Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (56492)















Vldimir Ilyich Lnin

(ssy)



In ll rligins nt nly th hly mn, but ls his ncstrs r ndwd with xtrrdinry pity. In just th sm wy, th Stlinist lgnd mkrs ttributd rvlutinry cnvictins nt nly t Lnin frm his rly childhd, but ls t his prnts. 602-pg fficil bigrphy f Lnin issud undr th uspics f th Institut f Mrxism-Lninism nd publishd in Mscw in 1960 (Vldimir Ilyich Lnin, Bigrfii) dscribd Lnins fthr s prgrssiv, rdicl ductinlist, nd his hm in Simbirsk s srt f rvlutinry club. Th tn ws st by lxndr (Lnins ldr brthr), whil Vldimir ls prticiptd frquntly in th discussin nd with grt succss.

ll this is nnsns. Lnins fthr, Ily Niklvich Ulynv, ws nt prgrssiv ductinlist. In 1869, h ws ppintd t th pst f Inspctr f Schls in th smll Vlg twn f Simbirsk. In 1874, h ws prmtd t th psitin f Dirctr f Schls fr th ntir prvinc. H ws nw n ctul Stt Cuncilr, dcrtd with th rdr f Stnislv, first clss, nd rfrrd t s His xcllnc. This md him high-rnking nblmn, furth in tbl f furtn rnks, with hrditry sttus.

Ths tw dts in his fthrs ris1869 nd 1874r significnt. Lnin singls thm ut in n rticl writtn in 1901, trcing th histry f th tsrist struggl ginst lcl gvrnmnt (th Zmstv), ntitld Th prscutrs f th Zmstv nd th Hnnibls f librlism1 s bing prcisly th yrs in which th tsrist burucrcy ctd ginst ths lcl rgns f slf-gvrnmnt nd itslf tk vr th suprvisin f public ductin. Ily Niklvichs stnding in th ministry f ductin, nd his stdy ris up th hirrchicl lddr, smhw d nt fit th img f rvlutinry, r vn f rdicl.

Lnin nc rclld hw, whn lxndr II ws ssssintd in 1881, his fthr sdly buttnd his fficils unifrm nd wnt t Simbirsk cthdrl t murn th utcrt. H ws dvut nd prcticing Grk rthdx Christin t th nd f his lif, nd n unqustining supprt f th tsrist utcrcy. Thr is, f curs, n rsn t xpct th fthr f rvlutinry t b rvlutinry himslf.

Th cult buildrs wnt vn furthr, nd ndwd Lnin himslf with suprhumn ttributs. H cms t lif fully quippd, Mrxist nd rvlutinry prcticlly frm childhd. nd frm his bld hd springs fully fldgd th prty tht is dstind t ld nd shp th wrking clss in rvlutin! Th rlity ws vry diffrnt. It tk mnths, in fct yrs, f studying nd thinking fr th yung Lnin t bcm Mrxist; first h hd t brk with th cnsrvtiv viws f his fthr, nd thn with th Nrdnik stnd f his ldr brthr.

n My 8, 1887, lxndr Ilyich Ulynv, Lnins ldr brthr, ws hngd fr pltting th ssssintin f th tsr. This ws trribl shck fr th yung Vldimir, wh ws 17 yrs ld t th tim. H hd nt suspctd tht his brthr ws intrstd in plitics. lxndr ws rticnt, intrspctiv, lwys mditting nd sd. H cncld his pliticl ids frm vryn in th fmily, s tht vn his sistr nn, tw yrs his snir, wh ws with him in Ptrsburg whil h ws invlvd in th ssssintin plt, knw nthing t ll but his plitics. Sm yrs ftr th vnt, in 1893, th Scil Dmcrt Llynts qustind Lnin but th plt. Lnin nswrd: Fr m s wll s fr th whl fmily th prticiptin f my brthr in th 1st f Mrch ffir cm s cmplt surpris.2

Th Ulynv fmily ws cls nd thir prsnl rltins vry wrm. It ws in rdr t spr thm tht lxndr kpt scrt his pliticl invlvmnt. H ws n xtrmly fin prsn, vry much lik his mthr, th sm rr cmbintin, writs nn, f xtrrdinry firmnss nd srnity with wndrful snsitivity, tndrnss nd firnss: but h ws mr ustr nd singl-mindd, nd vn mr curgus.

Vldimir, fur yrs yungr thn lxndr, hd lwys trid t mult his brthr. Whn skd whthr crl shuld b tn with buttr r with milk, h rplid, Lik Ssh. H wntd t d vrything lik Sshxcpt fllw his plitics. Whn, in th summr f 1886, lxndr Ulynv rturnd frm St. Ptrsburg t spnd th univrsity vctin with his fmily, h brught with him svrl bks n cnmics, including Mrxs Cpitl. ccrding t nns mmirs, Vldimir did nt vn lk t, lt ln rd, ths bks blnging t his brthr, with whm h ws shring rm. t tht tim, sh rprts, h shwd n intrst t ll in plitics.3

Th xcutin f lxndr must nt nly hv hd dp, prmnnt ffct n Vldimir, but ls prbbly prsntd him with tw ltrntivs fr himslf: ithr t fllw in th ftstps f his mrtyrd brthr, bcm Nrdnik nd trrrist; r t flinch frm rvlutinry ctivity. Fr Stlinist lgnd mkrs, ll is simplth dilmm ds nt vn xist. Th stry gs tht, n rciving th nws f his brthrs xcutin, Vldimir crid ut: N, w will nt fllw tht rd. Tht is nt th rd t tk.4

This is suppsd t b th rctin f yung mn f 17, wh hd brkn with rligin nly fw mnths rlir, wh did nt yt knw th nm f Mrx, wh hd nt rd singl illgl bk, nd knw nthing f th histry f th Russin rvlutinry mvmnt!

