13. Его ударили мячом. 14. С ним необходимо немедленно поговорить по этому вопросу. 15. Вам зададут несколько вопросов на экзамене. 16. Ей был дан список участников собрания. 17. Речь была заслушана с большим вниманием. 18. Вам объяснят, как добраться до железнодорожного вокзала. 19. Об этой пьесе сейчас много говорят. 20. Делегацию нужно встретить завтра в 9 часов утра в аэропорту.


I. Согласные звуки [w], [].

II. Text A: «Higher Education In the UK».

III.§1. Сложное дополнение (Complex object).

§2. Причастие и герундий.

Согласный звук [w]. При произнесении губы округлены и значительно выдвинуты вперед, а задняя часть языка занимает примерно такое же положение, как при произнесении русского [у]. Струя выдыхаемого воздуха с силой проходит через образованную между губами круглую щель. Губы энергично раздвигаются.

Согласный звук []. При произнесении согласного задняя спина языка смыкается с опущенным мягким нёбом, и воздух проходит через носовую полость.

Exercise A

what — why — where

whip — wheat — while

Exercise С

wall — wallet — walk

walnut — waltz — won

Exercise В

war — wharf — water

wedding — wage — wait

waitress — waist — waste

weather — woman — wind

Exercise D

wing — king — sting

sing — nothing — something

everything — anything — ring


Education after 16 is voluntary in United Kingdom. Students, who live in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland must take at the age of 16 the examinations for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In Scotland students receive the Scottish Certificate of Education. After this exam students can choose to stay on in school or attend colleges of further education.

British universities are self-governing and are guaranteed academic independence. Funding for education and research is provided by funding councils set up by Parliament. The number of universities jumped in 1992 when polytechnics and some other higher education establishments were given the right to become universities. By the end of 1994, there were some 90 universities, almost half of them former polytechnics, including the Open University.

Many of the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge universities were founded in the 12th and 13th centuries. All other universities in Britain were founded in the 19th and 20th centuries. The Open University, based in Milton Keynes, England, was founded in 1969. It uses extension techniques of correspondence courses, television and radio programmes, and video cassettes, supported by local study centres and summer schools, to provide higher education opportunities to a wide variety of people.

During the 1960s there was a significant increase in the number of new universities, reflecting a fast growth in student numbers. During the 1980s, an expansion in higher education places led to another large jump in student numbers. In the 1992-1993 academic year there were more than 1,4 million students in full or part-time higher education in Great Britain, compared with just under 850,000 a decade earlier. About one quarter of young people are in higher education in England, Wales, and Scotland; one third in Northern Ireland. About 90 per cent of students get state grants to cover tuition fees and living costs.

The size of the grant is determined by parents income. Since the late 1980s, however, grants have been frozen; students can apply for a student loan.


voluntary — добровольное

attend — посещать

self-governing — самоуправляемый

funding — финансирование

funding councils — советы по финансированию

to set up — основывать

significant — значительный

polytechnics — политехнические институты

extension techniques — технологии дистанционного образования

to reflect — отражать

decade — десятилетие

state grants — государственные гарантии

tuition fee — плата за обучение

parents income — доход родителей

student loan — студенческий заём


a) high-school diploma — школьный аттестат

graduation ceremony — выпускной экзамен

Bachelor of Science (B.S.) — бакалавр естественных наук

Bachelor of Art (B.A.) — бакалавр гуманитарных наук

Master of Art (M.A.) — магистр искусств

Master of Science (M.S.) — магистр естественных наук

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) — доктор философии

undergraduate student — студент 1-4(5) курсов

graduate student — студент 5-6 курсов

graduate school of robotics — магистратура (аспирантура) по специальности робототехника

b) room (lodging) and board — проживание и питание

personal expenses — личные расходы

books and supplies — книги и материалы

to be eligible for admission — быть подходящей кандидатурой для поступления

to enrol — зачислять

enrollment — зачисление

admissions office — приемная комиссия

student services office — департамент по работе со студентами

university bursar's (казначей) office — бухгалтерия университета (офис казначея)

Exercise 8.1. Translate into English:

1) В возрасте 16 лет каждый житель Великобритании обязан сдать экзамены на получение Сертификата о среднем образовании.

2) Британские университеты являются полностью самоуправляемыми.

3) В 1992 году Политехническим институтам была предоставлено право стать университетами.

4) Открытый университет, широко известный своими технологиями дистанционного обучения, был основан в 1969 году.

5) В 60-е годы в Соединенном королевстве наметился значительный рост числа университетов.

6) Размер гранта на обучение определяется исходя из дохода родителей.


§1. Сложное дополнение (Complex object)

Сложное дополнение — это сочетание существительного или местоимения в объектном падеже (напр. me, him, us, them) с инфинитивом или причастием I. Существует в трех основных вариантах:

1. С инфинитивом без частицы to или с причастием 1 после глаголов восприятия

see I saw him drive the car. I saw them working in the lab.

watch We watched the plane land. We watched the children playing in the yard.

notice Nobody noticed him go out. He didn't notice that happen.

feel She felt somebody touch her hand. They didn't feel the train start.

hear I didn't hear you come into the room. I heard her playing piano.

В первом случае (вышеперечисленные глаголы с инфинитивом без частицы to) подчеркивается факт действия, во втором (эти же глаголы с причастием I) — процесс действия.

I saw him enter the house. — Я видел, как он вошел в дом.

