Soul of Soclsm (56483)

Soul of Soclsm










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Soclsms crss tody s crss n th mnng of soclsm. For th frst tm n th hstory of th world, vry lkly mjorty of ts popl lbl thmslvs soclst n on sns or nothr; but thr hs nvr bn tm whn th lbl ws lss nformtv. Th nrst thng to common contnt of th vrous soclsms s ngtv: nt-cptlsm. On th postv sd, th rng of conflctng nd ncomptbl ds tht cll thmslvs soclst s wdr thn th sprd of ds wthn th bourgos world.

vn nt-cptlsm holds lss nd lss s common fctor. n on prt of th spctrum, numbr of socl dmocrtc prts hv vrtully lmntd ny spcfclly soclst dmnds from thr progrms, promsng to mntn prvt ntrprs whrvr possbl. Th most promnnt xmpl s th Grmn socl dmocrcy. (s n d, phlosophy, nd socl movmnt, soclsm n Grmny s no longr rprsntd by poltcl prty, sums up D.. Chlmrs rcnt book Th Socl Dmocrtc Prty of Grmny.) Ths prts hv dfnd soclsm out of xstnc, but th tndncy whch thy hv formlzd s tht of th ntr rformst socl dmocrcy. n wht sns r ths prts stll soclst?

n nothr prt of th world pctur, thr r th Communst stts, whos clm to bng soclst s bsd on ngtv: th bolton of th cptlst prvt-proft systm, nd th fct tht th clss whch ruls dos not consst of prvt ownrs of proprty. On th postv sd, howvr, th soco-conomc systm whch hs rplcd cptlsm thr would not b rcognzbl to Krl Mrx. Th stt owns th mns of producton but who owns th stt? Crtnly not th mss of workrs, who r xplotd, unfr, nd lntd from ll lvrs of socl nd poltcl control. nw clss ruls, th burucrtc bosss; t ruls ovr collctvst systm burucrtc collctvsm. Unlss sttfcton s mchnclly qutd wth soclsm, n wht sns r ths socts soclst?

Ths two slf-styld soclsms r vry dffrnt, but thy hv mor n common thn thy thnk. Th socl dmocrcy hs typclly drmd of soclzng cptlsm from bov. ts prncpl hs lwys bn tht ncrsd stt ntrvnton n socty nd conomy s pr s soclstc. t brs ftl fmly rsmblnc to th Stlnst concpton of mposng somthng clld soclsm from th top down, nd of qutng sttfcton wth soclsm. Both hv thr roots n th mbguous hstory of th soclst d.

Bck to th roots: th followng pgs propos to nvstgt th mnng of soclsm hstorclly, n nw wy. Thr hv lwys bn dffrnt knds of soclsm, nd thy hv customrly bn dvdd nto rformst or rvolutonry, pcful or volnt, dmocrtc or uthortrn, tc. Ths dvsons xst, but th undrlyng dvson s somthng ls. Throughout th hstory of soclst movmnts nd ds, th fundmntl dvd s btwn Soclsm-from-bov nd Soclsm-from-Blow.

Wht unts th mny dffrnt forms of Soclsm-from-bov s th concpton tht soclsm (or rsonbl fcsml throf) must b hndd down to th grtful msss n on form or nothr, by rulng lt whch s not subjct to thr control n fct. Th hrt of Soclsm-from-Blow s ts vw tht soclsm cn b rlzd only through th slf-mncpton of ctvsd msss n moton, rchng out for frdom wth thr own hnds, moblzd from blow n struggl to tk chrg of thr own dstny, s ctors (not mrly subjcts) on th stg of hstory. Th mncpton of th workng clsss must b conqurd by th workng clsss thmslvs: ths s th frst sntnc n th Ruls wrttn for th Frst ntrntonl by Mrx, nd ths s th Frst Prncpl of hs lfwork.

t s th concpton of Soclsm-from-bov whch ccounts for th ccptnc of Communst dcttorshp s form of soclsm. t s th concpton of Soclsm-from-bov whch concntrts socl-dmocrtc ttnton on th prlmntry suprstructur of socty nd on th mnpulton of th commndng hghts of th conomy, nd whch mks thm hostl to mss cton from blow. t s Soclsm-from-bov whch s th domnnt trdton n th dvlopmnt of soclsm.

Pls not tht t s not pculr to soclsm. On th contrry, th yrnng for mncpton-from-bov s th ll-prvdng prncpl through cnturs of clss socty nd poltcl opprsson. t s th prmnnt proms hld out by vry rulng powr to kp th popl lookng upwrd for protcton, nstd of to thmslvs for lbrton from th nd for protcton. Th popl lookd to kngs to rght th njustcs don by lords, to msshs to ovrthrow th tyrnny of kngs. nstd of th bold wy of mss cton from blow, t s lwys sfr nd mor prudnt to fnd th good rulr who wll Do th Popl Good. Th pttrn of mncpton-from-bov gos ll th wy bck n th hstory of cvlzton, nd hd to show up n soclsm too. But t s only n th frmwork of th modrn soclst movmnt tht lbrton from blow could bcom vn rlstc sprton; wthn soclsm t hs com to th for, but only by fts nd strts. Th hstory of soclsm cn b rd s contnul but lrgly unsuccssful ffort to fr tslf from th old trdton, th trdton of mncpton-from-bov.

n th convcton tht th currnt crss of soclsm s ntllgbl only n trms of ths Grt Dvd n th soclst trdton, w turn to fw xmpls of th two souls of soclsm.

Krl Kutsky, th ldng thortcn of th Scond ntrntonl, bgn hs book on Thoms Mor wth th obsrvton tht th two grt fgurs nugurtng th hstory of soclsm r Mor nd Munzr, nd tht both of thm follow th long ln of Soclsts, from Lycurgus nd Pythgors to Plto, th Grcch, Ctln, Chrst

Ths s vry mprssv lst of rly soclsts, nd consdrng hs poston Kutsky should crtnly hv bn bl to rcognz soclst whn h sw on. Wht s most fscntng bout ths lst s th wy t flls prt undr xmnton nto two qut dffrnt groups.

Plutrchs lf of Lycurgus ld th rly soclsts to dopt hm s th foundr of Sprtn communsm ths s why Kutsky lsts hm. But s dscrbd by Plutrch, th Sprtn systm ws bsd on qul dvson of lnd undr prvt ownrshp; t ws n no wy soclstc. Th collctvst flng on my gt from dscrpton of th Sprtn rgm coms from dffrnt drcton: th wy of lf of th Sprtn rulng clss tslf, whch ws orgnzd s prmnnt dscplnd grrson n stt of sg; nd to ths dd th trrorstc rgm mposd ovr th hlots (slvs). do not s how modrn soclst cn rd of th Lycurgn rgm wthout flng tht h s mtng not n ncstor of soclsm but forrunnr of fscsm. Thr s qut dffrnc! But how s t tht t dd not mprss tslf on th ldng thortcn of socl dmocrcy?

Pythgors foundd n lt ordr whch ctd s th poltcl rm of th lndd rstocrcy gnst th plbn- dmocrtc movmnt; h nd hs prty wr fnlly ovrthrown nd xplld by populr rvolutonry rsng. Kutsky sms to b on th wrong sd of th brrcds! But bsds, nsd th Pythgorn ordr rgm of totl uthortrnsm nd rgmntton prvld. n spt of ths, Kutsky chos to rgrd Pythgors s soclst ncstor bcus of th blf tht th orgnzd Pythgorns prctsd communl consumpton. vn f ths wr tru (nd Kutsky found out ltr t ws not) ths would hv md th Pythgorn ordr xctly s communstc s ny monstry. Chlk up scond ncstor of totltrnsm on Kutskys lst.

Th cs of Pltos Rpublc s wll-nough known. Th sol lmnt of communsm n hs dl stt s th prscrpton of monstc-communl consumpton for th smll lt of Gurdns who consttut th burucrcy nd rmy; but th surroundng socl systm s ssumd to b prvt-proprty-holdng, not soclstc. nd hr t s gn Pltos stt modl s govrnmnt by n rstocrtc lt, nd hs rgumnt strsss tht dmocrcy nvtbly mns th dtrorton nd run of socty. Pltos poltcl m, n fct, ws th rhbltton nd purfcton of th rulng rstocrcy n ordr to fght th td of dmocrcy. To cll hm soclst ncstor s to mply concpton of soclsm whch mks ny knd of dmocrtc control rrlvnt.

On th othr hnd, Ctln nd th Grcch hd no collctvst sd. Thr nms r ssoctd wth mss movmnts of populr-dmocrtc rvolt gnst th stblshmnt. Thy wr not soclsts, to b sur, but thy wr on th populr sd of th clss struggl n th ncnt world, th sd of th popls movmnt from blow. t sms t ws ll th sm to th thortcn of socl dmocrcy.

Hr, n th pr-hstory of our subjct, r two knds of fgurs rdy-md for dopton nto th pnthon of th soclst movmnt. Thr wr th fgurs wth tng of (llgd) collctvsm, who wr yt thorough ltsts, uthortrns nd nt-dmocrts; nd thr wr th fgurs wthout nythng collctvst bout thm, who wr ssoctd wth dmocrtc clss struggls. Thr s collctvst tndncy wthout dmocrcy, nd thr s dmocrtc tndncy wthout collctvsm but nothng yt whch mrgs ths two currnts.

Not untl Thoms Munzr, th ldr of th rvolutonry lft wng of th Grmn Rformton, do w fnd suggston of such mrgr; socl movmnt wth communstc ds (Munzrs) whch ws lso nggd n dp-gong populr-dmocrtc struggl from blow. n contrst s prcsly Sr Thoms Mor: th gulf btwn ths two contmporrs gos to th hrt of our subjct. Mors Utop pcturs thoroughly rgmntd socty, mor rmnscnt of 1984 thn of soclst dmocrcy, ltst through nd through, vn slvholdng, typcl Soclsm-from-bov. t s not surprsng tht, of ths two soclst ncstors who stnd t th thrshold of th modrn world, on (Mor) xcrtd th othr nd supportd th hngmn who dd hm nd hs movmnt to dth.

Wht thn s th mnng of soclsm whn t frst cm nto th world? From th vry bgnnng, t ws dvdd btwn th two souls of soclsm, nd thr ws wr btwn thm.


Modrn soclsm ws born n th cours of th hlf cntury or so tht ls btwn th Grt Frnch Rvoluton nd th rvolutons of 1848. So ws modrn dmocrcy. But thy wr not born lnkd lk Sms twns. Thy trvlld t frst long sprt lns. Whn dd th two lns frst ntrsct?

Out of th wrckg of th Frnch Rvoluton ros dffrnt knds of soclsm. W wll consdr thr of th most mportnt n th lght of our quston.

