10-th century in English history (60721)Посмотреть архив целиком
The church in the mid IXth century
So the Church made sure that it was closely linked with royalty and in the IXth century, Edmund’s son, Edgar (959-975), started to reform the monasteries, and Cantebury, Sherban, Winchester and Worcester all became monastic[монашеский] cathedrals. The church was well-inderved, the total income of monasteries and nuneries by the early XIth century was far greater than the income of the king. The Anglo-Saxon’s Church had long provided missionaries, such as Bonyface and Wilbred to help to convert Germany and the lower countries to Christianity. And that was the sign of great vitality of English Christianity in set others to Scandinavia in the late 10th and the early 11th centuries. This religious revival[возрождение] provided a literary and cultural activity, which rebuilt itself in brilliant manuscript illumination, and it was stonecarving and embroidery – so the stonecarving and embroidery started in the early 11th century.
The Kingdom of Wessex had by now become what was later termed the Old English Monarchy. This state was still very much centered on Wessex, Ethelstan alone among the 10th century rulers and he spent much time in Mercia. Wessex was administrated from its 4 partland shires: Hampshire, Willshire, Dorset and Somerset – the regions, where the kings spent most of their time. However, pretty relations of nationhood was indicated in 957, when the Mercians and Northumbrians renounced eligence to Edward in favour of his brother Edgar. The scheme was healed, although Edgar also became King of Wessex on Edwin’s death in 959. The eligence of Northumbria to who never ruled at Winchester remained uncertain until well into the 11th century.
The county prospered, however, as a result of agricultural advances and the production of wool and cloth England became wealthy by the standarts of contemporary Northern Europe. And, of course, it became a tempting price to foreign rulers. The power of the Old English Monarchy was displayed in 973, when other British rulers made a formal submission[подчинение] to king Edgar at Chester.
The peace and untiy of England was not to survive Edgar’s death in 975. The reason was that his both sons were too young to rule. The elder, Edward, still succeded, but he was unpopular and he was murded three years later, in 978, by the supporters of the younger son, Ethelred. And he was called Ethelred the Unready, because he was not ready by his age to rule the country. Ethelred has been the subject of scorn throughout history, not least because of the hostile tone of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. In fact Ethelred made major effort to improve the state defences, but he lacked the presence and natural authority. So he was not… Тимур!! trusted by the people, so he lacked the natural authority to command or trust. And, of course, consequently this limited his ability to deal with the next crisis to hit the British Isles and it was the return of the Vikings.
England under the recent kings of Wessex, Scotland, under its outstanding 9th century ruler Kenneth[Scottish leader], much of Wales under the rulers of Kenneth had all experienced a welcome measure of statehood. But so two had devided lands, enabling them again to organize themselves into the large armies, so the armies of England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales can’t be orgainized as one army to fight the Vikings, because they lacked experience in fighting as a large army. Soon after Ethelred’s assetion[утверждение] the Danes started mounting major attacks, in one of which they defeated the Essex militia[народное ополчение, армия] under ea(r)ldorman Brington at Meldon in 991. Ethelred used a mixture of a very up-to-date thing – a mixture of dribes and violence, such as, for example, a pitiless massacres of English resident Danes in 1002 to maintain his power, so he simply killed their king. The Danes retaliated[возмездие] with fearsome vigmereance over (of a) decade and in 1013 the resistance collapsed. The following year Ethelred was briefly driven into Normandie by king Swein of Denmark, who was reconsidered but never crowned as king of England. Ethelred, however, returned on Swein’s death, but the struggle was continued by Swein’ s son, Cnut(Canute, Chnut, Knut).
So while the resistance was hamped[мешать] by divisions among the English, especially that between Ethelred and his eldest son, Edmund Ironside – violent and severe king. After Ethelred’s death England was devided between Cnut and Edmund in 1016 by the Peace of Alney: Cnut received Mercia and Northumbria. Edmund, however, died and Cnut became king of all England from 1016 up to 1035! And England was now almost by default a part of greater Scandinavian Empire.