I saw him entering the house. Я видел, как он входил в дом.

2. С инфинитивом без частицы to после глаголов

to let: Don't let them play in the street.

to make: Don't make me laugh.

3. С инфинитивом с частицей to после глаголов

to want I want you to find me a place in the first row.

to expect I expect you to come in time.

to believe I believe her to be a very good teacher.

to know I know him to be a good student.

to advise I advise you to enter the institute.

to consider The climate in England is considered to be mild.

to order He is ordered not to be late.

to allow They allow to use dictionaries at the exam.

to like I would like you to finish your work,

to find I find your story to be very interesting.

Exercise 8.2. Put the verbs in brackets in the right form:

1. He made me (do) it all over again. 2. Her father made her (learn) the lessons. 3. If you want us (make) the work quickly you should let us (start) at once. 4. Would you like me (read) now? 5. They won't let us (leave) the classroom till our control work has been checked. 6. He wouldn't let the children (play) in his study. 7. Please let me (know) the results of your exam as soon as possible. 8. He made us (wait) for two hours. 9. I let him (go) early as he had done his task. 10. I'd like him (enter) the university but I can't make him (do) it. 11. I want her (learn) English. 12. I heard the door (open) and saw my friend (come) into the room. 13. I heard her (play) the piano. 14. I saw him (go out) of the house. 15. The teacher advised us (use) dictionaries. 16. Her father doesn't allow her (go) to the cinema alone. 17. We expect our basketball team (win) next game. 18. We don't want you (tell) anything. 19. I saw them (open) the window. 20. That is too difficult for you to do, let me (help) you.

Exercise 8.3. Translate into English:

1. Вы хотите, чтобы дети играли здесь? 2. Вы хотите, чтобы мы встретились сегодня? 3. Вы ожидаете, работа будет сделана скоро? 4. Мы ожидаем, что они хорошо проведут у нас время. 5. Я хочу, чтобы он закончил эту работу. 6. Мы слышали, что она знает, когда мы сдаем экзамен. 7. Вы хотите, чтобы мы обсудили этот вопрос сегодня? 8. Мы ожидаем, что на этом месте будет построен новый дом. 9. Вы хотели бы, чтобы работа была сделана сегодня?

§2. Причастие и герундий. Их отличие

(Participle I)

Причастие I (причастие настоящего времени), образованное при помощи окончания -ing, имеет активную и страдательную формы:

активная (несовершенный вид) — asking,

активная (совершенный вид) — having asked.

страдательная (несовершенный)being asked,

страдательная (совершенный) — having been asked.

Причастие I употребляется в функции:

1. Определения:

The man sitting at the table is our teacher. — Человек, сидящий за столом — наш учитель.

The houses being built in our town are not very high. Дома, строящиеся в нашем городе, невысоки.

2. Обстоятельства:

Going home I met an old friend. Идя домой, я встретил старого друга.

Having finished work I went home. — Закончив работу, я пошел домой.

Причастие II (Participle II)

Причастие II (причастие прошедшего времени) всегда пассивно. Образуется оно прибавлением суффикса -ed к основе правильного глагола или путем чередования звуков в корне неправильного глагола.

Причастие II употребляется в функции:

1. Определения.

The book translated from English is interesting. — Книга, переведенная с английского языка, интересная.

2. Обстоятельства (причины и времени):

Given the task he began to work. Когда ему дали задание он начал работать.

Употребление герундия и его отличие от причастия I

Причастие — неличная форма глагола, промежуточная между глаголом и прилагательным:

The boy playing in the yard is my brother, Мальчик, (какой?) играющий во дворе, — мой брат.

Герундий также является неличной формой глагола, промежуточной между существительным и глаголом:

Smoking is harmful. Курение (что?) вредно.

Иными словами, причастие—в большей степени «прилагательное» по своим функциям, герундий — «существительное».

Герундий употребляется:

1. в качестве подлежащего:

Reading is useful.

2. как часть сказуемого после глаголов to finish, to start, to continue, to go on, to keep и др.

He started reading the book.

3. как предложное дополнение: I am fond of reading.

4. как прямое дополнение: Do you mind my reading here?

5. как обстоятельство времени: After reading he closed the book.

6. как обстоятельство образа действия: Instead of reading he went to the movies.

Активная форма герундия: giving, beating.

Пассивная форма герундия: being given, being beaten.

Exercise 8.4. Open the brackets using the gerund:

1. The grass in the garden is very dry, it needs (water). 2. It's very warm outside. You don't need (put on) yourcoat. 3. The house is old, and it wants (repair). 4. Famous people don't need (introduce) themselves. 5. The carpet is covered with dust, it needs (sweep). 6. The shoes are very dirty, they need (polish). 7. These shoes have a hole, they want (mend). 8. The table cloth is quite clean, it doesn't want (wash) yet. 9. The room needed (clean). 10. (learn) foreign languages is very useful. 12. I know my hair wants (cut) but I never have time to go to the hairdresser's. 13. John needed (cheer up) when he heard that he'd failed his exams. 14. You should tidy up the garden. — Yes, it needs (tidy). The roses want (water), the peaches want (pick), the grass wants (cut).


I. Звуки [au], [dr], [br], [gr], [tr], [fr], [r].

II. Text A: «My future profession»,

Text B: «The Future of the engineering profession»

III.§1. Придаточные предложения условия и времени, действие которых отнесено к будущему.