His bigrphr Trtsky irniclly sks t whm Vldimir ddrssd ths wis wrds. bviusly nt t his fthr, wh hd did yr bfr. Nr t lxndr, wh hd just prishd n th scffld. Nr t his sistr nn, wh ws in prisn. Nr t his mthr, wh hd gn t St. Ptrsburg t bg n ministr ftr nthr t sv hr sn. vidntly, writs Trtsky, Vldimir cnfidd his rvltins s tcticin t Dimitri, wh ws 13, nd Mri, wh ws 9!

If Lnin hd md up his mind in Mrch 1887 t fllw in Sshs ftstps, r t tk nthr pth f rvlutinry struggl, r t vid rvlutinry plitics ltgthr, his bhvir in th nxt six yrs wuld b incmprhnsibl. H did nt invlv himslf in ny pliticl ctivitis; instd, h studid.

t th nd f Jun 1887, th Ulynv fmily mvd t Kzn, whr Lnin strtd his lw studis t th univrsity. Hwvr, this undrtking ws cut shrt, s n Dcmbr 4, h tk prt in studnt dmnstrtin, nd lthugh h did nt ply n imprtnt rl, ftr night in th plic sttin, h ws xplld frm th univrsity nd frm th city f Kzn. Th rsn ws simply tht h ws th brthr f th thr Ulynv. Vldimir nd th rst f th fmily mvd t Kkushkin, sm 30 mils frm Kzn, whr his mthr hd n stt.

In h utumn f 1888, th ntir Ulynv fmily, xcpt nn, wh hd bn rrstd in Mrch 1887, whn visiting lxndrs rm, ws llwd t tk up rsidnc nc gin in Kzn. Nw Vldimir ntrd scilist circl f which vry littl is knwn. It ws md up f fw studnts wh rd gd bks tgthr nd xchngd ids but wht thy rd. Th mst imprtnt circl in Kzn ws th n ld by N.. Fdsv, wh vn t tht tim ws Mrxist. ccrding t Mxim Grky, wh livd n th Vlg in ths yrs nd mvd in rdicl circls, Fdsv prclimd his supprt fr Plkhnvs first imprtnt Mrxist trct, ur Diffrncs, s rly s 1887. Th Fdsv grup pssssd smll illgl librry nd vn n undrgrund prss. Vldimir, whil in Kzn, cm int cntct with sm f its lss imprtnt mmbrs.

In July 1889, widsprd rrsts tk plc in Kzn. Nt nly wr Fdsv nd his circl sizd, but ls mmbrs f th circl t which Vldimir blngd. Hwvr, h ws frtuntly nt rrstd himslf, th Ulynv fmily hving mvd ut f twn n My 3, t th villg f lkyvk, nr Smr. n ctbr 11, thy mvd gin, t th twn f Smr itslf. Hr Vldimir styd until th nd f ugust 1893, whn h mvd t Ptrsburg. Th fct tht Lnin ws willing t spnd fur yrs in th dd-nd twn f Smr is prf nugh tht h ws nt yt rdy t cmmit himslf t ctiv plitics, tht h ws still studying nd trying t dcid which dirctin t tk. Smr hd lmst n industry, nd thrfr virtully n industril wrking clss. Nr, unlik Kzn, did it hv univrsity, nd cnsquntly, thr wr n studnts. Thus thr ws nithr wrkr nr studnt unrst in th twn.

Lnin ndd ths yrs in rdr t mk up his mind whthr t fllw in Sshs ftstps, nd, if nt, wht pth t tk. N dubt th yung mn ws ttrctd t Nrdism, whtvr th Stlinist lgnd mkrs sy. n f his fllw studnts, rrstd with Vldimir in Kzn in Dcmbr 1887, dscribs hw mst f th rrstd studnts xchngd lighthrtd bntr. t n pint smn turnd t Ulynv, wh ws sitting prt lst in thught, nd skd wht h intndd t d ftr his rls. Ulynv rplid: Wht is thr fr m t think but?... My rd hs bn pvd by my ldr brthr.5

In Smr, Lnin sught ut vtrns f th trrrist undrgrund, nd qustind thm clsly n thir cnspirtril tchniqus. In this wy, h cquird knwldg tht h ltr put t us in rgnizing th Blshvik Prty. Bfr th Stlinist myth mchin strtd wrking, quit lt f vidnc ws prducd t shw tht in his yuth Lnin ws undr Nrdnik influnc. n witnss t this ffct ws V.V. drtsky, th futur dirctr f th Mrx-ngls-Lnin Institut. ccrding t him, in 1905, Lnin tld him tht h ws vry much influncd by Nrdnik ids. H dmittd tht, in 1888, h hd thught vry highly f th Nrdnik trrrist mvmnt, nd tht it tk quit tim fr him t fr himslf frm ths ids. During his lst yrs in Smr, 189293, Lnin ws lrdy Mrxist, lthugh h still rtind trits sscitd with Nrdny Vly (.g., spcil ttitud twrd trrrism).6






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