Cnut following the death of his older brother Harold had also become King of Denmark for a short while, and thereby the newly conquered Norway, so he was a very powerful king at that time. The Vikings now largeraly pulled the Western sea bord of Europe including Normandy, which still bears their name as call of the Northern, so Normandy means the call(coal) of the Northmen. Cnut ruled all these dominants from England where he largely followed by the visible(peaceable)-?? practice of the local kings of Wessex, although he introduced a number of Danes in aristocracy and devided the kingdom into a small number of counties or at that time they were called “earldoms”. The earldem of Wessex was given to Godwin, an English protegy of Cnut who married a Danish princess and gave Danish names to four of his 6th sons, including Harold. And Anglo-Viking aristocracy was being created at that time and England started to look increasingly overseas to the land of her Scandinavian conquerers.
The End of the Anglo-Saxon England
So Cnut died in the year 1035 and there were several possible successors. The Wessex dinasty was represented by Ethelred’s younger sons Edward and Elthred. Cnut in his turn had 2 sons by two different wives, and they were Harold and Halferchant. Cnut had wanted Halferhat to succeede to his own Empire and his Empire included: Scandinavia (Denmark, Sweden, Norway), Normandie and all England. So, but while Hatherchart delayed in Denmark, the Witan appointed Harold as (a) regent and in 1037 the Witan made Harold king. He didn’t live long and when he died, in 1040, Hatherchat as the second son was recalled, but he died 2 years later. Very violent times there were…
Ethelred’s son Edward had been living for a year at the English court and in 1042 he was made(probably elected) king. And he is known under very prominent name Edward the Confessor. He lived quite long (1042-1066). So Edward the Confessor inherited the strongest government in the 11th century Europe. Edward had a clerical staff of priests, headed by a chief clerk whose office developed into that of the medieval C(h)ouncellor and then later it was formed into Parliament and now into the Privy Council, it existed up to the year 1970 (members:the King, the Queen). One of their duties was to keep records. From the late Anglo-Saxon period comes evidence of very detailed surveys recording land Tenna-?? and tax obligations.
The government changed greatly and so did the English society. The mid 9th to mid 11th century saw rapid growth in the population and economy, not surprisingly more people meant bigger counts. By the conquest there were English towns in a sence that we understand the towns today(large concentration of people, markets and tradesmen, groups of craftsmen in specialised quarters, numerous churches and the most prominent figure of a modern town is extending suburbs). The country-side was also changing, though it’s hard to trace the changes clearly. Scattered farms developed, however, into smaller villages. Agriculture was becoming more complicated and more complex. By the year 1066 many parts of England had common fields (was farmed by peasants and the results of the farming was devided among them; also they paid tax from the common field). Peasant society was becoming more satisfied and pleased and lots were making greater demands on their tenna.
Edward’s reign although brief, though many historians consider it’s a long one, of course, you’ve put them /// twidders of somebody’s reign, so but still it was brief one, if we compare it to Victoria’s reign, it was very prosperous for Britain. But it was overshadowed by a great problem(the problem of succesion). When Edward died, and he died childless, and the year was 1066, the Witan elected as their king Harold Godwinson, he was earl of Wessex, who claimed that Edward had made his death-bed promise of throne. King Harold came to the throne facing another problem. Duke William of Normandy, the head of a warlike[spelling-??] people had a claim to the English succession on the very same grounds, that he was the late king Edward the Confessor’s second cousin. However, he allerged[утверждал] that, when visiting Edward in 1051, the old king had solemnly promised the throne to him. So he had 2 reasons to become a king of England: 1)he was his second cousin and another that king Edward had promised him the throne. And with a strong army(it was another good reason) he assembled on the northern side of the English Channel and he was out to get in.
To any invasion by William Harold concentrated his forces among the south coast. Meanwhile Duke William’s fleet, which had been delayed by very unpleasant weather, landed at Evancy on 28st of September. Harold didn’t expect that and he rushed southwards. But the preparations, which he had made two months earlier(so he had waited for 2 months for the Duke to come), had fallen apart. The reason is very clear: the soldiers were tired, there was not enough food etc. And the whole of his army was exhausted by the battles in Scotland. And on the 14th of October 1066 the English and Norman armies met near a very famous place, Hastings. Harold’s forces gathered on the Crestally Hill and formed a wall of shields. The battle lasted all day, and at first the English position seemed quite strong, but apparently was lost, through different reasons, but the 1streason was, of course, the lack of discipline rather than the lack of force. And gradually the English troops were broken up. The centre held untill dask, but the outcome was already clear, when Harold fell on the spot marked in later centuries by the High by Battle Abbey. So Harold was killed, and later there was built a High Alter of Battle Abbey on the spot where proposely Harold had been killed.