§2. Сослагательное наклонение в условных предложениях.

Exercise A

now — how — brown

out — now — house

louse — mouse — cows

out — loud — without

Exercise В

brain — brakes — brand

brunch — branch — brave

Brazil — breach — break

breath — broth — breathe

Exercise D

treasure — trainer — trench

draw — dribble — draft

drag — drab — drank

drain — dragon — drama

drape — dreadful — drugs

Dresden — dress — dry

drill — drop — drink

drive — drown — drum

drift — drier — droopy

Exercise С

brown — bread — brace

track — trade — traffic

troops — trend — trail

translate — transmit — trance

Exercise E

France — French — fruit

fry — frame — free

three — thread — throat

threat — through — thrill

thirty — throne — threaten


Hi, there! Here is Ann Sokolova again. I am afraid this will be my last meeting with you because I need to pack my suitcase. I am leaving for Sochi tonight. I have passed all the exams successfully and I'm free till the 1st of September.

As I have already told you, I was always good in mathematics and physics. My parents bought me a computer when I was in the 10th form. Since then I knew that I would become a specialist in computer technologies — a computer engineer.

Computer industry is developing so fast, that it comprises almost all spheres of professional life. No business now is possible without computers. This is especially true about automated manufacturing of products and robotics. Computer control of automated production opens new horizons for the cheap and quality production of goods. Information is now generated, transmitted, received, and stored electronically through computer networks on a scale unprecedented in history, and there is every indication that the explosive rate of growth in this field will continue.

Computer engineering is a general field. It deals with both electric and electronic industries.

Electronic engineering deals with the research, design, integration, and application of circuits and devices used in the transmission and processing of information.

Engineers in the field of electric and electronic engineering are concerned with all aspects of electrical communications, from fundamental questions such as «What is information?» to the highly practical, such as the design of telephone systems. In designing communication systems, engineers rely on various branches of advanced mathematics, such as Fourier analysis, linear systems theory, linear algebra, differential equations, and probability theory.

Engineers work on control systems which are used extensively in automated manufacturing and in robotics.

Major developments in the field of communications and control have been the replacement of analogue systems with digital systems; fibre optics are used now instead of copper cables. Digital systems offer far greater immunity to electrical noise. Fibre optics are likewise immune to interference; they also have great carrying capacity, and are extremely light and inexpensive to manufacture.

Computer engineering is now the most rapidly growing field. The electronics of computers is the design and manufacture of memory systems, of central processing units, and of peripheral devices. The most prospective industry now is the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) and new computer architectures. The field of computer science is closely related to computer engineering; however, the task of making computers more «intelligent» (artificial intelligence), through creation of sophisticated programs or development of higher level machine languages or other means, is generally regarded as the dream of computer science.

One current trend in computer engineering is microminiaturization. Engineers continue to work to fit greater and greater numbers of circuit elements onto smaller and smaller chips.

Another trend is towards increasing the speed of computer operations through the use of parallel processors and superconducting materials.

So, as you see, there are a lot of employment opportunities in my field. I don't worry about finding a job. The most important thing for me now is to study well and to graduate from the Academy.


to comprise — включать в себя

automated manufacturing of products — автоматизированное производство товаров

robotics — робототехника

horizons — горизонты

cheap — дешевый

to generate — генерировать, производить

to transmit — передавать

to store — хранить

scale — масштаб

unprecedented in history — не имеющий прецедентов в истории

indication — указание, свидетельство

explosive — взрывной

to deal with — иметь дело с, заниматься чем-либо

integration — интеграция

application — приложение, использование

circuits — электрические схемы, цепи

device — устройство

transmission — передача

processing — обработка

to rely — полагаться

Fourier analysis — анализ Фурье

linear systems theory — теория линейных систем

linear algebra — линейная алгебра

differential equations — дифференциальные уравнения

probability theory — теория вероятности

extensively — широко

replacement — замещение

fibre optics — оптоволоконные технологии

copper — медь

digital — цифровой

immunity — защищенность, невосприимчивость

carrying capacity — пропускная способность

light — легкий

rapidly growing — быстрорастущий

artificial intelligence — искусственный разум

sophisticated — сложный

superconducting — сверхпроводимость


a) mechanical engineer — инженер-механик

electric engineer — инженер-электрик

electronic engineer — инженер электроник

computer engineer — инженер-компьютерщик

military engineer — военный инженер

b) prestigious job (work) — престижная работа

well-paid job — высокооплачиваемая работа

employee — наемный рабочий

employer — наймодатель

businessman — предприниматель, бизнесмен

state-employed — государственный служащий

white-collar worker — «белый воротничок», работник умственного труда

blue-collar worker — «синий воротничок», работник физического труда

skilled worker — квалифицированный рабочий

unskilled worker — неквалифицированный рабочий

experienced worker — опытный работник

c) to be hired for a job — быть нанятым на выполнение работы

to look for a new job (work, position) — искать новую работу

to apply for a new job — претендовать на какую-либо должность

application for a position of — заявление на какую-либо должность

resume — резюме

C.V. (curriculum vitae) — автобиография

to be fired — быть уволенным

to retire — уходить на пенсию

to be unemployed — быть безработным

Exercise 9.1. Translate into English:

1. Родители купили мне компьютер, когда я училась(ся) в десятом классе.

2. Никакой современный бизнес не возможен без компьютерной техники.