. Bbuf. Th frst modrn soclst movmnt ws tht ld n th lst phs of th Frnch Rvoluton by Bbuf (th Consprcy of th quls), concvd s contnuton of rvolutonry Jcobnsm plus mor consstnt socl gol: socty of communst qulty. Ths rprsnts th frst tm n th modrn r tht th d of soclsm s wddd to th d of populr movmnt momntous combnton.1

Ths combnton mmdtly rss crtcl quston: Wht xctly n ch cs s th rltonshp tht s sn btwn ths soclst d nd tht populr movmnt? Ths s th ky quston for soclsm for th nxt 200 yrs.

s th Bbouvsts sw t: Th mss movmnt of th popl hs fld; th popl sm to hv turnd thr bcks on th Rvoluton. But stll thy suffr, stll thy nd communsm: w know tht. Th rvolutonry wll of th popl hs bn dftd by consprcy of th rght: wht w nd s cbl of th lft to r-crt th popls movmnt, to ffctut th rvolutonry wll. W must thrfor sz powr. But th popl r no longr rdy to sz powr. Thrfor t s ncssry for us to sz powr n thr nm, n ordr to rs th popl up to tht pont. Ths mns tmporry dcttorshp, dmttdly by mnorty; but t wll b n ductonl Dcttorshp, mng t crtng th condtons whch wll mk possbl dmocrtc control n th futur. (n tht sns w r dmocrts.) Ths wll not b dcttorshp of th popl, s ws th Commun, lt lon of th proltrt; t s frnkly dcttorshp ovr th popl wth vry good ntntons.

For most of th nxt ffty yrs, th concpton of th ductonl Dcttorshp ovr th popl rmns th progrm of th rvolutonry lft through th thr Bs (Bbuf to Buonrrot to Blnqu) nd, wth nrchst vrbg ddd, lso Bkunn. Th nw ordr wll b hndd down to th suffrng popl by th rvolutonry bnd. Ths typcl Soclsm-from-bov s th frst nd most prmtv form of rvolutonry soclsm, but thr r stll tody dmrrs of Cstro nd Mo who thnk t s th lst word n rvolutonsm.

. Snt-Smon. mrgng from th rvolutonry prod, brllnt mnd took n ntrly dffrnt tck. Snt-Smon ws mplld by rvulson gnst rvoluton, dsordr nd dsturbncs. Wht fscntd hm ws th potntlts of ndustry nd scnc.

Hs vson hd nothng to do wth nythng rsmblng qulty, justc, frdom, th rghts of mn or lld pssons: t lookd only to modrnzton, ndustrlzton, plnnng, dvorcd from such consdrtons. Plnnd ndustrlzton ws th ky to th nw world, nd obvously th popl to chv ths wr th olgrchs of fnncrs nd busnssmn, scntsts, tchnologsts, mngrs. Whn not pplng to ths, h clld on Npolon or hs succssor Lous XV to mplmnt schms for royl dcttorshp. Hs schms vrd, but thy wr ll compltly uthortrn to th lst plnnd ordnnc. systmtc rcst nd mltnt mprlst, h ws th furous nmy of th vry d of qulty nd lbrty, whch h htd s offsprng of th Frnch Rvoluton.

t ws only n th lst phs of hs lf (1825) tht, dsppontd n th rspons of th nturl lt to do thr duty nd mpos th nw modrnzng olgrchy, h md turn towrd pplng to th workrs down blow. Th Nw Chrstnty would b populr movmnt, but ts rol would b smply to convnc th powrs-tht-b to hd th dvc of th Snt-Smonn plnnrs. Th workrs should orgnz to ptton thr cptlsts nd mngrl bosss to tk ovr from th dl clsss.

Wht thn ws hs rltonshp btwn th d of th Plnnd Socty nd th populr movmnt? Th popl, th movmnt, could b usful s bttrng rm n somons hnds. Snt-Smons lst d ws movmnt-from-blow to ffctut Soclsm-from-bov. But powr nd control must rmn whr t hs lwys bn bov.

. Th Utopns. thrd typ of soclsm tht ros n th post-rvolutonry gnrton ws tht of th utopn soclsts propr Robrt Own, Chrls Fourr, tnn Cbt, tc. Thy bluprntd n dl communl colony, mgnd full-blown from th crnum of th Ldr, to b fnncd by th grc of th phlnthropc rch undr th wng of Bnvolnt Powr.

Own (n mny wys th most sympthtc of th lot) ws s ctgorcl s ny of thm: Ths grt chng must nd wll b ccomplshd by th rch nd powrful. Thr r no othr prts to do t t s wst of tm, tlnt nd pcunry mns for th poor to contnd n opposton to th rch nd powrful Nturlly h ws gnst clss ht, clss struggl. Of th mny who blv ths, fw hv wrttn so bluntly tht th m of ths soclsm s to govrn or trt ll socty s th most dvncd physcns govrn nd trt thr ptnts n th bst rrngd luntc hosptls, wth forbrnc nd kndnss for th unfortunts who hv bcom so through th rrtonlty nd njustc of th prsnt most rrtonl systm of socty.

Cbts socty provdd for lctons, but thr could b no fr dscusson; nd controlld prss, systmtc ndoctrnton, nd compltly rgmntd unformty ws nsstd on s prt of th prscrpton.

For ths utopn soclsts, wht ws th rltonshp btwn th soclst d nd th populr movmnt? Th lttr ws th flock to b tndd by th good shphrd. t must not b supposd tht Soclsm-from-bov ncssrly mpls crully dspotc ntntons.

Ths sd of ths Soclsms-from-bov s fr from outlvd. On th contrry, t s so modrn tht modrn wrtr lk Mrtn Bubr, n Pths n Utop, cn prform th rmrkbl ft of trtng th old utopns s f thy wr grt dmocrts nd lbrtrns! Ths myth s qut wdsprd, nd t ponts onc gn to th xtrordnry nsnstvty of soclst wrtrs nd hstorns to th dp-rootd rcord of Soclsm-from-bov s th domnnt componnt n th two souls of soclsm.


Utopnsm ws ltst nd nt-dmocrtc to th cor bcus t ws utopn tht s, t lookd to th prscrpton of prfbrctd modl, th drmng-up of pln to b wlld nto xstnc. bov ll, t ws nhrntly hostl to th vry d of trnsformng socty from blow, by th upsttng ntrvnton of frdom-skng msss, vn whr t fnlly ccptd rcours to th nstrumnt of mss movmnt for prssur upon th Tops. n th soclst movmnt s t dvlopd bfor Mrx, nowhr dd th ln of th Soclst d ntrsct th ln of Dmocrcy-from-Blow.

Ths ntrscton, ths synthss, ws th grt contrbuton of Mrx: n comprson, th whol contnt of hs Cptl s scondry. Ths s th hrt of Mrxsm: Ths s th Lw; ll th rst s commntry. Th Communst Mnfsto of 1848 mrkd th slf-conscousnss of th frst movmnt (n ngls words) whos noton ws from th vry bgnnng tht th mncpton of th workng clss must b th ct of th workng clss tslf.

Th young Mrx hmslf wnt through th mor prmtv stg just s th humn mbryo gos through th gll stg; or to put t dffrntly, on of hs frst mmunztons ws chvd by ctchng th most prvsv dss of ll, th lluson of th Svor-Dspot. Whn h ws 22, th old Ksr dd, nd to th hosnns of th lbrls Frdrch Wlhlm V ccdd to th thron mdst xpcttons of dmocrtc rforms from bov. Nothng of th sort hppnd. Mrx nvr wnt bck to ths noton, whch hs bdvlld ll of soclsm wth ts hops n Svour-Dcttors or Svour-Prsdnts.

Mrx ntrd poltcs s th crusdng dtor of nwsppr whch ws th orgn of th xtrm lft of th lbrl dmocrcy of th ndustrlzd Rhnlnd, nd soon bcm th formost dtorl voc of complt poltcl dmocrcy n Grmny. Th frst rtcl h publshd ws polmc n fvour of th unqulfd frdom of th prss from ll cnsorshp by th stt. By th tm th mprl govrnmnt forcd hs dsmssl, h ws turnng to fnd out mor bout th nw soclst ds comng from Frnc. Whn ths ldng spoksmn of lbrl dmocrcy bcm soclst, h stll rgrdd th tsk s th chmponng of dmocrcy xcpt tht dmocrcy now hd dpr mnng. Mrx ws th frst soclst thnkr nd ldr who cm to soclsm through th struggl for lbrl dmocrcy.

{n mnuscrpt nots md n 1844, h rjctd th xtnt crud communsm whch ngts th prsonlty of mn, nd lookd to communsm whch would b fully dvlopd humnsm. n 1845 h nd hs frnd ngls workd out ln of rgumnt gnst th ltsm of soclst currnt rprsntd by on Bruno Bur. n 1846 thy wr orgnzng th Grmn Dmocrtc Communsts n Brussls xl, nd ngls ws wrtng: n our tm dmocrcy nd communsm r on. Only th proltrns r bl to frtrnz rlly, undr th bnnr of communst dmocrcy.}

n workng out th vwpont whch frst wddd th nw communst d to th nw dmocrtc sprtons, thy cm nto conflct wth th xstng communst scts such s tht of Wtlng, who drmd of mssnc dcttorshp. Bfor thy jond th group whch bcm th Communst Lgu (for whch thy wr to wrt th Communst Mnfsto), thy stpultd tht th orgnzton b chngd from n lt consprcy of th old typ nto n opn propgnd group, tht vrythng conducv to suprsttous uthortrnsm b struck out of th ruls, tht th ldng commtt b lctd by th whol mmbrshp s gnst th trdton of dcsons from bov. Thy won th lgu ovr to thr nw pproch, nd n journl ssud n 1847 only fw months bfor th Communst Mnfsto, th group nnouncd:

W r not mong thos communsts who r out to dstroy prsonl lbrty, who wsh to turn th world nto on hug brrck or nto ggntc workhous. Thr crtnly r som communsts who, wth n sy conscnc, rfus to countnnc prsonl lbrty nd would lk to shuffl t out of th world bcus thy consdr tht t s hndrnc to complt hrmony. But w hv no dsr to xchng frdom for qulty. W r convncd tht n no socl ordr wll prsonl frdom b so ssurd s n socty bsd upon communl ownrshp [Lt us put] our hnds to work n ordr to stblsh dmocrtc stt whrn ch prty would b bl by word or n wrtng to wn mjorty ovr to ts ds

Th Communst Mnfsto whch ssud out of ths dscussons proclmd tht th frst objctv of th rvoluton ws to wn th bttl of dmocrcy. Whn, two yrs ltr nd ftr th dcln of th 1848 rvolutons, th Communst Lgu splt, t ws n conflct onc gn wth th crud communsm of putschsm, whch thought to substtut dtrmnd bnds of rvolutonrs for th rl mss movmnt of n nlghtnd workng clss. Mrx told thm:

Th mnorty mks mr wll th motv forc of th rvoluton, nstd of ctul rltons. Whrs w sy to th workrs: You wll hv to go through fftn or twnty or ffty yrs of cvl wrs nd ntrntonl wrs, not only n ordr to chng xtnt condtons, but lso n ordr to chng yourslvs nd to rndr yourslvs ft for poltcl domnon, you, on th othr hnd, sy to th workrs: W must ttn to powr t onc, or ls w my just s wll go to slp.

