Advertising in the world of art (80427)















Advertising in the world of art



Thr s dstnct cnnctn btwn rt nd dvrtsng. Thr r thr mjr vsul rts, sculptur, pntng, nd rchtctur. f ths thr rts, vry ffctv dvrtsng s md pssbl by sculptur nd pntng.1 frml dfntn f rt s Fr wrk f rt s th dfntn n cmprhnsbl frm f ssntl truth s th rtst bcms wr f t n xprnc.2 rltnshp rss btwn wrk f rt nd th bsrvr tht s cmplx, ntngbl, nd undmnstrbl nd vrs grtly wth ch bsrvr. Th buty tht rsults frm btnng cmplt undrstndng f wrk f rt s drvd frm th sns f nrchmnt, f grtr brdth nd dpth n th lf f th bsrvr whn h rlzs ths buty s lstng nd vtl cntrbutn t hs lf. Th rtst must brng ut tw fctrs n ny wrk f rt, nmly bjctv fcts f th subjct whch th rtsts ttmpts t brng ut n hs nlyss nd th synthss f th rsults f tht nlyss. phtgrph s dstnct frm rt. t s rcrd, ssntlly mrrr mg, f th fcts f pprnc nd cntns lttl f ny f th tmlss nd chrctrstc qulty ncssry f wrk f rt, f ths fcts r t bcm sgnfcnt.3

Thr r thr rbtrry, but dstnct grups f rtsts wrkng tdy: fn rtsts, cmmrcl rtsts, nd llustrtrs. Th dffrnc btwn rtsts s dtrmnd by th ntndd udnc. Th fn rtst prducs sngl pc f rt, whch s dsplyd n shwngs, gllrs, nd musums, nd xpcts hs udnc t cm t hm. Th cmmrcl rtst gs ftr n udnc numbrng n th mllns, by prducng nxpnsv prntd rprductns. nthr dffrnc s tht fn rt vrtully nvr ncrprts wrttn mssg whrs cmmrcl rt vrtully lwys ncluds n. Th llustrtr prducs pcturs, drwngs, nd llustrtns undr suprvsn f n ntrmdry n th cmmrcl rt fld.4

dvrtsng cn b clld cntrlld, dntfbl prsusn utlzng mns f mss cmmunctns.5 Prfssr Mx Wls tld hs clsss n dvrtsng t th Unvrsty f rgn: ftn dvrtsrs chs t prmt prduct bnfts tht r psychlgcl, mtnl, vn slly. T xpln ths bnfts n wrds prvs mbrrssng. r rdculus. S dvrtsrs xpln thm ndrctlythrugh rt. Th rt drctr, thn, rthr thn th cpywrtr, wrts th d. Wls cts th mny ds shwng prducts bng njyd n luxurus r ntrgung sttngs.6 Th purps f dvrtsng s t brng tgthr ll f th vrus lmnts nt n r t chv n ntrctn tht wll cmmunct mssg wthn gvn cntxt. Th mssg my b cnvyd nd vn mnpultd by crfully jugglng th vsul lmnts. Ths lmnts r ssntlly wrds, phtgrphs, llustrtns, nd grphc mgs, cmbnd wth cntrllng frc f blck, wht, nd clr.7

Th purpss f dvrtsmnts r: (1) t ttrct ttntn t tslf; (2) t nlst th vwrs ntrst; (3) t shw th vwr mns f stsfyng wnt r nd thrugh purchs f th prduct r srvc. f th dvrtsng dvcts n d, th d s dsgnd t crt n ffnty fr tht d; (4) t cnvnc th vwr t buy th prduct, srvc, r d; (5) t shw th vwr hw nd whr t buy th prduct r srvc r t tk sm spcfc curs f ctn.8 t s rdly pprnt tht th bst wy t prmt n dvrtsmnt s t crfully crft n rt wrk t crry th mssg t th ntndd udnc.

TV cmmrcls must vrcm tw mjr hndcps, n bng th hstlty th udnc hrbrs fr ths knd f dvrtsng, nd th thr bng th xcss numbr f cmmrcls prvlnt n ny gvn tm prd.9 Thr r thr mjr ctgrs f cmmrcls: (1) th stry; (2) th slc-f-lf cmmrcl; nd (3) th tstmnl. Th prmtrs usd t vlut th cmmrcl r bsd n th fllwng: (1) wht kng f prsns s th cmmrcl?; (2) d thy undrstnd t?; (3) d thy rmmbr t?; (4) ds t ltr thr pnn f th prduct?; (5) wll thy buy th prduct?.10 Ths r prmtrs tht th cmmrcl rtst must dhr t whn h dsgns cmmrcl. ny typ f dvrtsmnt, whthr f th prntd mdum r th lctrnc mdum, rqurs rtsts wth gd blts t dsgn ntllgnt mtrl s tht n ntndd udnc cn b nducd t ct n sm mnnr.