3. Компьютерная индустрия — наиболее быстроразвивающеся производство.

4. Компьютерное управление автоматизированными производственными линиями открывает новые горизонты дешевого и качественного производства товаров.

5. Крупным достижением в сфере коммуникации является замена аналоговых систем на цифорвые.

6. В настоящее время оптоволоконные цифровые технологии обеспечивают более качественную и доступную связь, чем аналоговые системы.

Exercise 9.2. How do you see your future profession? Please answer the following questions:

1) What kind of work are you interested in?

a) well paid

b) interesting

c) in a large and famous company

d) quiet

e) in an industry which has a future

f) prestigious

g) not to sit the whole day in the office

h) to travel a lot

2) What position would you like to have?

a) to manage people — manager

b) to work for someone else — an employee

c) to be your own boss — self-employed, businessman

d) to be responsible for everything — top manager, director

e) to work for the state — state employee

Exercise 9.3. Please discuss with your group advantages and disadvantages of your future profession. Do you think that engineering profession is prestigios? Is it well-paid? How difficult is it to find a good work in this field?


Among various recent trends in the engineering profession computerization is the most widespread. The trend in modern engineering offices is also towards computerization. Computers are increasingly used for solving complex problems as well as for handling, storing, and generating the enormous volume of data modern engineers must work with.

Scientific methods of engineering are applied in several fields not connected directly to manufacture and construction. Modern engineering is characterized by the broad application of what is known as systems engineering principles.

Engineers in industry work not only with machines but also with people, to determine, for example, how machines can be operated most efficiently by workers. A small change in the location of the controls of a machine or of its position with relation to other machines or equipment, or a change in the muscular movements of the operator, often results in greatly increased production. This type of engineering work is called time-study engineering.

A related field of engineering, human-factors engineering, also known as ergonomics, received wide attention in the late 1970s and 1980s when the safety of nuclear reactors was questioned following serious accidents that were caused by operator errors, design failures, and malfunctioning equipment.

Human-factors engineering seeks to establish criteria for the efficient, human-centred design of, among other things, the large, complicated control panels that monitor and govern nuclear reactor operations.

General understanding:

1. What is the most widespread trend in the engineering profession?

2. What are computers used for in modern engineering?

3. What approaches are used in modern engineering?

4. What is «ergonomics»?

5. What does human-factors engineering deal with?


§1. Придаточные предложения условия и времени, действие которых отнесено к будущему

В придаточных предложениях условия и времени с союзами

If (если),

when (когда),

after (после),

before (перед тем, как),

as soon as (как только), ]

unless (если не),

until (до тех пор, пока не),

будущее время заменяется формой настоящего времени, но на русский язык переводится будущим, например:

If you help me, I shall do this work. Если ты поможешь мне, я сделаю эту работу.

As soon as I get free, I'll come to you. Как только я освобожусь, я приду к тебе.

We shall not begin until you come. Мы не начнем, пока ты не придешь.

Exercise 9.4. Open the brackets and put the verbs in the right form:

1. He (go) out when the weather (get) warmer. 2. I (wait) for you until you (come) back from school. 3. I'm afraid the train (start) before we (come) to the station. 4. We (go) to the country tomorrow if the weather (to be) fine. 5. We (not pass) the examination next year if we not (work) harder. 6. If you (not drive) more carefully you (have) an accident. 7. You (be) late if you (not take) a taxi. 8. I (finish) reading this book before I (go) to bed. 9. You must (send) us a telegram as soon as you (arrive). 10. We (have) a picnic tomorrow if it (be) a fine day. 11. We (go) out when it (stop) raining. 12. We (not to have) dinner until you (come). 13. I'm sure they (write) to us when they (know) our new address.

Прочитайте примеры и запомните наиболее употребительные суффиксы существительных

-ег/ог — teacher, writer, actor, doctor

-ist — scientist, artist, dentist

-ment — government, movement, development

-(t)ion — revolution, translation, operation

-ity/ty — popularity, honesty, ability

-sion/ssion — revision, session, discussion,

-ness — happiness, illness, darkness

Прочитайте примеры и запомните наиболее употребительные суффиксы и префиксы глаголов.

re- — rewrite, rebuild, reconstruct,

mis- — misprint, misunderstand, miscount.

Прочитайте примеры и запомните наиболее употребительные суффиксы и префиксы прилагательных.

un- — unhappy, unable, uncomfortable

dis- — dishonest, discouraging, disconnectng

Прочитайте примеры и запомните основные суффиксы числительных.

-teen — fifteen, sixteen, eighteen

-ty — twenty, thirty, sixty, ninety

-th — fourth, seventh, eighteenth

Exercise 9.5. Make up adjectives from the following words:

colour, beauty, peace, use, hope, truth, rain, help, power, pain, care.

§2. Сослагательное наклонение в условных предложениях

Сослагательное наклонение выражает возможность, нереальность, предположительность действия.

Изъявительное наклонение.

If I learn his address I shall write to him. — Если я узнаю его адрес, я ему напишу.

Сослагательное наклонение:

If I knew his address I would write to him. — Если бы я знал его адрес (сейчас), я написал бы ему (сейчас или в ближайшем будущем). Глагол в придаточном предложении — в форме Past Indefinite, в главном — в форме Future in the Past.