n ordr to chng yourslvs nd to rndr yourslvs ft for poltcl domnon: ths s Mrxs progrm for th workng-clss movmnt, s gnst both thos who sy th workrs cn tk powr ny Sundy, nd thos who sy nvr. Thus Mrxsm cm nto bng, n slf-conscous struggl gnst th dvocts of th ductonl Dcttorshp, th Svour-Dcttors, th rvolutonry ltsts, th communst uthortrns, s wll s th phlnthropc do-goodrs nd bourgos lbrls. Ths ws Mrxs Mrxsm, not th crcturd monstrosty whch s pntd up wth tht lbl by both th stblshmnts profssort, who shuddr t Mrxs uncompromsng sprt of rvolutonry opposton to th cptlst sttus quo, nd lso by th Stlnsts nd no-Stlnsts, who must concl th fct tht Mrx cut hs y-tth by mkng wr on thr typ.

t ws Mrx who fnlly fttrd th two ds of Soclsm nd Dmocrcy togthr2 bcus h dvlopd thory whch md th synthss possbl for th frst tm. Th hrt of th thory s ths proposton: tht thr s socl mjorty whch hs th ntrst nd motvton to chng th systm, nd tht th m of soclsm cn b th ducton nd moblzton of ths mss-mjorty. Ths s th xplotd clss, th workng clss, from whch coms th vntul motv-forc of rvoluton. Hnc soclsm-from-blow s possbl, on th bss of thory whch ss th rvolutonry potntlts n th brod msss, vn f thy sm bckwrd t gvn tm nd plc. Cptl, ftr ll, s nothng but th dmonstrton of th conomc bss of ths proposton.

t s only som such thory of workng-clss soclsm whch mks possbl th fuson of rvolutonry soclsm nd rvolutonry dmocrcy. W r not rgung t ths pont our convcton tht ths fth s justfd, but only nsstng on th ltrntv: ll soclsts or would-b rformrs who rpudt t must go ovr to som Soclsm-from-bov, whthr of th rformst, utopn, burucrtc, Stlnst, Most or Cstrot vrty. nd thy do.

Fv yrs bfor th Communst Mnfsto frshly convrtd 23-yr-old soclst hd stll wrttn n th old ltst trdton: W cn rcrut our rnks from thos clsss only whch hv njoyd prtty good ducton; tht s, from th unvrsts nd from th commrcl clss Th young ngls lrnd bttr; but ths obsolt wsdom s stll wth us s vr.


On of th most thoroughgong uthortrns n th hstory of rdclsm s non othr thn th Fthr of nrchsm, Proudhon, whos nm s prodclly rvvd s grt lbrtrn modl, bcus of hs ndustrous rptton of th word lbrty nd hs nvoctons to rvoluton from blow.

Som my b wllng to pss ovr hs Htlrt form of nt-Smtsm (Th Jw s th nmy of humnknd. t s ncssry to snd ths rc bck to s, or xtrmnt t). Or hs prncpld rcsm n gnrl (h thought t ws rght for th South to kp mrcn Ngros n slvry, snc thy wr th lowst of nfror rcs). Or hs glorfcton of wr for ts own sk (n th xct mnnr of Mussoln). Or hs vw tht womn hd no rghts ( dny hr vry poltcl rght nd vry nttv. For womn lbrty nd wll-bng l solly n mrrg, n mothrhood, n domstc duts) tht s, th Kndr-Krch-Küch of th Nzs.

But t s not possbl to gloss ovr hs volnt opposton not only to trd unonsm nd th rght to strk (vn supportng polc strkbrkng), but to ny nd vry d of th rght to vot, unvrsl suffrg, populr sovrgnty, nd th vry d of consttutons. (ll ths dmocrcy dsgusts m Wht would not gv to sl nto ths mob wth my clnchd fsts!) Hs nots for hs dl socty notbly nclud supprsson of ll othr groups, ny publc mtng by mor thn 20, ny fr prss, nd ny lctons; n th sm nots h looks forwrd to gnrl nquston nd th condmnton of svrl mllon popl to forcd lbour onc th Rvoluton s md.

Bhnd ll ths ws frc contmpt for th msss of popl th ncssry foundton of Soclsm-from-bov, s ts oppost ws th groundwork of Mrxsm. Th msss r corrupt nd hoplss ( worshp humnty, but spt on mn!) Thy r only svgs whom t s our duty to cvlz, nd wthout mkng thm our sovrgn, h wrot to frnd whom h scornfully chdd wth: You stll blv n th popl. Progrss cn com only from mstry by n lt who tk cr to gv th popl no sovrgnty.

t on tm or nothr h lookd to som rulng dspot s th on-mn dcttor who would brng th Rvoluton: Lous Bonprt (h wrot whol book n 1852 xtollng th mpror s th brr of th Rvoluton); Prnc Jrom Bonprt; fnlly Czr lxndr (Do not forgt tht th dspotsm of th Czr s ncssry to cvlzton).

Thr ws cnddt for th dcttors job closr to hom, of cours: hmslf. H lbortd dtld schm for mutulst busnss, cooprtv n form, whch would sprd to tk ovr ll busnss nd thn th stt. n hs nots Proudhon put hmslf down s th Mngr n Chf, nturlly not subjct to th dmocrtc control h so dspsd. H took cr of dtls n dvnc: Drw up scrt progrm, for ll th mngrs: rrvocbl lmnton of roylty, dmocrcy, proprtors, rlgon [nd so on]. Th Mngrs r th nturl rprsnttvs of th country. Mnstrs r only supror Mngrs or Gnrl Drctors: s wll b on dy Whn w r mstrs, Rlgon wll b wht w wnt t to b; dtto ducton, phlosophy, justc, dmnstrton nd govrnmnt.

Th rdr, who my b full of th usul llusons bout nrchst lbrtrnsm, my sk: Ws h thn nsncr bout hs grt lov for lbrty?

Not t ll: t s only ncssry to undrstnd wht nrchst lbrty mns. Proudhoun wrot: Th prncpl of lbrty s tht of th bby of Thlm [n Rbls]: do wht you wnt! nd th prncpl mnt: ny mn who cnnot do wht h wnts nd nythng h wnts hs th rght to rvolt, vn lon, gnst th govrnmnt, vn f th govrnmnt wr vrybody ls. th only mn who cn njoy ths lbrty s dspot; ths s th sns of th brllnt nsght by Dostoyvskys Shglv: Strtng from unlmtd frdom, rrv t unlmtd dspotsm.

Th story s smlr wth th scond Fthr of nrchsm, Bkunn, whos schms for dcttorshp nd supprsson of dmocrtc control r bttr known thn Proudhons.

Th bsc rson s th sm: nrchsm s not concrnd wth th crton of dmocrtc control from blow, but only wth th dstructon of uthorty ovr th ndvdul, ncludng th uthorty of th most xtrmly dmocrtc rgulton of socty tht t s possbl to mgn. Ths hs bn md clr by uthorttv nrchst xpostors tm nd gn; for xmpl, by Gorg Woodcock: vn wr dmocrcy possbl, th nrchst would stll not support t nrchsts do not dvoct poltcl frdom. Wht thy dvoct s frdom from poltcs nrchsm s on prncpl frcly nt-dmocrtc, snc n dlly dmocrtc uthorty s stll uthorty. But snc, rjctng dmocrcy, t hs no othr wy of rsolvng th nvtbl dsgrmnts nd dffrncs mong th nhbtnts of Thlm, ts unlmtd frdom for ch uncontrolld ndvdul s ndstngushbl from unlmtd dspotsm by such n ndvdul, both n thory nd prctc.

Th grt problm of our g s th chvmnt of dmocrtc control from blow ovr th vst powrs of modrn socl uthorty. nrchsm, whch s frst of ll wth vrbg bout somthng-from-blow, rjcts ths gol. t s th othr sd of th con of burucrtc dspotsm, wth ll ts vlus turnd nsd out, not th cur or th ltrntv.


Tht vry modl of modrn socl dmocrcy, th Grmn Socl- Dmocrtc Prty, s oftn rprsntd s hvng rsn on Mrxst bss. Ths s myth, lk so much ls n xtnt hstors of soclsm. Th mpct of Mrx ws strong, ncludng on som of th top ldrs for whl, but th poltcs whch prmtd nd fnlly prvdd th prty cm mnly from two othr sourcs. On ws Lssll, who foundd Grmn soclsm s n orgnzd movmnt (1863); nd th othr ws th Brtsh Fbns, who nsprd durd Brnstns rvsonsm.

Frdnnd Lssll s th prototyp of th stt-soclst whch mns, on who ms to gt soclsm hndd down by th xstng stt. H ws not th frst promnnt xmpl (tht ws Lus Blnc), but for hm th xstng stt ws th Ksrs stt undr Bsmrck.

Th stt, Lssll told th workrs, s somthng tht wll chv for ch on of us wht non of us could chv for hmslf. Mrx tught th xct oppost: tht th workng clss hd to chv ts mncpton tslf, nd bolsh th xstng stt n th cours. . Brnstn ws qut rght n syng tht Lssll md vrtbl cult of th stt. Th mmmorl vstl fr of ll cvlzton, th Stt, dfnd wth you gnst thos modrn brbrns [th lbrl bourgos], Lssll told Prussn court. Ths s wht md Mrx nd Lssll fundmntlly opposd, ponts out Lsslls bogrphr Footmn, who lys br hs pro-Prussnsm, pro-Prussn ntonlsm, pro-Prussn mprlsm.

Lssll orgnzd ths frst Grmn soclst movmnt s hs prsonl dcttorshp. Qut conscously h st bout buldng t s mss movmnt from blow to chv Soclsm-from-bov (rmmbr Snt-Smons bttrng-rm). Th m ws to convnc Bsmrck to hnd down concssons prtculrly unvrsl suffrg, on whch bss prlmntry movmnt undr Lssll could bcom mss lly of th Bsmrckn stt n colton gnst th lbrl bourgos. To ths nd Lssll ctully trd to ngott wth th ron Chncllor. Sndng hm th dcttorl sttuts of hs orgnzton s th consttuton of my kngdom whch prhps you wll nvy m, Lssll wnt on:

But ths mntur wll b nough to show how tru t s tht th workng clss fls n nstnctv nclnton towrds dcttorshp, f t cn frst b rghtly prsudd tht th dcttorshp wll b xrcsd n ts ntrsts; nd how much, dspt ll rpublcn vws or rthr prcsly bcus of thm t would thrfor b nclnd, s told you only rcntly, to look upon th Crown, n opposton to th gosm of bourgos socty, s th nturl rprsnttv of th socl dcttorshp, f th Crown for ts prt could vr mk up ts mnd to th crtnly vry mprobbl stp of strkng out rlly rvolutonry ln nd trnsformng tslf from th monrchy of th prvlgd ordrs nto socl nd rvolutonry popls monrchy.

lthough ths scrt lttr ws not known t th tm, Mrx grspd th ntur of Lssllnsm prfctly. H told Lssll to hs fc tht h ws Bonprtst, nd wrot prscntly tht Hs tttud s tht of th futur workrs dcttor. Lsslls tndncy h clld Royl Prussn Govrnmnt soclsm, dnouncng hs llnc wth bsolutst nd fudl opponnts gnst th bourgos.

nstd of th rvolutonry procss of trnsformton of socty, wrot Mrx, Lssll ss soclsm rsng from th stt d tht th stt gvs to th producrs cooprtv socts nd whch th stt, not th workr, clls nto bng. Mrx drds ths. But s fr s th prsnt cooprtv socts r concrnd, thy r of vlu only nsofr s thy r th ndpndnt crtons of th workrs nd not protgs thr of th govrnmnt or of th bourgos. Hr s clssc sttmnt of th mnng of th word ndpndnt s th kyston of Soclsm-from-Blow vrsus stt- soclsm.