Pstrs cnvyng vsul mssg, hv bn usd fr svrl thusnd yrs. Hnc, pstrs r rlly nthr dvrtsng md. Th Hmmurb lw cd s n f th rlst pstrs knwn n hstry. t ws nscrbd n drt stl, ght ft n lngth ( grnt rck), nd cntnd twnty-n hrzntl clumns bv whch pprd bs-rlf f Kng Hmmurb nd th Sun Gd wh dlvrd t hm th lws f th Kngdm. Ths rlst pstr s dtd smwhr btwn 2067 nd 2025 BC.11

n rly nntnth cntury nglnd, lmst ll pctrl pstrs wr f th lttrprss-nly knd. whch ld t dffcults wth sm f th lltrt Lndn bll-stckrs wh tndd t stck th pstrs upsd dwn. brkwy frm th nn-pctrl pstr ws ld by th Ryl cdmcns, mmbrs f th Pr-Rphrlt ctr, th St. Jhns Wd Clqu. n 1871, Frdrck Wlkr dsgnd pwrful pstr fr Wlk Cllns Wmn n Wht, stg dpttn t th lympc Thtr. ngrvd n wd by W. H. Hpr, t shwd hvly drpd wmn wth hr fngr t hr lps pnng dr n t strry nght gd dvc fr drwng th y nt th pstr nd fr hldng t thr by mystry nd suspns.12 Wlkr s qutd s syng m mprssd n dng ll cn wth frst ttmpt t wht cnsdr mght dvlp nt mst mprtnt brnch f rt. Wlkrs frnd Hnry Stck Mrks, bst knwn fr hs pntngs f bdrggld strks, dsgnd Mnks Shvng s pstr fr Prs Sp. t ws mst unfrtunt tht dvrtsrs gv t th rthr npprprt cptn: hv fund (t) mtchlss fr th hnds nd cmplxn. lthugh th pctur s dmnnt, th pstr shws n cncptn f th prduct nd th mssg s lst.13 n ffctv pstr nds clrty f bth th pctur nd prntd mssg t b succssful. Th jvl dnr-ut, th mn f knwng plt, my pss by th mr pdntc pstr, but my gthr whr h shll fnd Brdux wthut stnt, r Chmpgn r rr lquurs.14

But t s nt fr nthng tht w lv n th g f dvrtsng, nd undr th rgn f th d cptndum. Crfty publshrs sd bk culd b ts wn dvrtsr. t sprtd th mst brllnt clrs lk muntbnk n prd; t md ts bd frm th wndw f th bkshp nd thrw dust n th ys f th crdulus pssrby. But hvn frbd tht shuld sy nythng drgtry f dvrtsng, whch s ncssty f ur dy nd th vry sul f busnss, spclly n bksllng.15 t s stblshd tht dsr fr dvrtsng vrrds rtstc ntntn n rfrnc t th llustrtn f bk-cvrs. n fct, th mr nsgnfcnt nd cmmnplc th bk, th ludr ws th cvr. Th vgu f th llustrtd cvr ws strtd but 1885 by tru rtst, ntd s n f th mst rgnl nd subtl f hs tm, Juls Chrt. Chrt ws lrdy knwn fr hs suprb pstrs, whch wr grly sught ftr by cllctrs, nd drnd lmst vry pntrs nd sculptrs stud. Juls Lvy, wh knw Chrt wll, ws th frst t ppl t th grt rtst t dsgn n rnmntl dsgn fr th cvr f bks h publshd. Th pstr mn durng th lttr prt f th nntnth cntury furnshd mtrl fr sm rch nd curus cllctns, whch gnrtd whl brnch f cmmrc nd ndustry. Prvusly, nly fw pstrs by . Dlcrx, Nntul, Dumr, Gvrn, Hnr Mnnr, nd Mnt, md up th ntr brnch f ths rt. Chrts rrvl n th rt scn gnrtd n ntrly nw ndustry. H prducd hundrds f pstrs tht wr n hgh dmnd, nd vry pntr ws mbtus t bcm Chrtbut nn lct mnbus.16

Frm 1880 t 1900, th pstr ws trnsfrmd frm vulgr dsfgurmnt f th strts nt n rt frm nd vn cllctrs pry: t dd f nght, th rl fntcs wuld stl ut wth dmp spngs t tk th cvtd Chért r Lutrc ff th wlls. Th pstr ls ctd s crrrs f tht strng dcrtv dss, rt Nuvu. Bfr th 1880s, pstrs hd bn mdld n, r nly slghtly dptd frm th cdmc pntng; nw th pntrs bgn t tk thr cu frm th pstrsts17

Mx Brbhm md cyncl bsrvtn n th 1930s tht w nd nthr wrt brng ut th bst n ur rtsts nd t kll f th wrst f thm.18 n f th bst wrtm pstrsts, shly Hvndr wrt ftr Wrld Wr tht th wr xpndd th pprtunts fr th rtst n mny wys, vn thugh th mphss shftd wy frm dvrtsng cmmrcl prducts s th wr prgrssd. Th mjrty f ffcl pstrs wr mdrn vvd dsgns f lmst ll th cmbtnt cuntrs xcpt Jpn. Jpns rt dsgn n mltry pstrs ws pdstrn cmprd t th vnt-grd rt dsplyd n Jpns pstrs f th lt nntnth cntury. Pstr thms f Wrld Wr wr dsgnd t ttrct rcruts, but th mss cnscrptns n Wrld Wr shftd th thms t ptrtc bss.19 Frm th nd f Wrld Wr untl th rly 1960s n unsy skrmsh nd cmprms dvlpd btwn phtgrphy nd grphcs n th pstr. Th Swss schl f dsgnrs bgn usng phtgrphy wdly n pstrs n th 1930s. Th mvmnt twrd phtgrphc pstrs ws ntnsfd by th cmpttn f tlvsn whch brught mgs f prducts rght nt th hm wth cnvncng rlsm.20 Tdy, mst mdrn pstrs r mss prducd but stll rqur th wrk f rtsts t cnvy mssg.21






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