В случае, если действие, описываемое сослагательным наклонением, относится к прошедшему времени, в главном предложении используется форма будущего совершенного с точки зрения прошедшего Future Perfect in the Past, а в придаточном — прошедшее совершенное Past Perfect.

If I had known his address I would have written to him. Если бы я знал его адрес (в прошлом), я написал бы ему (в прошлом же).

I wish I lived not far from here. (настоящее время). —Жаль, что я не живу поблизости.

I wish I had lived not far from here (прошедшее время). — Жаль, что я не жил поблизости.

Exercise 9.6. Translate into Russian:

1. If I came later I would be late for the lesson. 2. If he had known the time-table he wouldn't have missed the train. 3. It would be better if you learned the oral topics. 3. I wish I had known this before the examination. 4. I would have come to you if you had not lived so far away. 5. If I had seen you yesterday I would have given you my text-book. 6. If I were in your place I wouldn't buy the tickets beforehand. 7. If I had known that you needed help I would have helped you.



I. Text A: «Metals», Text B: «Steel», Text C: «Methods of steel heat treatment»

II. Famous Scientists. Dmitry Ivanovlch Mendeleyev.

Text A: «METALS»

Metals are materials most widely used in industry because of their properties. The study of the production and properties of metals is known as metallurgy.

The separation between the atoms in metals is small, so most metals are dense. The atoms are arranged regularly and can slide over each other. That is why metals are malleable (can be deformed and bent without fracture) and ductile (can be drawn into wire). Metals vary greatly in their properties. For example, lead is soft and can be bent by hand, while iron can only be worked by hammering at red heat.

The regular arrangement of atoms in metals gives them a crystalline structure. Irregular crystals are called grains. The properties of the metals depend on the size, shape, orientation, and composition of these grains. In general, a metal with small grains will be harder and stronger than one with coarse grains.

Heat treatment such as quenching, tempering, or annealing controls the nature of the grains and their size in the metal. Small amounts of other metals (less than 1 per cent) are often added to a pure metal. This is called alloying (легирование) and it changes the grain structure and properties of metals.

All metals can be formed by drawing, rolling, hammering and extrusion, but some require hot-working. Metals are subject to metal fatigue and to creep (the slow increase in length under stress) causing deformation and failure. Both effects are taken into account by engineers when designing, for example, airplanes, gas-turbines, and pressure vessels for high-temperature chemical processes. Metals can be worked using machine-tools such as lathe, milling machine, shaper and grinder.

The ways of working a metal depend on its properties. Many metals can be melted and cast in moulds, but special conditions are required for metals that react with air.


property — свойство

metallurgy — металлургия

separation — разделение, отстояние

dense — плотный

arrangement — расположение

regularly — регулярно, правильно

to slide — скользить

malleable — ковкий, податливый, способный деформироваться

bent pp of bend — гнуть

to fracture — ломать

ductile — эластичный, ковкий

to draw — волочить, тянуть

wire — проволока

lead — свинец

iron — железо, чугун

grain — зерно

to depend — зависеть

size — размер, величина

shape — форма, формировать

composition — состав

coarse — грубый, крупный

treatment — обработка

quenching — закалка

tempering — отпуск после закалки, нормализация

annealing — отжиг, отпуск

rolling — прокатка

to hammer — ковать (напр. молотом)

extrusion — экструзия

metal fatigue — усталость металла

creep — ползучесть

stress — давление,

failure — повреждение, разрушение

vessel — сосуд, котел, судно

lathe — токарный станок

milling machine — фрезерный станок

shaper — строгальный станок

grinder — шлифовальный станок

to melt — плавить, плавиться расплавить

to cast — отливать, отлить

mould — форма (для отливки)

General understanding:

1. What are metals and what do we call metallurgy?

2. Why are most metals dense?

3. Why are metals malleable?

4. What is malleability?

5. What are grains?

6. What is alloying?

7. What is crystalline structure?

8. What do the properties of metals depend on?

9. What changes the size of grains in metals?

10. What are the main processes of metal forming?

11. How are metals worked?

12. What is creeping?

Exercise 1.1. Find the following words and word combinations in the text:

1. Свойства металлов

2. расстояние между атомами

3. правильное расположение

4. сильно отличаются по своим свойствам

5. кристаллическая структура

6. размер зерен

7. форма зерен

8. закалка

9. отжиг





14. структура и свойства зерна

15. горячая обработка

16. усталость металла

17. ползучесть металла

18. плавка и отливка в формы

19. способы обработки металлов

Exercise 1.2. Complete the following sentences:

1. Metals are...

2. Metallurgy is...

3. Most metals are...

4. The regular arrangement of atoms in metals...

5. Irregular crystals...

6. The properties of the metals depend...

7. Metals with small grains will be...

8....controls the nature of the grains in the metal.

9. Alloying is...

10. All metals can be formed by...

11. Creep is...

12. Metals can be worked using...

Exercise 1.3. Explain in English the meaning of the following words:

1. malleability

2. crystalline structure

3. grains

4. heat treatment

5. alloying

6. creep

Exercise 1.4. Translate into English:

1. Металлы — плотные материалы потому, что между атомами в металлах малое расстояние.

2. Металлы имеют кристаллическую структуру из-за правильного расположения атомов.

3. Чем меньше зерна, тем тверже металл.

4. Закалка и отжиг изменяют форму и размер зерен в металлах.

5. Легирование изменяет структуру зерен и свойства металлов.