Thr s n nstructv nstnc of wht hppns whn n mrcn-typ cdmc nt-Mrxst runs nto ths spct of Mrx. Myos Dmocrcy nd Mrxsm (ltr rvsd s ntroducton to Mrxst Thory) hndly provs tht Mrxsm s nt-dmocrtc mnly by th smpl xpdnt of dfnng Mrxsm s th Moscow orthodoxy. But t lst h sms to hv rd Mrx, nd rlzd tht nowhr, n crs of wrtng nd long lf, dd Mrx vnc concrn bout mor powr for th stt but rthr th rvrs. Mrx, t dwnd on hm, ws not sttst:

Th populr crtcsm lvlld gnst Mrxsm s tht t tnds to dgnrt nto form of sttsm. t frst sght [.., rdng] th crtcsm pprs wd of th mrk, for th vrtu of Mrxs poltcl thory s th ntr bsnc from t of ny glorfcton of th stt.

Ths dscovry offrs notbl chllng to Mrx-crtcs, who of cours know n dvnc tht Mrxsm must glorfy th stt. Myo solvs th dffculty n two sttmnts: (1) th sttsm s mplct n th rqurmnts of totl plnnng (2) Look t Russ. But Mrx md no ftsh of totl plnnng. H hs so oftn bn dnouncd (by othr Mrx-crtcs) for flng to drw up bluprnt of soclsm prcsly bcus h rctd so volntly gnst hs prdcssors utopn plnnsm or plnnng-from-bov. Plnnsm s prcsly th concpton of soclsm tht Mrxsm wshd to dstroy. Soclsm must nvolv plnnng, but totl plnnng dos not qul soclsm just s ny fool cn b profssor but not vry profssor nd b fool.


n Grmny, bhnd th fgur of Lssll thr shds off srs of soclsms movng n n ntrstng drcton.

Th so-clld cdmc Soclsts (Soclsts of th chr, Kthdrsozlstn currnt of stblshmnt cdmcs) lookd to Bsmrck mor opnly thn Lssll, but thr concpton of stt-soclsm ws not n prncpl ln to hs. Only, Lssll mbrkd on th rsky xpdnt of cllng nto bng mss movmnt from blow for th purpos rsky bcus onc n moton t mght gt out of hnd, s ndd t dd mor thn onc. Bsmrck hmslf dd not hstt to rprsnt hs ptrnlstc conomc polcs s knd of soclsm, nd books got wrttn bout monrchcl soclsm, Bsmrckn stt-soclsm, tc. Followng furthr to th rght, on coms to th soclsm of Frdrch Lst, proto-Nz, nd to thos crcls whr n nt-cptlst form of nt-Smtsm (Duhrng, . Wgnr, tc.) lys prt of th bss for th movmnt tht clld tslf soclsm undr dolf Htlr.

Th thrd tht unts ths whol spctrum, through ll th dffrncs, s th concpton of soclsm s quvlnt mrly to stt ntrvnton n conomc nd socl lf. Stt, grf zu! Lssll clld. Stt, tk hold of thngs! ths s th soclsm of th whol lot.

Ths s why Schumptr s corrct n obsrvng tht th Brtsh quvlnt of Grmn stt-soclsm s Fbnsm, th soclsm of Sdny Wbb.

Th Fbns (mor ccurtly, th Wbbns) r, n th hstory of th soclst d, tht modrn soclst currnt whch dvlopd n mor complt dvorcmnt from Mrxsm, th on most ln to Mrxsm. t ws lmost chmclly pur socl-dmocrtc rformsm unlloyd, prtculrly bfor th rs of th mss lbour nd soclst movmnt n Brtn, whch t dd not wnt nd dd not hlp to buld (dspt common myth to th contrry). t s thrfor vry mportnt tst, unlk most othr rformst currnts whch pd thr trbut to Mrxsm by doptng som of ts lngug nd dstortng ts substnc.

Th Fbns, dlbrtly mddl-clss n composton nd ppl, wr not for buldng ny mss movmnt t ll, lst of ll Fbn on. Thy thought of thmslvs s smll lt of brn trustrs who would prmt th xstng nsttutons of socty, nflunc th rl ldrs n ll sphrs Tory or Lbrl, nd gud socl dvlopmnt towrd ts collctvst gol wth th nvtblty of grdulnss. Snc thr concpton of soclsm ws purly n trms of stt ntrvnton (ntonl or muncpl), nd thr thory told thm tht cptlsm tslf ws bng collctvsd pc vry dy nd hd to mov n ths drcton, thr functon ws smply to hstn th procss. Th Fbn Socty ws dsgnd n 1884 to b plot-fsh to shrk: t frst th shrk ws th Lbrl Prty; but whn th prmton of Lbrlsm fld msrbly, nd lbour fnlly orgnzd ts own clss prty dspt th Fbns, th plot-fsh smply rttchd tslf.

Thr s prhps no othr soclst tndncy whch so systmtclly nd vn conscously workd out ts thory s Soclsm-from-bov. Th ntur of ths movmnt ws rly rcognzd, though t ws ltr obscurd by th mrgng of Fbnsm nto th body of Lbor rformsm. Th ldng Chrstn soclst nsd th Fbn Socty onc ttckd Wbb s burucrtc Collctvst (prhps th frst us of tht trm.) Hlr Bllocs onc-fmous book of 1912 on Th Srvl Stt ws lrgly trggrd by th Wbb typ whos collctvst dl ws bsclly burucrtc. G.D.H. Col rmnscd: Th Wbbs n thos dys, usd to b fond of syng tht vryon who ws ctv n poltcs ws thr n or B n nrchst or burucrt nd tht thy wr Bs

Ths chrctrztons scrcly convy th full flvour of th Wbbn collctvsm tht ws Fbnsm. t ws through-nd-through mngrl, tchnocrtc, ltst, uthortrn, plnnst. Wbb ws fond of th trm wrpullng lmost s synonym for poltcs. Fbn publcton wrot tht thy wshd to b th Jsuts of Soclsm. Th gospl ws Ordr nd ffcncy. Th popl, who should b trtd kndly, wr ft to b run only by comptnt xprts. Clss struggl, rvoluton nd populr turbulnc wr nsnty. n Fbnsm nd th mpr mprlsm ws prsd nd mbrcd. f vr th soclst movmnt dvlopd ts own burucrtc collctvsm, ths ws t.

t my b thought tht Soclsm s ssntlly movmnt from blow, clss movmnt, wrot Fbn spoksmn, Sdny Bll, to dsbus th rdr of ths d; but now soclsts pproch th problm from th scntfc rthr thn th populr vw; thy r mddlclss thorsts, h bostd, gong on to xpln tht thr s dstnct ruptur btwn th Soclsm of th strt nd th Soclsm of th chr.

Th squl s lso known, though oftn glossd ovr. Whl Fbnsm s spcl tndncy ptrd out nto th lrgr strm of Lbor Prty rformsm by 1918, th ldng Fbns thmslvs wnt n nothr drcton. Both Sdny nd Btrc Wbb s wll s Brnrd Shw th top tro bcm prncpld supportrs of Stlnst totltrnsm n th 1930s. vn rlr, Shw, who thought soclsm ndd Suprmn, hd found mor thn on. n turn h mbrcd Mussoln nd Htlr s bnvolnt dspots to hnd soclsm down to th Yhoos, nd h ws dsppontd only tht thy dd not ctully bolsh cptlsm. n 1931 Shw dsclosd, ftr vst to Russ, tht th Stln rgm ws rlly Fbnsm n prctc. Th Wbbs followd to Moscow, nd found God. n thr Sovt Communsm: Nw Cvlzton, thy provd (rght out of Moscows own documnts nd Stlns own clms, ndustrously rsrchd) tht Russ s th grtst dmocrcy n th world; Stln s no dcttor; qulty rgns for ll; th on-prty dcttorshp s ndd; th Communst Prty s thoroughly dmocrtc lt brngng cvlzton to th Slvs nd Mongols (but not nglshmn); poltcl dmocrcy hs fld n th Wst nywy, nd thr s no rson why poltcl prts should survv n our g

Thy stunchly supportd Stln through th Moscow purg trls nd th Htlr-Stln Pct wthout vsbl qulm, nd dd mor uncrtcl pro-Stlnsts thn cn now b found on th Poltburo. s Shw hs xplnd, th Wbbs hd nothng but scorn for th Russn Rvoluton tslf, but th Wbbs wtd untl th wrckg nd run of th chng ws ndd, ts mstks rmdd, nd th Communst Stt frly lunchd. Tht s, thy wtd untl th rvolutonry msss hd bn strtjcktd, nd th ldrs of th rvoluton cshrd, th ffcnt trnqullty of dcttorshp hd sttld on th scn, th countr-rvoluton frmly stblshd; nd thn thy cm long to pronounc t th dl.

Ws ths rlly ggntc msundrstndng, som ncomprhnsbl blundr? Or wr thy not rght n thnkng tht ths ndd ws th soclsm tht mtchd thr dology, gv or tk lttl blood? Th swng of Fbnsm from mddl-clss prmton to Stlnsm ws th swng of door tht ws hngd on Soclsm-from-bov.

f w look bck t th dcds just bfor th turn of th cntury tht lunchd Fbnsm on th world, nothr fgur looms, th ntthss of Wbb: th ldng prsonlty of rvolutonry soclsm n tht prod, th pot nd rtst Wllm Morrs, who bcm soclst nd Mrxst n hs lt forts. Morrs wrtngs on soclsm brth from vry por th sprt of Soclsm-from-Blow, just s vry ln of Wbbs s th oppost. Ths s prhps clrst n hs swpng ttcks on Fbnsm (for th rght rsons); hs dslk of th Mrxsm of th Brtsh dton of Lssll, th dcttorl H.M. Hyndmn; hs dnunctons of stt-soclsm; nd hs rpugnnc t th burucrtc-collctvst utop of Bllmys Lookng Bckwrd. (Th lst movd hm to rmrk: f thy brgdd m nto rgmnt of workrs, d just l on my bck nd kck.)

Morrs soclst wrtngs r prvdd wth hs mphss from vry sd on clss struggl from blow, n th prsnt; nd s for th soclst futur, hs Nws from Nowhr ws wrttn s th drct ntthss of Bllmys book. H wrnd

tht ndvdul mn cnnot shuffl off th busnss of lf on to th shouldrs of n bstrcton clld th Stt, but must dl wth t n conscous ssocton wth ch othr Vrty of lf s s much n m of tru Communsm s qulty of condton, nd nothng but n unon of ths two wll brng bout rl frdom.

vn som Soclsts, h wrot, r pt to confus th cooprtv mchnry towrds whch modrn lf s tndng wth th ssnc of Soclsm tslf. Ths mnt th dngr of th communty fllng nto burucrcy. Thrfor h xprssd fr of collctvst burucrcy lyng hd. Rctng volntly gnst stt-soclsm nd rformsm, h fll bckwrds nto nt-prlmntrsm but h dd not fll nto th nrchst trp:

popl wll hv to ssoct n dmnstrton, nd somtms thr wll b dffrncs of opnon Wht s to b don? Whch prty s to gv wy? Our nrchst frnds sy tht t must not b crrd by mjorty; n tht cs, thn, t must b crrd by mnorty. nd why? s thr ny dvn rght n mnorty?