6. Металл деформируется и разрушается из-за усталости и ползучести.

Text В: «STEEL»

The most important metal in industry is iron and its alloy — steel. Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. It is strong and stiff, but corrodes easily through rusting, although stainless and other special steels resist corrosion. The amount of carbon in a steel influences its properties considerably. Steels of low carbon content (mild steels) are quite ductile and are used in the manufacture of sheet iron, wire, and pipes. Medium-carbon steels containing from 0.2 to 0.4 per cent carbon are tougher and stronger and are used as structural steels. Both mild and medium-carbon steels are suitable for forging and welding. High-carbon steels contain from 0.4 to 1.5 per cent carbon, are hard and brittle and are used in cutting tools, surgical instruments, razor blades and springs. Tool steel, also called silver steel, contains about 1 per cent carbon and is strengthened and toughened by quenching and tempering.

The inclusion of other elements affects the properties of the steel. Manganese gives extra strength and toughness. Steel containing 4 per cent silicon is used for transformer cores or electromagnets because it has large grains acting like small magnets. The addition of chromium gives extra strength and corrosion resistance, so we can get rust-proof steels. Heating in the presence of carbon or nitrogen-rich materials is used to form a hard surface on steel (case-hardening). High-speed steels, which are extremely important in machine-tools, contain chromium and tungsten plus smaller amounts of vanadium, molybdenum and other metals.


alloy — сплав

carbon— углерод

stiff — жесткий

to corrode — разъедать, ржаветь

rusty — ржавый

stainless — нержавеющий

to resist — сопротивляться

considerably — значительно, гораздо

tough — крепкий, жесткий, прочный, выносливый

forging — ковка

welding — сварка

brittle — хрупкий, ломкий

cutting tools — режущие инструменты

surgical instruments — хирургические инструменты

blade — лезвие

spring — пружина

inclusion — включение

to affect — влиять

manganese — марганец

silicon — кремний

rust-proof — нержавеющий

nitrogen — азот

tungsten — вольфрам

General understanding:

1. What is steel?

2. What are the main properties of steel?

3. What are the drawbacks of steel?

4. What kinds of steel do you know? Where are they used?

5. What gives the addition of manganese, silicon and chromium to steel?

6. What can be made of mild steels (medium-carbon steels, high-carbon steels)?

7. What kind of steels can be forged and welded?

8. How can we get rust-proof (stainless) steel?

9. What is used to form a hard surface on steel?

10. What are high-speed steels alloyed with?

Exercise 1.5. Find the following words and word combinations in the text:

1. сплав железа и углерода

2. прочный и жесткий

3. легко коррозирует

4. нержавеющая сталь

5. низкое содержание углерода

6. ковкость

7. листовое железо, проволока, трубы

8. конструкционные стали

9. пригодны для ковки и сварки

10. твердый и хрупкий

11. режущие инструменты

12. хирургические инструменты

13. инструментальная сталь


15. добавление марганца (кремния, хрома, вольфрама, молибдена, ванадия)


Quenching is a heat treatment when metal at a high temperature is rapidly cooled by immersion in water or oil. Quenching makes steel harder and more brittle, with small grains structure.

Tempering is a heat treatment applied to steel and certain alloys. Hardened steel after quenching from a high temperature is too hard and brittle for many applications and is also brittle. Tempering, that is re-heating to an intermediate temperature and cooling slowly, reduces this hardness and brittleness. Tempering temperatures depend on the composition of the steel but are frequently between 100 and 650 °C. Higher temperatures usually give a softer, tougher product. The color of the oxide film produced on the surface of the heated metal often serves as the indicator of its temperature.

Annealing is a heat treatment in which a material at high temperature is cooled slowly. After cooling the metal again becomes malleable and ductile (capable of being bent many times without cracking).

All these methods of steel heat treatment are used to obtain steels with certain mechanical properties for certain needs.


to immerse — погружать

to apply — применять

intermediate — промежуточный

oxide film — оксидная пленка

annealing — отжиг, отпуск

cracking — растрескивание

General understanding:

1. What can be done to obtain harder steel?

2. What makes steel more soft and tough?

3. What makes steel more malleable and ductile?

4. What can serve as the indicator of metal temperature while heating it?

5. What temperature range is used for tempering?

6. What are the methods of steel heat treatment used for?

Exercise 1.6. Translate into English the following words and word combinations:

1. температура нормализации

2. мелкозернистая структура

3. быстрое охлаждение

4. закаленная сталь

5. состав стали

6. окисная пленка

7. индикатор температуры

8. медленное охлаждение


Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev

Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev is a famous Russian chemist. He is best known for his development of the periodic table of the properties of the chemical elements. This table displays that elements' properties are changed periodically when they are arranged according to atomic weight.

Mendeleyev was born in 1834 in Tobolsk, Siberia. He studied chemistry at the University of St. Petersburg, and in 1859 he was sent to study at the University of Heidelberg. Mendeleyev returned to St. Petersburg and became Professor of Chemistry at the Technical Institute in 1863. He became Professor of General Chemistry at the University of St. Petersburg in 1866. Mendeleyev was a well-known teacher, and, because there was no good textbook in chemistry at that time, he wrote the two-volume «Principles of Chemistry» which became a classic textbook in chemistry.

In this book Mendeleyev tried to classify the elements according to their chemical properties. In 1869 he published his first version of his periodic table of elements. In 1871 he published an improved version of the periodic table, in which he left gaps for elements that were not known at that time. His table and theories were proved later when three predicted elements: gallium, germanium, and scandium were discovered.