Ths gos to th hrt of nrchsm fr mor dply thn th common opnon tht th troubl wth nrchsm s tht t s ovr-dlstc.

Wllm Morrs vrsus Sdny Wbb: ths s on wy of summng up th story.


durd Brnstn, th thortcn of socl-dmocrtc rvsonsm, took hs mpulson from Fbnsm, by whch h ws hvly nfluncd n hs London xl. H dd not nvnt th rformst polcy n 1896: h mrly bcm ts thortcl spoksmn. (Th hd of th prty burucrcy prfrrd lss thory: On dosnt sy t, on dos t, h told Brnstn, mnng tht th poltcs of Grmn socl-dmocrcy hd bn guttd of Mrxsm long bfor ts thortcns rflctd th chng.)

But Brnstn dd not rvs Mrxsm. Hs rol ws to uproot t whl prtndng to prun wy wthrd lmbs. Th Fbns hd not ndd to bothr wth prtnc, but n Grmny t ws not possbl to dstroy Mrxsm by frontl ttck. Th rvrson to Soclsm-from-bov (d lt Schss) hd to b prsntd s modrnzton, rvson.

ssntlly, lk th Fbns, rvsonsm found ts soclsm n th nvtbl collctvston of cptlsm tslf; t sw th movmnt towrd soclsm s th sum of th collctvst tndncs mmnnt n cptlsm tslf; t lookd to th slf-soclzton of cptlsm from bov, through th nsttutons of th xstng stt. Th quton of Sttfcton = Soclsm s not th nvnton of Stlnsm; t ws systmtzd by th Fbn-Rvsonst-Stt-soclst currnt of socl-dmocrtc rformsm.

Most of th contmporry dscovrs whch nnounc tht soclsm s obsolt, bcus cptlsm no longr rlly xsts, cn lrdy b found n Brnstn. t ws bsurd to cll Wmr Grmny cptlst, h dclrd, bcus of th controls xrcsd ovr th cptlsts; t follows from Brnstnsm tht th Nz stt ws vn mor nt-cptlst, s dvrtsd

Th trnsformton of soclsm nto burucrtc collctvsm s lrdy mplct n Brnstns ttck on workrs dmocrcy. Dnouncng th d of workrs control of ndustry, h procds to rdfn dmocrcy. s t govrnmnt by th popl? H rjcts ths, n fvour of th ngtv dfnton bsnc of clss govrnmnt. Thus th vry noton of workrs dmocrcy s sn qu non of soclsm s junkd, s ffctvly s by th clvr rdfntons of dmocrcy currnt n th Communst cdms. vn poltcl frdom nd rprsnttv nsttutons hv bn dfnd out: thortcl rsult ll th mor mprssv snc Brnstn hmslf ws not prsonlly ntdmocrtc lk Lssll or Shw. t s th thory of Soclsm-from-bov whch rqurs ths formultons. Brnstn s th ldng socl-dmocrtc thortcn not only of th quton sttfcton = soclsm, but lso of th dsjuncton of soclsm from workrs dmocrcy.

t ws fttng, thrfor, tht Brnstn should com to th concluson tht Mrxs hostlty to th stt ws nrchstc, nd tht Lssll ws rght n lookng to th stt for th ntton of soclsm. Th dmnstrtv body of th vsbl futur cn b dffrnt from th prsnt-dy stt only n dgr, wrot Brnstn; th wthrng wy of th stt s nothng but utopnsm vn undr soclsm. H, on th contrry, ws vry prctcl; for xmpl, s th Ksrs non-wthrng stt lunchd tslf nto th mprlst scrmbl for colons, Brnstn promptly cm out for colonlsm nd th Wht Mns Burdn: Only condtonl rght of svgs to th lnd occupd by thm cn b rcognzd; th hghr cvlzton ultmtly cn clm hghr rght.

Brnstn contrstd hs own vson of th rod to soclsm wth tht of Mrx: Mrxs s th pctur of n rmy. t prsss forwrd, through dtours, ovr stcks nd stons Fnlly t rrvs t grt byss. Byond t thr stnds bckonng th dsrd gol th stt of th futur, whch cn b rchd only through t s, rd s s som hv sd. n contrst, Brnstns vson ws not rd but rost: th clss struggl softns nto hrmony s bnfcnt stt gntly chngs th bourgos nto good burucrts. t ddnt hppn tht wy whn th Brnstnsd socl dmocrcy frst shot down th rvolutonry lft n 1919, nd thn, rnsttng th unrgnrt bourgos nd th mltry n powr, hlpd to yld Grmny nto th hnds of th fscsts.

f Brnstn ws th thortcn of th dntfcton of burucrtc collctvsm wth soclsm, thn t ws hs lft-wng opponnt n th Grmn movmnt who bcm th ldng spoksmn n th Scond ntrntonl of rvolutonry-dmocrtc Soclsm-from-Blow. Ths ws Ros Luxmburg, who so mphtclly put hr fth nd hop n th spontnous struggl of fr workng clss tht th mythmkrs nvntd for hr thory of spontnty whch sh nvr hld, thory n whch spontnty s countrposd to ldrshp.

n hr own movmnt sh fought hrd gnst th rvolutonry ltsts who rdscovrd th thory of th ductonl Dcttorshp ovr th workrs (t s rdscovrd n vry gnrton s Th Vry Ltst Thng), nd hd to wrt: Wthout th conscous wll nd th conscous cton of th mjorty of th proltrt thr cn b no soclsm [W] wll nvr ssum govrnmntl uthorty xcpt through th clr unmbguous wll of th vst mjorty of th Grmn workng clss nd hr fmous phorsm: Mstks commttd by gnunly rvolutonry lbour movmnt r much mor frutful nd worthwhl hstorclly thn th nfllblty of th vry bst Cntrl Commtt.

Ros Luxmburg vrsus durd Brnstn: ths s th Grmn chptr of th story.

8. TH 100% MRCN SCN

t th Wllsprngs of mrcn ntv soclsm, th pctur s th sm, only mor so. f w ovrlook th mportd Grmn soclsm (Lsslln wth Mrxst trmmngs) of th rly Soclst Lbor Prty, thn th ldng fgur hr s, fr nd wy, dwrd Bllmy nd hs Lookng Bckwrd (1887). Just bfor hm cm th now forgottn Lurnc Gronlund, whos Cooprtv Commonwlth (1884) ws xtrmly nfluntl n ts dy, sllng 100,000 cops.

Gronlund s so up-to-dt tht h dos not sy h rjcts dmocrcy h mrly rdfns t; s dmnstrton by th Comptnt, s gnst govrnmnt by mjorts, togthr wth modst proposl to wp out rprsnttv govrnmnt s such s wll s ll prts. ll th popl wnt, h tchs, s dmnstrton good dmnstrton. Thy should fnd th rght ldrs, nd thn b wllng to thrust thr whol collctv powr nto thr hnds. Rprsnttv govrnmnt wll b rplcd by th plbsct. H s sur tht hs schm wll work, h xplns, bcus t works so wll for th hrrchy of th Ctholc Church. Nturlly h rjcts th horrbl d of clss struggl. Th workrs r ncpbl of slf-mncpton, nd h spcfclly dnouncs Mrxs fmous xprsson of ths Frst Prncpl. Th Yhoos wll b mncptd by n lt of th comptnt, drwn from th ntllgnts; nd t on pont h st out to orgnz scrt consprtorl mrcn Soclst Frtrnty for studnts.

Bllmys soclst utop n Lookng Bckwrd s xprssly modlld on th rmy s th dl pttrn of socty rgmntd, hrrchclly ruld by n lt, orgnzd from th top down, wth th cosy communon of th bhv s th grt nd. Th story tslf pcturs th trnston s comng through th concntrton of socty nto on bg busnss corporton, sngl cptlst: th stt. Unvrsl suffrg s bolshd; ll orgnztons from blow lmntd; dcsons r md by dmnstrtv tchnocrts from bov. s on of hs followrs dfnd ths mrcn soclsm: ts socl d s prfctly orgnzd ndustrl systm whch, by rson of th clos ntrlockng of ts whls, shll work t mnmum of frcton wth mxmum of wlth nd lsur to ll.

s n th cs of th nrchsts, Bllmys fncful soluton to th bsc problm of socl orgnzton how to rsolv dffrncs of ds nd ntrsts mong mn s th ssumpton tht th lt wll b suprhumnly ws nd ncpbl of njustc (ssntlly th sm s th Stlnst-totltrn myth of th nfllblty of th Prty), th pont of th ssumpton bng tht t mks unncssry ny concrn bout dmocrtc control from blow. Th lttr s unthnkbl for Bllmy bcus th msss, th workrs, r smply dngrous monstr, th brbrn hord. Th Bllmyt movmnt whch clld tslf Ntonlsm nd orgnlly st out to b both nt-soclst nd nt-cptlst ws systmtclly orgnzd on mddl-clss ppl, lk th Fbns.

Hr wr th ovrwhlmngly populr ductors of th ntv wng of mrcn soclsm, whos concptons chod through th non-Mrxst nd nt-Mrxst sctors of th soclst movmnt wll nto th 20th cntury, wth rsurgnc of Bllmy Clubs vn n th 1930s, whn John Dwy ulogzd Lookng Bckwrd s xpoundng th mrcn dl of dmocrcy. Tchnocrcy, whch lrdy rvls fscst fturs opnly, ws lnl dscndnt of ths trdton on on sd. f on wnts to s how thn th ln cn b btwn somthng clld soclsm nd somthng lk fscsm, t s nstructv to rd th monstrous xposton of soclsm wrttn by th onc fmous nvntor-scntst nd Soclst Prty lumnry Chrls P. Stnmtz. Hs mrc nd th Nw poch (1916) sts down n ddly srousnss xctly th nt-utop onc strzd n scnc-fcton novl, n whch Congrss hs bn rplcd by drct sntors from DuPont, Gnrl Motors nd th othr grt corportons. Stnmtz, prsntng th gnt monopolstc corportons (lk hs own mployr, Gnrl lctrc) s th ultmt n ndustrl ffcncy, proposs to dsbnd th poltcl govrnmnt n fvor of drct rul by th ssoctd corport monopolsts.

Bllmysm strtd mny on th rod to soclsm, but th rod forkd. By th turn of th cntury, mrcn soclsm dvlopd th worlds most vbrnt ntthss to Soclsm-from-bov n ll ts forms: ugn Dbs. n 1897 Dbs ws stll t th pont of skng non othr thn John D. Rockfllr to fnnc th stblshmnt of soclst utopn colony n wstrn stt; but Dbs, whos soclsm ws forgd n th clss struggl of mltnt lbour movmnt, soon found hs tru voc.

Th hrt of Dbsn soclsm ws ts ppl to, nd fth n, th slf-ctvty of th msss from blow. Dbs wrtngs nd spchs r mprgntd wth ths thm. H oftn quotd or prphrsd Mrxs Frst Prncpl n hs own words: Th grt dscovry th modrn slvs hv md s tht thy thmslvs thr frdom must chv. Ths s th scrt of thr soldrty; th hrt of thr hop兔 Hs clssc sttmnt s ths: Too long hv th workrs of th world wtd for som Moss to ld thm out of bondg. H hs not com; h nvr wll com. would not ld you out f could; for f you could b ld out, you could b ld bck gn. would hv you mk up your mnds tht thr s nothng you cnnot do for yourslvs. H chod Mrxs words of 1850:

n th struggl of th workng clss to fr tslf from wg slvry t cnnot b rptd too oftn tht vrythng dpnds on th workng clss tslf. Th smpl quston s, Cn th workrs ft thmslvs, by ducton, orgnzton, cooprton nd slf-mposd dscpln, to tk control of th productv forcs nd mng ndustry n th ntrst of th popl nd for th bnft of socty? Tht s ll thr s to t.

Cn th workrs ft thmslvs? H ws undr no strry-yd llusons bout th workng clss s t ws (or s). But h proposd dffrnt gol thn th ltsts whos sol wsdom conssts n pontng fngr t th bckwrdnss of th popl now, nd n tchng tht ths must lwys b so. s gnst th fth n lt rul from bov, Dbs countrposd th drctly contrry noton of th rvolutonry vngurd (lso mnorty) whos fth mpls thm to dvoct hrdr rod for th mjorty:

t s th mnorts who hv md th hstory of ths world [h sd n th 1917 nt-wr spch for whch Wlsons govrnmnt jld hm]. t s th fw who hv hd th courg to tk thr plcs t th front; who hv bn tru nough to thmslvs to spk th truth tht ws n thm; who hv drd oppos th stblshd ordr of thngs; who hv spousd th cus of th suffrng, strugglng poor; who hv uphld wthout rgrd to prsonl consquncs th cus of frdom nd rghtousnss.

Ths Dbsn soclsm vokd trmndous rspons from th hrt of th popl, but Dbs hd no succssor s trbun of rvolutonry-dmocrtc soclsm. ftr th post-wr prod of rdclston, th Soclst Prty bcm pnkly rspctbl on th on hnd, nd th Communst Prty bcm Stlnzd on th othr. On ts sd, mrcn lbrlsm tslf hd long bn undrgong procss of sttfcton, culmntng n th grt Nw Dl lluson of th 30s. Th lt vson of dspnston-from-bov undr th gs of th Svour-Prsdnt ttrctd whol strn of lbrls to whom th country gntlmn n th Wht Hous ws s Bsmrck to Lssll.

Th typ hd bn hrldd by Lncoln Stffns, th collctvst lbrl who (lk Shw nd Gorgs Sorl) ws s ttrctd to Mussoln s to Moscow, nd for th sm rsons. Upton Snclr, quttng th Soclst Prty s too sctrn, lunchd hs brod movmnt to nd Povrty n Clforn, wth mnfsto pproprtly clld , Govrnor of Clforn, nd How ndd Povrty (probbly th only rdcl mnfsto wth two s n th ttl) on th thm of Soclsm-from-Up-n-Scrmnto. On of th typcl fgurs of th tm ws Sturt Chs, who wov zgzg cours from th rformsm of th Lgu for ndustrl Dmocrcy to th sm-fscsm of Tchnocrcy. Thr wr th Stlnod ntllctuls who mngd to sublmt thr jont dmrton for Roosvlt nd Russ by hlng both th NR nd th Moscow Trls. Thr wr sgns of th tms lk Pul Blnshrd, who dfctd from th Soclst Prty to Roosvlt on th ground tht th Nw Dl progrm of mngd cptlsm hd tkn th nttv n conomc chng wy from th soclsts.

Th Nw Dl, oftn rghtly clld mrcs socl-dmocrtc prod, ws lso th lbrls nd socl-dmocrts bg flng t Soclsm-from-bov, th utop of Roosvlts popls monrchy. Th lluson of th Roosvltn rvoluton from bov untd crpng-soclsm, burucrtc lbrlsm, Stlnod ltsm, nd llusons bout both Russn collctvsm nd collctvsd cptlsm, n on pckg.


W hv sn tht thr r svrl dffrnt strns or currnts runnng through Soclsm-From-bov. Thy r usully ntrtwnd, but lt us sprt out som of th mor mportnt spcts for closr look.

1. Phlnthropsm. Soclsm (or frdom, or wht-hv-you) s to b hndd down, n ordr to Do th Popl Good, by th rch nd powrful out of th kndnss of thr hrts. s th Communst Mnfsto put t, wth th rly utopns lk Robrt Own n mnd, Only from th pont of vw of bng th most suffrng clss dos th proltrt xst for thm. n grttud, th downtroddn poor must bov ll vod gttng rmbunctous, nd no nonsns bout clss struggl or slf- mncpton. Ths spct my b consdrd spcl cs of

2. ltsm. W hv mntond svrl css of ths convcton tht soclsm s th busnss of nw rulng mnorty, non-cptlst n ntur nd thrfor gurntd pur, mposng ts own domnton thr tmporrly (for mr hstorcl r) or vn prmnntly. n thr cs, ths nw rulng clss s lkly to s ts gol s n ductonl Dcttorshp ovr th msss to Do Thm Good, of cours th dcttorshp bng xrcsd by n lt prty whch supprsss ll control from blow, or by bnvolnt dspots or Svour-Ldrs of som knd, or by Shws Suprmn, by ugnc mnpultors, by Proudhons nrchst mngrs or Snt-Smons tchnocrts or thr mor modrn quvlnts wth up-to-dt trms nd nw vrbl scrns whch cn b hld s frsh socl thory s gnst nntnth-cntury Mrxsm.

On th othr hnd, th rvolutonry-dmocrtc dvocts of Soclsm-from-Blow hv lso lwys bn mnorty, but th chsm btwn th ltst pproch nd th vngurd pproch s crucl, s w hv sn n th cs of Dbs. For hm s for Mrx nd Luxmburg, th functon of th rvolutonry vngurd s to mpl th mss mjorty to ft thmslvs to tk powr n thr own nm, through thr own struggls. Th pont s not to dny th crtcl mportnc of mnorts, but to stblsh dffrnt rltonshp btwn th dvncd mnorty nd th mor bckwrd mss.

3. Plnnsm. Th ky words r ffcncy, Ordr, Plnnng, Systm nd Rgmntton. Soclsm s rducd to socl ngnrng, by Powr bov socty. Hr gn, th pont s not to dny tht ffctv soclsm rqurs ovr-ll plnnng (nd lso tht ffcncy nd ordr r good thngs); but th rducton of soclsm to plnnd producton s n ntrly dffrnt mttr; just s ffctv dmocrcy rqurs th rght to vot, but th rducton of dmocrcy mrly to th rght to vot onc n whl mks t frud.

s mttr of fct, t would b mportnt to dmonstrt tht th sprton of plnnng from dmocrtc control-from-blow mks mockry of plnnng tslf; for th mmnsly complctd ndustrl socts of tody cnnot b ffctvly plnnd by n ll-powrful cntrl commtts ukss, whch nhbt nd trrorz th fr ply of nttv nd corrcton from blow. Ths s ndd th bsc contrdcton of th nw typ of xplotng socl systm rprsntd by Sovt burucrtc collctvsm. But w cnnot pursu ths subjct furthr hr.

Th substtuton of Plnnsm for soclsm hs long hstory, qut prt from ts mbodmnt n th Sovt myth tht Sttfcton = Soclsm, tnt whch w hv lrdy sn to hv bn frst systmtzd by socl-dmocrtc rformsm (Brnstn nd th Fbns prtculrly). Durng th 1930s, th mystqu of th Pln, tkn ovr n prt from Sovt propgnd, bcm promnnt n th rght wng of th socl-dmocrcy, wth Hnr d Mn hld s ts propht nd s succssor to Mrx. D Mn fdd from vw nd s now forgottn bcus h hd th bd judgmnt to push hs Rvsonst thors frst nto corportsm nd thn nto collborton wth th Nzs.

sd from thortcl constructon, Plnnsm pprs n th soclst movmnt most frquntly mbodd n crtn psychologcl typ of rdcl. To gv crdt du, on of th frst sktchs of ths typ cm n Bllocs Th Srvl Stt, wth th Fbns n mnd. Ths typ, wrts Blloc,

lovs th collctvst dl n tslf bcus t s n ordrd nd rgulr form of socty. H lovs to consdr th dl of Stt n whch lnd nd cptl shll b hld by publc offcls who shll ordr othr mn bout nd so prsrv thm from th consquncs of thr vc, gnornc nd folly. [Blloc wrts furthr:] n hm th xplotton of mn xcts no ndgnton. ndd, h s not typ to whch ndgnton or ny othr lvly psson s fmlr [Bllocs y s on Sdny Wbb hr.] th prospct of vst burucrcy whrn th whol of lf shll b schduld nd ppontd to crtn smpl schms gvs hs smll stomch fnl stsfcton.

s fr s concrns contmporry xmpls wth pro-Stlnst colorton, xmpls--go-go cn b found n th pgs of Pul Swzys mgzn Monthly Rvw.

n 1930 rtcl on th motv pttrns of soclsm, wrttn whn h stll thought h ws Lnnst, Mx stmn dstngushd ths typ s cntrd on ffcncy nd ntllgnt orgnzton vrtbl psson for pln busnsslk orgnzton. For such, h commntd, Stlns Russ hs fscnton:

t s rgon t lst to b pologzd for n othr lnds crtnly not dnouncd from th stndpont of md drm lk mncpton of th workrs nd thrwth ll mnknd. n thos who bult th Mrxn movmnt nd thos who orgnzd ts vctory n Russ, tht md drm ws th cntrl motv. Thy wr, s som r now pron to forgt, xtrm rbls gnst opprsson. Lnn wll prhps stnd out, whn th commoton bout hs ds subsds, s th grtst rbl n hstory. Hs mjor psson ws to st mn fr f sngl concpt must b chosn to summrz th gol of th clss struggl s dfnd n Mrxn wrtngs, nd spclly th wrtngs of Lnn, humn frdom s th nm for t

t mght b ddd tht mor thn onc Lnn dcrd th push for totl plnnng s burucrtc utop.

Thr s subdvson undr Plnnsm whch dsrvs nm too: lt us cll t Productonsm. Of cours, vryon s for producton just s vryon s for Vrtu nd th Good Lf; but for ths typ, producton s th dcsv tst nd nd of socty. Russn burucrtc collctvsm s progrssv bcus of th sttstcs of pg-ron producton (th sm typ usully gnors th mprssv sttstcs of ncrsd producton undr Nz or Jpns cptlsm). t s ll rght to smsh or prvnt fr trd unons undr Nssr, Cstro, Sukrno or Nkrumh bcus somthng known s conomc dvlopmnt s prmount ovr humn rghts. Ths hrdbold vwpont ws, of cours, not nvntd by ths rdcls, but by th cllous xplotrs of lbour n th cptlst ndustrl Rvoluton; nd th soclst movmnt cm nto xstnc fghtng tooth-nd-nl gnst ths thortcns of progrssv xplotton. On ths scor too, pologsts for modrn lftst uthortrn rgms tnd to consdr ths hory doctrn s th nwst rvlton of socology.