Mendeleyev investigated the chemical theory of solution. He found that the best proportion of alcohol and water in vodka is 40%. He also investigated the thermal expansion of liquids and the nature of petroleum.

In 1893 he became director of the Bureau of Weights and Measures in St. Petersburg and held this position until his death in 1907.



I. Text A: Metalworking processes: Rolling. Extrusion,

Text B: Drawing. Forging. Sheet metal forming,

Text C: Metalworking and Metal Properties.

II. Famous scientists. Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov.


Metals are important in industry because they can be easily deformed into useful shapes. A lot of metalworking processes have been developed for certain applications. They can be divided into five broad groups:

1. rolling,

2. extrusion,

3. drawing,

4. forging,

5. sheet-metal forming.

During the first four processes metal is subjected to large amounts of strain (deformation). But if deformation goes at a high temperature, the metal will recrystallize — that is, new strain-free grains will grow instead of deformed grains. For this reason metals are usually rolled, extruded, drawn, or forged above their recrystallization temperature. This is called hot working. Under these conditions there is no limit to the compressive plastic strain to which the metal can be subjected.

Other processes are performed below the recrystallization temperature. These are called cold working. Cold working hardens metal and makes the part stronger. However, there is a limit to the strain before a cold part cracks.


Rolling is the most common metalworking process. More than 90 percent of the aluminum, steel and copper produced is rolled at least once in the course of production. The most common rolled product is sheet. Rolling can be done either hot or cold. If the rolling is finished cold, the surface will be smoother and the product stronger.


Extrusion is pushing the billet to flow through the orifice of a die. Products may have either a simple or a complex cross section. Aluminum window frames are the examples of complex extrusions.

Tubes or other hollow parts can also be extruded. The initial piece is a thick-walled tube, and the extruded part is shaped between a die on the outside of the tube and a mandrel held on the inside.

In impact extrusion (also called back-extrusion) (штамповка выдавливанием), the workpiece is placed in the bottom of a hole and a loosely fitting ram is pushed against it. The ram forces the metal to flow back around it, with the gap between the ram and the die determining the wall thickness. The example of this process is the manufacturing of aluminum beer cans.


useful — полезный

shape — форма, формировать

rolling — прокатка

extrusion — экструзия, выдавливание

drawing — волочение

forging — ковка

sheet — лист

to subject — подвергать

amount — количество

condition — состояние, условие

perform — выполнять, проводить

to harden — делаться твердым, упрочняться

at least — по крайней мере

common — общий

billet — заготовка, болванка

orifice — отверстие

die — штамп, пуансон, матрица, фильера, волочильная доска

cross section — поперечное сечение

window frame — рама окна

tube — труба

hollow — полый

initial — первоначальный, начальный

thick-walled — толстостенный

mandrel — оправка, сердечник

impact — удар

loosely — свободно, с зазором

fitting — зд. посадка

ram — пуансон, плунжер

force — сила

gap — промежуток, зазор

to determine — устанавливать, определять

General understanding:

1. Why are metals so important in industry?

2. What are the main metalworking processes?

3. Why are metals worked mostly hot?

4. What properties does cold working give to metals?

5. What is rolling? Where is it used?

6. What is extrusion? What shapes can be obtained after extrusion?

7. What are the types of extrusion?

Exercise 2.1. Find the following in the text:

1. могут легко деформироваться

2. нужные формы

3. подвергать большим деформациям

4. зерна свободные от деформации

5. температура перекристаллизации

6. пластическая деформация сжатия

7. самый обычный процесс обработки металла

8. самое обычное изделие проката

9. отверстие фильеры

10. первоначальный

11. сложное сечение

12. пустотелые детали

13. свободно входящий плунжер

14. зазор между плунжером (пуансоном) и штампом

15. толщина стенки

Exercise 2.2. Translate into English:

1. Способность металла перекристаллизовываться при высокой температуре используется при горячей


2. Перекристаллизация — это рост новых, свободных от деформации зерен.

3. Во время горячей обработки металл может подвергаться очень большой пластической деформации сжатия.

4. Холодная обработка делает металл тверже и прочнее, но некоторые металлы имеют предел деформации.

5. Листовой прокат может производиться горячим или холодным.

6. Поверхность холоднокатаного листа более гладкая и он прочнее.

7. Поперечное сечение фильеры для экструзии может быть простым или сложным.

8. Алюминиевые и медные сплавы являются наилучшими для экструзии из-за их пластичности при деформации.

9. Алюминиевые банки, тюбики для зубной пасты являются примерами использования штамповки выдавливанием.

10. Толщина стенки алюминиевой банки определяется зазором между пунсоном и штампом.


Drawing consists of pulling metal through a die. One type is wire drawing. The diameter reduction that can be achieved in one die is limited, but several dies in series can be used to get the desired reduction.

Sheet metal forming

Sheet metal forming (штамповка листового металла) is widely used when parts of certain shape and size are needed. It includes forging, bending and shearing. One characteristic of sheet metal forming is that the thickness of the sheet changes little in processing. The metal is stretched just beyond its yield point (2 to 4 percent strain) in order to retain the new shape. Bending can be done by pressing between two dies. Shearing is a cutting operation similar to that used for cloth.