4. Communsm. n hs 1930 rtcl Mx stmn clld ths th untd-brothrhood pttrn, of th grgrn or humn-soldrty soclsts thos yrnng wth mxtur of rlgous mystcsm nd nml grgrousnss for humn soldrty. t should not b confusd wth th noton of soldrty n strks, tc., nd not ncssrly dntfd wth wht s commonly clld comrdshp n th soclst movmnt or sns of communty lswhr. ts spcfc contnt, s stmn sys, s skng for submrson n Totlty, skng to los hmslf n th bosom of substtut for God.

stmn s hr pontng to th Communst Prty wrtr Mk Gold; nothr xcllnt cs s Hrry F. Wrd, th CPs hrdy clrcl fllow-trvllr, whos books thorz ths knd of ocnc yrnng for th shuckng-off of ons ndvdulty. Bllmys notbooks rvl hm s clssc cs: h wrts bout th longng for bsorpton nto th grnd omnpotncy of th unvrs; hs Rlgon of Soldrty rflcts hs mstrust of th ndvdulsm of th prsonlty, hs crvng to dssolv th Slf nto communon wth Somthng Grtr.

Ths strn s vry promnnt n som of th most uthortrn of th Soclsms-from-bov nd s not sldom mt n mldr css lk th phlnthropc ltsts wth Chrstn Soclst vws. Nturlly, ths knd of communonst soclsm s lwys hld s n thcl soclsm nd prsd for holdng clss struggl n horror; for thr must b no conflct nsd bhv. t tnds to fltly countrpos collctvsm to ndvdulsm ( fls opposton from humnst stndpont), but wht t rlly mpugns s ndvdulty.

5. Prmtonsm. Soclsm-from-bov pprs n mny vrts for th smpl rson tht thr r lwys mny ltrntvs to th slf-moblzton of msss from blow; but th css dscussd tnd to dvd nto two fmls.

On hs th prspctv of ovrthrowng th prsnt, cptlst hrrchcl socty n ordr to rplc t wth nw, non-cptlst typ of hrrchcl socty bsd on nw knd of lt rulng clss. (Ths vrts r usully tcktd rvolutonry n hstors of soclsm.) Th othr hs th prspctv of prmtng th cntrs of powr n th xstng socty n ordr to mtmorphos t grdully, nvtbly nto sttfd collctvsm, prhps molcul by molcul th wy wood ptrfs nto gt. Ths s th chrctrstc stgmtum of th rformst, socl-dmocrtc vrts of Soclsm-from-bov.

Th vry trm prmtonsm ws nvntd for slf-dscrpton by wht w hv lrdy clld th purst vrty of rformsm vr sn, Sdny Wbbs Fbnsm. ll socl-dmocrtc prmtonsm s bsd on thory of mchncl nvtblty: th nvtbl slf-collctvston of cptlsm from bov, whch s qutd wth soclsm. Prssur from blow (whr consdrd prmssbl) cn hstn nd strghtn th procss, provdd t s kpt undr control to vod frghtnng th slf-collctvsrs. Hnc th socl-dmocrtc prmtonsts r not only wllng but nxous to jon th stblshmnt rthr thn to fght t, n whtvr cpcty thy r llowd to jon t, whthr s cbn boys or cbnt mnstrs. Typclly th functon of thr movmnt-from-blow s prmrly to blckml th rulng powrs nto buyng thm off wth such opportunts for prmton.

Th tndncy towrd th collctvston of cptlsm s ndd rlty: s w hv sn, t mns th burucrtc collctvston of cptlsm. s ths procss hs dvncd, th contmporry socl dmocrcy hs tslf gon through mtmorphoss. Tody, th ldng thortcn of ths no-rformsm, C..R. Croslnd, dnouncs s xtrmst th mld sttmnt fvourng ntonlston whch ws orgnlly wrttn for th Brtsh Lbor progrm by non othr thn Sdny Wbb (wth rthur Hndrson)! Th numbr of contnntl socl dmocrcs tht hv now purgd thr progrms of ll spcfclly nt-cptlst contnt brnd nw phnomnon n soclst hstory rflcts th dgr to whch th ongong procss of burucrtc collctvston s ccptd s n nstlmnt of ptrfd soclsm.

Ths s prmtonsm s grnd strtgy. t lds, of cours, to prmtonsm s poltcl tctc, subjct w cnnot hr pursu byond mntonng ts prsntly most promnnt U.S. form: th polcy of supportng th Dmocrtc Prty nd th lb-lb colton round th Johnson Consnsus, ts prdcssors nd succssors.

Th dstncton btwn ths two fmls of Soclsm- from-bov holds for hom-grown soclsm, from Bbuf to Hrold Wlson; tht s, css whr th socl bs of th gvn soclst currnt s nsd th ntonl systm, b t th lbour rstocrcy or dclssd lmnts or ny othr. Th cs s somwht dffrnt for thos soclsms-from-outsd rprsntd by th contmporry Communst Prts, whos strtgy nd tctcs dpnd n th lst nlyss on powr bs outsd ny of th domstc socl strt; tht s, on th burucrtc collctvst rulng clsss n th st.

Th Communst Prts hv shown thmslvs unquly dffrnt from ny knd of homgrown movmnt n thr cpcty to ltrnt or combn both th rvolutonry-oppostonst nd th prmtonst tctcs to sut thr convnnc. Thus th mrcn Communst Prty could swng from ts ultr-lft-dvnturst Thrd Prod of 1928-34 nto th ultr-prmtonst tctc of th Populr Front prod, thn bck nto fr-brthng rvolutonsm durng th Htlr-Stln Pct prod, nd gn, durng th ups-nd-downs of th Cold Wr, nto vrous dgrs of combnton of th two. Wth th currnt Communst splt long Moscow-Pkng ln, th Krushchvts nd th Mosts tnd ch to mbody on of th two tctcs whch formrly ltrntd.

Frquntly, thrfor, n domstc polcy th offcl Communst Prty nd th socl dmocrts tnd to convrg on th polcy of prmtonsm, though from th ngl of dffrnt Soclsm-from-bov.

6. Soclsm-from-Outsd. Th prcdng vrts of Soclsm-from-bov look to powr t th tops of socty: now w com to th xpctton of succour from th outsd.

Th flyng-sucr cult s pthologcl form, mssnsm mor trdtonl form, whn outsd mns out of ths world; but for th prsnt purposs, outsd mns outsd th socl struggl t hom. For th Communsts of st urop ftr World Wr , th Nw Ordr hd to b mportd on Russn byonts; for th Grmn Socl-Dmocrts n xl, lbrton of thr own popl could fnlly b mgnd only by grc of forgn mltry vctory.

Th pctm vrty s soclsm-by-modl-xmpl. Ths, of cours, ws th mthod of th old utopns, who bult thr modl colons n th mrcn bckwoods n ordr to dmonstrt th suprorty of thr systm nd convrt th unblvrs. Tody, t s ths substtut for socl struggl t hom whch s ncrsngly th ssntl hop of th Communst movmnt n th Wst.

Th modl-xmpl s provdd by Russ (or Chn, for th Mosts); nd whl t s dffcult to mk th lot of th Russn proltrns hlf-ttrctv to Wstrn workrs vn wth gnrous dos of ls, thr s mor succss to b xpctd from two othr pprochs:

. Th rltvly prvlgd poston of mngrl, burucrtc nd ntllctul-flunky lmnts n th Russn collctvst systm cn b pontdly contrstd wth th stuton n th Wst, whr ths sm lmnts r subordntd to th ownrs of cptl nd mnpultors of wlth. t ths pont th ppl of th Sovt systm of sttfd conomy concds wth th hstorc ppl of mddl-clss soclsms, to dsgruntld clss-lmnts of ntllctuls, tchnologsts, scntsts nd scntfc mploys, dmnstrtv burucrts nd orgnzton mn of vrous typs, who cn most sly dntfy thmslvs wth nw rulng clss bsd on stt powr rthr thn on mony powr nd ownrshp, nd thrfor vsulz thmslvs s th nw mn of powr n non-cptlst but ltst stup.

b. Whl th offcl Communst Prts r rqurd to mntn th fcd of orthodoxy n somthng clld Mrxsm-Lnnsm, t s mor common tht srous thortcns of no-Stlnsm who r not td to th prty do fr thmslvs from th prtnc. On dvlopmnt s th opn bndonmnt of ny prspctv of vctory through socl struggl nsd th cptlst countrs. Th world rvoluton s qutd smply wth th dmonstrton by th Communst stts tht thr systm s supror. Ths hs now bn put nto thss-form by th two ldng thortcns of no-Stlnsm, Pul Swzy nd sc Dutschr.

Brn nd Swzys Monopoly Cptlsm (1966) fltly rjcts th nswr of trdtonl Mrxst orthodoxy tht th ndustrl proltrt must vntully rs n rvoluton gnst ts cptlst opprssors. Sm for ll th othr outsdr groups of socty unmployd, frm workrs, ghtto msss, tc.; thy cnnot consttut cohrnt forc n socty. Ths lvs no on; cptlsm cnnot b ffctvly chllngd from wthn. Wht thn? Som dy, th uthors xpln on thr lst pg, prhps not n th prsnt cntury, th popl wll b dsllusond wth cptlsm s th world rvoluton sprds nd s th soclst countrs show by thr xmpl tht t s possbl to buld rtonl socty. Tht s ll. Thus th Mrxst phrss fllng th othr 366 pgs of ths ssy bcom smply n ncntton lk th rdng of th Srmon on th Mount t St. Ptrcks Cthdrl.

Th sm prspctv s prsntd lss bluntly by mor crcumlocutous wrtr n Dutschrs Th Grt Contst. Dutschr trnsmts th nw Sovt thory tht Wstrn cptlsm wll succumb not so much or not drctly bcus of ts own crss nd contrdctons s bcus of ts nblty to mtch th chvmnts of soclsm [.. th Communst stts]; nd ltr on: t my b sd tht ths hs to som xtnt rplcd th Mrxst prospct of prmnnt socl rvoluton. Hr w hv thortcl rtonl for wht hs long bn th functon of th Communst movmnt n th Wst: to ct s bordr gurd nd shll for th comptng, rvl stblshmnt n th st. bov ll, th prspctv of Soclsm-from-Blow bcoms s ln to ths profssors of burucrtc collctvsm s to th pologsts for cptlsm n th mrcn cdms.

Ths typ of no-Stlnst dologst s oftn crtcl of th ctul Sovt rgm good xmpl s Dutschr, who rmns s fr s possbl from bng n uncrtcl pologst for Moscow lk th offcl Communsts. Thy must b undrstood s bng prmtonsts wth rspct to burucrtc-collctvsm. Wht pprs s soclsm-from-outsd whn sn from th cptlst world, bcoms sort of Fbnsm whn vwd from wthn th frmwork of th Communst systm. Wthn ths contxt, chng-from-bov-only s s frm prncpl for ths thortcns s t ws for Sdny Wbb. Ths ws dmonstrtd ntr l by Dutschrs hostl rcton to th st Grmn rvolt of 1953 nd to th Hungrn rvoluton of 1956, on th clsscl ground tht such uphvls from blow would scr th Sovt stblshmnt wy from ts cours of lbrlzton by th nvtblty of Grdulnss.


From th pont of vw of ntllctuls who hv choc of rols to ply n th socl struggl, th prspctv of Soclsm-from-Blow hs hstorclly hd lttl ppl. vn wthn th frmwork of th soclst movmnt t hs hd fw consstnt xponnts nd not mny nconsstnt ons. Outsd th soclst movmnt, nturlly, th stndrd ln s tht such ds r vsonry, mprctcl, unrlstc, utopn; dlstc prhps but quxotc. Th mss of popl r congntlly stupd, corrupt, pthtc nd gnrlly hoplss; nd progrssv chng must com from Supror Popl rthr lk (s t hppns) th ntllctul xprssng ths sntmnts. Ths s trnsltd thortclly nto n ron Lw of Olgrchy or tnny lw of ltsm, n on wy or nothr nvolvng crud thory of nvtblty th nvtblty of chng-from-bov-only.

Wthout prsumng to rvw n fw words th rgumnts pro nd con for ths prvsv vw, w cn not th socl rol t plys, s th slf-justfctory rt of th ltst. n norml tms whn th msss r not movng, th thory smply rqurs pontng wth scorn, whl th whol hstory of rvoluton nd socl uphvl s smply dsmssd s obsolt. But th rcurrnc of rvolutonry uphvls nd socl dsturbncs, dfnd prcsly by th ntruson onto th hstorcl stg of prvous nctv msss nd chrctrstc of prods whn bsc socl chng s on th gnd, s just s norml n hstory s th ntrvnng prods of consrvtsm. Whn th ltst thorst thrfor hs to bndon th postur of th scntfc obsrvr who s mrly prdctng tht th mss of popl wll lwys contnu quscnt, whn h s fcd wth th oppost rlty of rvolutonry mss thrtnng to subvrt th structur of powr, h s typclly not bhndhnd n swtchng ovr to n ntrly dffrnt trck: dnouncng mss ntrvnton from blow s vl n tslf.

Th fct s tht th choc btwn Soclsm-from-bov nd Soclsm-from-Blow s, for th ntllctul, bsclly morl choc, whrs for th workng msss who hv no socl ltrntv t s mttr of ncssty. Th ntllctul my hv th opton of jonng th stblshmnt whr th workr dos not; th sm opton holds lso for lbour ldrs, who, s thy rs out of thr clss, lkws confront choc tht dd not xst bfor. Th prssur of conformty to th mors of th rulng clss, th prssur for bourgosfcton, s strongr n proporton s prsonl nd orgnztonl ts wth th rnks blow bcom wk. t s not hrd for n ntllctul or burucrtsd offcl to convnc hmslf tht prmton of nd dptton to th xstng powr s th smrt wy to do t, whn (s t hppns) t lso prmts shrng n th prqusts of nflunc nd fflunc.

t s n ronc fct, thrfor, tht th ron Lw of Olgrchy s roncld mnly for th ntllctul lmnts from whom t rss. s socl strtum (.., prt from xcptonl ndvduls) ntllctuls hv nvr bn known to rs gnst stblshd powr n nythng lk th wy tht th modrn workng clss hs don tm nd gn through ts rltvly brf hstory. Functonng typclly s th dologcl flunks of th stblshd rulrs of socty, th brnworkr sctor of th non-proprtd mddl clsss s yt, t th sm tm, movd to dscontnt nd dsgruntlmnt by th rltonshp. Lk mny nothr srvnt, ths dmrbl Crchton thnks, m bttr mn thn my mstr, nd f thngs wr dffrnt w would s who should bnd th kn. Mor thn vr n our dy, whn th crdt of th cptlst systm s dsntgrtng throughout th world, h sly drms of form of socty n whch h cn com nto hs own, n whch th Brn nd not Hnds or Monybgs would dctt; n whch h nd hs smlrs would b rlsd from th prssur of Proprty through th lmnton of cptlsm, nd rlsd from th prssur of th mor numrous msss through th lmnton of dmocrcy.

Nor dos h hv to drm vry fr, for xstng vrsons of such socty sm to b bfor hs ys, n th strn collctvsms. vn f h rjcts ths vrsons, for vrous rsons ncludng th Cold Wr, h cn thorz hs own vrson of good knd of burucrtc collctvsm, to b clld Mrtocrcy or mngrlsm or ndustrlsm or wht-hv-you, n th U.S.; or frcn Soclsm n Ghn nd rb Soclsm n Cro; or vrous othr knds of soclsm n othr prts of th world.

Th ntur of th choc btwn Soclsm-from-bov nd Soclsm-from-Blow stnds out most strkly n conncton wth quston on whch thr s consdrbl msur of grmnt mong lbrl, socl-dmocrtc nd Stlnod ntllctuls tody. Ths s th llgd nvtblty of uthortrn dcttorshps (bnvolnt dspotsms) n th nwly dvlopng stts of frc nd s prtculrly .g. Nkrumh, Nssr, Sukrno, t l. dcttorshps whch crush ndpndnt trd unons s wll s ll poltcl opposton nd orgnz to mxmz th xplotton of lbor, n ordr to xtrct from th hds of th workng msss suffcnt cptl to hstn ndustrlzton t th tmpo whch th nw rulrs dsr. Thus to n unprcdntd dgr, progrssv crcls whch onc would hv protstd njustc nywhr hv bcom utomtc pologsts for ny uthortrnsm whch s consdrd non-cptlst.

prt from th conomc-dtrmnst rtonl usully gvn for ths poston, thr r two spcts of th quston whch llumnt wht s brodly t stk:

1. Th conomc rgumnt for dcttorshp, purportng to prov th ncssty of brknck ndustrlzton, s undoubtdly vry wghty for th nw burucrtc rulrs who mnwhl do not stnt thr own rvnu nd ggrndzmnt but t s ncpbl of prsudng th workr t th bottom of th hp tht h nd hs fmly must bow to supr-xplotton nd supr-swtng for som gnrtons hd, for th sk of quck ccumulton of cptl. (n fct, ths s why brknck ndustrlzton rqurs dcttorl controls.)

Th conomc-dtrmnst rgumnt s th rtonlzton of rulng clss vwpont; t mks humn sns only from rulng-clss vwpont, whch of cours s lwys dntfd wth th nds of socty. t mks qully good sns tht th workrs t th bottom of th hp must mov to fght ths supr-xplotton to dfnd thr lmntry humn dgnty nd wllbng. So ws t lso durng th cptlst ndustrl Rvoluton, whn th nwly dvlopng stts wr n urop.

t s not quston smply of som tchncl-conomc rgumnt but of sds n clss struggl. Th quston s: Whch sd r you on?

2. t s rgud tht th mss of popl n ths countrs r too bckwrd to control th socty nd ts govrnmnt; nd ths s no doubt tru, not only thr. But wht follows? How dos popl or clss bcom ft to rul n thr own nm?

Only by fghtng to do so. Only by wgng thr struggl gnst opprsson opprsson by thos who tll thm thy r unft to govrn. Only by fghtng for dmocrtc powr do thy duct thmslvs nd rs thmslvs up to th lvl of bng bl to wld tht powr. Thr hs nvr bn ny othr wy for ny clss.

lthough w hv bn consdrng prtculr ln of polog, th two ponts whch mrgd do n fct pply ll ovr th world, n vry country, dvncd or dvlopng, cptlst or Stlnst. Whn th dmonstrtons nd boycotts of th Southrn Ngros thrtnd to mbrrss Prsdnt Johnson s h fcd n lcton, th quston ws: whch sd r you on? Whn th Hungrn popl ruptd n rvolt gnst th Russn occupr, th quston ws: whch sd r you on? Whn th lgrn popl fought for lbrton gnst th soclst govrnmnt of Guy Mollt, th quston ws: whch sd r you on? Whn Cub ws nvdd by Wshngtons puppts, th quston ws: whch sd r you on? nd whn th Cubn trd unons r tkn ovr by th commssrs of th dcttorshp, th quston s lso: whch sd r you on?

Snc th bgnnng of socty, thr hs bn no nd of thors provng tht tyrnny s nvtbl nd tht frdom-n-dmocrcy s mpossbl; thr s no mor convnnt dology for rulng clss nd ts ntllctul flunks. Ths r slf-fulfllng prdctons, snc thy rmn tru only s long s thy r tkn to b tru. n th lst nlyss, th only wy of provng thm fls s n th struggl tslf. Tht struggl from blow hs nvr bn stoppd by th thors from bov, nd t hs chngd th world tm nd gn. To choos ny of th forms of Soclsm-from-bov s to look bck to th old world, to th old crp. To choos th rod of Soclsm-from-Blow s to ffrm th bgnnng of nw world.


s mntond n th Not, followng r fw usful ttls, but for most of th qustons dlt wth, on must go bck to th sourcs.

For Scton 1, on book worth rdng s . D. Wnsprs Th Gnss of Pltos Thought, whch dscusss Pythgors somwht too. For Proudhon, s th chptr n J. S. Schpros Lbrlsm nd th Chllng of Fscsm, nd Proudhons Crnts. For Bkunn, s . Pyzurs Th Doctrn of nrchsm of M. . Bkunn, wth . H. Crrs bogrphy for bckground. For Lssll, s . Brnstns F. Lssll s Socl Rformr, nd D. Footmns bogrphy. For Fbnsm, thr s only on hlf-dcnt publshd study, . N. McBrrs Fbn Soclsm nd nglsh Poltcs, nd . J. Hobsbwms unpublshd thss, Fbnsm nd th Fbns, nthr dqut for our purpos. For Ros Luxmburg, s Pul Frolchs bogrphy, nd Tony Clffs thn book both ttld wth hr nm. For Bllmy nd Gronlund, s rthur Lpows unpublshd thss, dwrd Bllmy nd th Ntonlst Movmnt (Brkly, Unv. of Clf., 1965).

Two rtcls by m n Nw Poltcs br on som spcts of th subjct: No-Corportsts nd No-Rformsts (, 1, Wntr 1962) nd Th Nw Socl-Dmocrtc Rformsm (, 2, Wntr 1963). lso rlvnt r prts of th followng two publctons of th ndpndnt Soclst Commtt: ndpndnt Soclsm: Prspctv for th Lft (pmphlt), nd ntroducton to ndpndnt Soclsm ( clppngbook). [H.D.]

1 Strctly spkng, ths combnton hd bn ntcptd by Grrrd Wnstnly nd th Tru Lvlrs, th lft wng of th nglsh Rvoluton; but t ws forgottn nd ld to nothng, hstorclly spkng.

2 Th quotton s from H.G. Wlls utobogrphy. nvntor of som of th grmmst Soclsm-from-bov utops n ll ltrtur, Wlls s hr dnouncng Mrx for ths hstorc stp.