Each of these processes may be used alone, but often all three are used on one part. For example, to make the roof of an automobile from a flat sheet, the edges are gripped and the piece pulled in tension over a lower die. Next an upper die is pressed over the top, finishing the forming operation (штамповку), and finally the edges are sheared off to give the final dimensions.


Forging is the shaping of a piece of metal by pushing with open or closed dies. It is usually done hot in order to reduce the required force and increase the metal's plasticity.

Open-die forging is usually done by hammering a part between two flat faces. It is used to make parts that are too big to be formed in a closed die or in cases where only a few parts are to be made. The earliest forging machines lifted a large hammer that was then dropped on the workpiece, but now air or steam hammers are used, since they allow greater control over the force and the rate of forming. The part is shaped by moving or turning it between blows.

Closed-die forging is the shaping of hot metal within the walls of two dies that come together to enclose the workpiece on all sides. The process starts with a rod or bar cut to the length needed to fill the die. Since large, complex shapes and large strains are involved, several dies may be used to go from the initial bar to the final shape. With closed dies, parts can be made to close tolerances so that little finish machining is required.

Two closed-die forging operations are given special names. They are upsetting and coining. Coining takes its name from the final stage of forming metal coins, where the desired imprint is formed on a metal disk that is pressed in a closed die. Coining involves small strains and is done cold. Upsetting involves a flow of the metal back upon itself. An example of this process is the pushing of a short length of a rod through a hole, clamping the rod, and then hitting the exposed length with a die to form the head of a nail or bolt.


to pull — тянуть

reduction — сокращение

to achieve — достигать

in series — серия, последовательно

beyond — выше, свыше

yield point — точка текучести металла

to retain — сохранять, удерживать

to bend — гнуть

shearing — обрезка, отрезание

edge — край

to grip — схватывать

lower die — нижний штамп

upper die — верхний штамп

forming operation — операция штампования

dimension — измерение, размеры

required — необходимый

increase — увеличение

open-die forging — ковка в открытом штампе (подкладном)

hammering — ковка, колотить

within — внутри, в пределах

to enclose — заключать

rod — прут, стержень

bar — прут, брусок

involved — включенный

tolerance — допуск

upsetting — высадка, выдавливание

blow — удар

coining — чеканка

imprint — отпечаток

clamp — зажим

to hit — ударять

General understanding:

1. How can the reduction of diameter in wire drawing be achieved?

2. What is sheet metal forming and where it can be used?

3. What is close-die forging?

4. What is forging?

5. What are the types of forging?

6. What types of hammers are used now?

7. Where are coining and upsetting used?

8. What process is used in wire production?

9. Describe the process of making the roof of a car.

Exercise 2.3. Find the following word combinations in the text:

1. протягивание металла через фильеру

2. волочение проволоки

3. уменьшение диаметра

4. толщина листа

5. растягивать выше точки текучести

6. сохранить новую форму

7. края отрезаются

8. конечные размеры

9. уменьшить необходимое усилие

10. увеличить пластичность металла

11. воздушные или паровые молоты

12. сила и скорость штампования

13. внутри стенок двух штампов

14. отделочная обработка

15. малые допуски

Exercise 2.4. Translate into English:

1. При волочении проволоки диаметр отверстия волочильной доски каждый раз уменьшается.

2. Штамповка листового металла включает в себя ковку, изгиб и обрезку.

3. Небольшая деформация листа при растяжении помогает сохранить новую форму детали.

4. Изменение формы при штамповке производится путем сжатия между двумя штампами.

5. Края листа при штамповке отрезаются для получения конечных размеров.

6. При проковке деталь должна быть горячей для уменьшения необходимых усилий и увеличения пластичности металла.

7. После ковки в закрытых штампах детали не требуют большой механической обработки.

8. При чеканке деформация металла невелика и отпечаток формируется на поверхности металла.

9. Высадка используется для изготовления головок гвоздей и болтов.


An important feature of hot working is that it provides the improvement of mechanical properties of metals. Hot-working (hot-rolling or hot-forging) eliminates porosity, directionality, and segregation that are usually present in metals. Hot-worked products have better ductility and toughness than the unworked casting. During the forging of a bar, the grains of the metal become greatly elongated in the direction of flow. As a result, the toughness of the metal is greatly improved in this direction and weakened in directions transverse to the flow. Good forging makes the flow lines in the finished part oriented so as to lie in the direction of maximum stress when the part is placed in service.

The ability of a metal to resist thinning and fracture during cold-working operations plays an important role in alloy selection. In operations that involve stretching, the best alloys are those which grow stronger with strain (are strain hardening) — for example, the copper-zinc alloy, brass, used for cartridges and the aluminum-magnesium alloys in beverage cans, which exhibit greater strain hardening.

Fracture of the workpiece during forming can result from inner flaws in the metal. These flaws often consist of nonmetallic inclusions such as oxides or sulfides that are trapped in the metal during refining. Such inclusions can be avoided by proper manufacturing procedures.

The ability of different metals to undergo strain varies. The change of the shape after one forming operation is often limited by the tensile ductility of the metal. Metals such as copper and aluminum are more ductile in such operations than other metals.


feature — черта, особенность

to provide — обеспечивать

improvement — улучшение

property — свойство

eliminate — ликвидировать, исключать

porosity — пористость

directional — направленный

to segregate — разделять

casting — отливка

elongated — удлиненный

to weaken — ослабевать, ослаблять